110 Works

Landscape genomics of a widely distributed snake (Dolichophis caspius, Gmelin, 1789) across Eastern Europe and Western Asia

Sarita Mahtani-Williams, William Fulton, Amelie Desvars-Larrive, Sara Lado, Jean Elbers, Bálint Halpern, Dávid Herczeg, Gergely Babocsay, Boris Lauš, Zoltán Tamás Nagy, Daniel Jablonski, Oleg Kukushkin, Pablo Orozco-TerWengel, Judit Vörös & Pamela Burger
Across the distribution of the Caspian whipsnake (Dolichophis caspius), populations have become increasingly disconnected due to habitat alterations. To understand population dynamics and the adaptive potential of this widespread but locally endangered snake, we investigated population structure, admixture and effective migration patterns. We took a landscape-genomic approach to identify selected genotypes associated with environmental variables relevant to D. caspius. With double-digest restriction-site associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing of 53 samples resulting in 17,518 single nucleotide polymorphisms...

Scaling of metabolic rate in hibernators: Translation of literature data: For a comment to Nespolo et al. (2022)

Øivind Tøien, Brian M. Barnes & Thomas Ruf
This spreadsheet provides a translation of data from the literature for the manuscript: Do bears hibernate in the woods? Comment on ‘Why bears hibernate? Redefining the scaling energetics of hibernation’, and includes both the background data for Figure 1 which is presented in the manuscript. Full reference for article it is commented on: Nespolo, R. F., Mejias, C., and Bozinovic, F. Why bears hibernate? Redefining the scaling energetics of hibernation. Proc. R. Soc. B. 2022;...

Bacterial surface counts and visually assessed cleanliness of carcasses from hunted roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

P. Paulsen, F.J.M. Smulders, E. Kukleci & A. Tichy
We determined bacterial numbers on the surfaces of the body cavities of 352 hunted roe deer and related them to the location of shot wounds, visually assessed cleanliness of body cavities and time from evisceration to sampling, which coincided with time of carcass processing. Body cavities were swabbed with sterile sponges and Total Aerobic Counts and counts of Enterobacteriaceae determined by cultural microbiology (most-probable-number methods); the presence/absence of the pathogenic bacteria Salmonella sp. and Listeria...

Alveoläre Echinokokkose bei einem Hund in Österreich

T. Haninger, W. U. Basso, H.-P. Fuehrer, A. Geyer, M. Gumpenberger, K. Hittmair, A. Joachim, K. A. Lederer, E. Ludewig & B. Degasperi
Die alveoläre Echinokokkose (AE) ist eine zoonotische Infektionskrankheit, die durch das invasiv wachsende Larvenstadium des Fuchsbandwurms Echinococcus multilocularis (Echinococcus alveolaris) zu zystischen Veränderungen in parenchymatösen Organen, meist der Leber, führt. Kanine AE ist die Folge einer Aufnahme infektiöser Eier aus dem Kot von Endwirten, vor allem Kaniden. In diesen Fällen sind Hunde nicht, wie biologisch vorgesehen, die Endwirte für den Parasiten, sondern Fehlzwischenwirte. Dieser Fall beschreibt einen dreijährigen, kastrierten Mischlingsrüden, der mit einer großen abdominalen...

Data from: A single residue confers selective loss of sugar sensing in wrynecks

Julia Cramer, Eliot Miller, Meng-Ching Ko, Qiaoyi Liang, Glenn Cockburn, Tomoya Nakagita, Massimiliano Cardinale, Leonida Fusani, Yasuka Toda & Maude Baldwin
Sensory receptors evolve, and changes to their response profiles can directly impact sensory perception and affect diverse behaviors, from mate choice to foraging decisions. Although receptor sensitivities can be highly contingent on changes occurring early in a lineage’s evolutionary history, subsequent shifts in a species’ behavior and ecology may exert selective pressure to modify and even reverse sensory receptor capabilities. Neither the extent to which sensory reversion occurs, nor the mechanisms underlying such shifts is...

Data from: Circadian rhythmicity persists through the Polar night and midnight sun in Svalbard reindeer

Walter Arnold, Thomas Ruf, Leif Egil Loe, R. Justin Irvine, Erik Ropstad, Vebjørn Veiberg & Steve D. Albon
Studies of locomotor activity in Svalbard reindeer reported the temporary absence of diel rhythms under Arctic photic conditions. However, using Lomb-Scargle periodogram analyses with high statistical power we found diel or circadian rhythmicity throughout the entire year in measures of behaviour, temperature in the rumen and heart rate in free-living Svalbard reindeer. Significant diel rhythmicity was only lacking during some of the 15-day intervals analysed in the less frequently measured heart rate. During Polar Night...

Data from: Multiple quantitative trait loci influence intra-specific variation in genital morphology between phylogenetically distinct lines of Drosophila montana

Martin A Schäfer, Jarkko Routtu, Jorge Vieira, Anneli Hoikkala, Mike G Ritchie & Christian Schlötterer
The evolution of animal genitalia has gained renewed interest, because of their potential roles during sexual selection and early stages of species formation. Although central to understanding the evolutionary process, knowledge of the genetic basis of natural variation in genital morphology is limited to a very few species. Using an out-bred cross between phylogenetically distinct lines of Drosophila montana, we characterized quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting the size and shape of the distiphallus, a prominent...

Data from: Regulation of transposable elements: interplay between TE-encoded regulatory sequences and host-specific trans-acting factors in Drosophila melanogaster

Ana Marija Jakšić, Robert Kofler & Christian Schlötterer
Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic elements that can move around the genome, and their expression is one precondition for this mobility. Because the insertion of TEs in new genomic positions is largely deleterious, the molecular mechanisms for transcriptional suppression have been extensively studied. In contrast, very little is known about their primary transcriptional regulation. Here, we characterize the expression dynamics of TE families in Drosophila melanogaster across a broad temperature range (13–29°C). In 71%...

Data from: Spatially varying selection shapes life history clines among populations of Drosophila melanogaster from sub-Saharan Africa

Daniel K. Fabian, Justin B. Lack, Vinayak Mathur, Christian Schlötterer, Paul S. Schmidt, John E. Pool & Thomas Flatt
Clines in life history traits, presumably driven by spatially varying selection, are widespread. Major latitudinal clines have been observed, for example, in Drosophila melanogaster, an ancestrally tropical insect from Africa that has colonized temperate habitats on multiple continents. Yet, how geographic factors other than latitude, such as altitude or longitude, affect life history in this species remains poorly understood. Moreover, most previous work has been performed on derived European, American and Australian populations, but whether...

Data from: Home loving boreal hare mitochondria survived several invasions in Iberia: the relative roles of recurrent hybridisation and allele surfing

José Melo-Ferreira, Liliana Farelo, Helder Freitas, Franz Suchentrunk, Pierre Boursot & Paulo C. Alves
Genetic introgression from a resident species into an invading close relative can result from repeated hybridisation along the invasion front and/or allele surfing on the expansion wave. Cases where the phenomenon is massive and systematic, such as for hares (genus Lepus) in Iberia, would be best explained by recurrent hybridisation but this is difficult to prove since the donor populations are generally extinct. In the Pyrenean foothills, Lepus europaeus presumably replaced Lepus granatensis recently and...

Data from: Similarities and differences in altitudinal versus latitudinal variation for morphological traits in Drosophila melanogaster

Peter Klepsatel, Martina Gáliková, Christian D. Huber & Thomas Flatt
Understanding how natural environments shape phenotypic variation is a major aim in evolutionary biology. Here, we have examined clinal, likely genetically-based variation in morphology among 19 populations of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) from Africa and Europe, spanning a range from sea level to 3000 m altitude and including locations approximating the southern and northern range limit. We were interested in testing whether latitude and altitude have similar phenotypic effects, as has often been postulated....

Secondary evolve and re-sequencing: an experimental confirmation of putative selection targets without phenotyping

Claire Burny, Viola Nolte, Marlies Dolezal, Christian Schlötterer & Pierre Nouhaud
Evolve and re-sequencing (E&R) studies investigate the genomic responses of adaptation during experimental evolution. Because replicate populations evolve in the same controlled environment, consistent responses to selection across replicates are frequently used to identify reliable candidate regions that underlie adaptation to a new environment. However, recent work demonstrated that selection signatures can be restricted to one or a few replicate(s) only. These selection signatures frequently have a weak statistical support, and given the difficulties of...

Wild chimpanzees exhibit human-like aging of glucocorticoid regulation

Melissa Emery Thompson, Stephanie Fox, Andreas Berghaenel, Kris Sabbi, Sarah Phillips-Garcia, Drew Enigk, Emily Otali, Zarin Machanda, Richard Wrangham & Martin Muller
Cortisol, a key product of the stress response, has critical influences on degenerative aging in humans. In turn, cortisol production is affected by senescence of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, leading to progressive dysregulation and increased cortisol exposure. These processes have been studied extensively in industrialized settings, but few comparative data are available from humans and closely-related species living in natural environments, where stressors are very different. Here, we examine age-related changes in urinary cortisol in...

Glucocorticoids link forest type to local abundance in tropical birds

Simone Messina, David Edwards, Valeria Marasco, Virginie Canoine, Cindy Cosset, Suzanne Tomassi, Suzan Benedick, Marcel Eens & David Costantini
Selective logging is a major driver of environmental changes in the tropics. Recently, there has been increasing interest in understanding which traits make bird species resilient or vulnerable to such changes. Physiological stress mediated by the steroid hormone corticosterone (CORT) might underlie changes in local abundance of species because it regulates a range of body functions and behaviours to maintain homeostasis in changing environments. We conducted a three-year study to assess: (i) the variation in...

The legacy of recurrent introgression during the radiation of hares

Mafalda S. Ferreira, Matthew R. Jones, Colin M. Callahan, Liliana Farelo, Zelalem Tolesa, Franz Suchentrunk, Pierre Boursot, L. Scott Mills, Paulo C. Alves, Jeffrey M. Good & José Melo-Ferreira
Hybridization may often be an important source of adaptive variation, but the extent and long-term impacts of introgression have seldom been evaluated in the phylogenetic context of a radiation. Hares (Lepus) represent a widespread mammalian radiation of 32 extant species characterized by striking ecological adaptations and recurrent admixture. To understand the relevance of introgressive hybridization during the diversification of Lepus, we analyzed whole exome sequences (61.7 Mb) from 15 species of hares (1- 4 individuals...

Fat storage influences fasting endurance more than body size in an ungulate

L. Monica Trondrud, Gabriel Pigeon, Elżbieta Król, Steve Albon, Alina L. Evans, Walter Arnold, Catherine Hambly, R. Justin Irvine, Erik Ropstad, Audun Stien, Vebjørn Veiberg, John R. Speakman & Leif Egil Loe
1. The fasting endurance hypothesis (FEH) predicts strong selection for large body size in mammals living in environments where food supply is interrupted over prolonged periods of time. The Arctic is a highly seasonal and food restricted environment, but contrary to predictions from the FEH, empirical evidence shows that Arctic mammals are often smaller than their temperate conspecifics. Intraspecific studies integrating physiology and behaviour of different-sized individuals, may shed light on this paradox. 2. We...

Innate and adaptive immune genes associated with MERS-CoV infection in dromedaries

Sara Lado, Jean Pierre Elbers, Martin Plasil, Tom Loney, Pia Weidingler, Jeremy Camp, Jolanta Kolodziejek, Jan Futas, Dafalla Kannan, Pablo Orozco-TerWengel, Petr Horin, Norbert Nowotny & Pamela Burger
The recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has refocused attention to the betacoronaviruses, only eight years after the emergence of another zoonotic betacoronavirus, the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). While the wild source of SARS-CoV-2 may be disputed, for MERS-CoV, dromedaries are considered as source of zoonotic human infections. Testing 100 immune- response genes in 121 dromedaries from United Arab Emirates (UAE) for potential association with present MERS-CoV infection, we identified candidate genes with important functions in...

Supplementary material and data from: Cranial volume and palate length of cats, Felis spp., under domestication, hybridisation and in wild populations

Raffaela Lesch
Reduced brain size, compared with wild individuals, is argued to be a key characteristic among domestic mammal species, and is often thought to be a component of the “domestication syndrome”. However, brain size comparisons are often based on old, inaccessible literature and in some cases drew comparisons between domestic animals and wild species that are no longer thought to represent the true progenitor species of the domesticated variant in question. Here we set out to...

Data from: Evolution of brain region volumes during artificial selection for relative brain size

Alexander Kotrschal, Hong-Li Zeng, Wouter Van Der Bijl, Caroline Öhman-Mägi, Kurt Kotrschal, Kristiaan Pelckmans & Niclas Kolm
The vertebrate brain shows an extremely conserved layout across taxa. Still, the relative sizes of separate brain regions vary markedly between species. One interesting pattern is that larger brains seem associated with increased relative sizes only of certain brain regions, for instance telencephalon and cerebellum. Till now, the evolutionary association between separate brain regions and overall brain size is based on comparative evidence and remains experimentally untested. Here we test the evolutionary response of brain...

Data from: Hierarchical decision-making balances current and future reproductive success

Eva Ringler, Georgine Szipl, Ryan J. Harrigan, Petra Bartl-Binder, Rosanna Mangione, Max Ringler & Perta Bartl-Binder
Parental decisions in animals are often context-dependent and shaped by fitness trade-offs between parents and offspring. For example, the selection of breeding habitats can considerably impact the fitness of both offspring and parents, and therefore parents should carefully weigh the costs and benefits of available options for their current and future reproductive success. Here we show that resource-use preferences are shaped by a trade-off between parental effort and offspring safety in a tadpole-transporting frog. In...

Data from: Effects of aging on timing of hibernation and reproduction

Claudia Bieber, Christopher Turbill & Thomas Ruf
Small hibernators are long-lived for their size because seasonal dormancy greatly reduces predation risk. Thus, within a year, hibernators switch between states of contrasting mortality risk (active season versus hibernation), making them interesting species for testing the predictions of life-history theory. Accordingly, we hypothesized that, with advancing age and hence diminishing reproductive potential, hibernators should increasingly accept the higher predation risk associated with activity to increase the likelihood of current reproductive success. For edible dormice...

Data from: Age-graded dominance hierarchies and social tolerance in packs of free-ranging dogs

Roberto Bonanni, Simona Cafazzo, Arianna Abis, Emanuela Barillari, Paola Valsecchi & Eugenia Natoli
It is believed that domestic dogs rarely form packs with age-graded hierarchical structures similar to those found in wolves. Dog-wolf comparisons in captivity suggest that human control has reduced dog dependency on cooperation with conspecifics, resulting in a more despotic dominance order. However, free-ranging dogs are under stronger natural selection than purebred dogs. They are dependent on companions’ social support but usually exhibit lower reproductive skew than wolves, possibly because access to easily available human-derived...

Data from: Ancient genomes revisit the ancestry of domestic and Przewalski’s horses

Charleen Gaunitz, Antoine Fages, Kristian Hanghøj, Anders Albrechtsen, Naveed Khan, Mikkel Schubert, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Ivy J. Owens, Sabine Felkel, Olivier Bignon-Lau, Peter De Barros Damgaard, Alissa Mittnik, Azadeh F. Mohaseb, Hossein Davoudi, Saleh Alquraishi, Ahmed H. Alfarhan, Khaled A. S. Al-Rasheid, Eric Crubézy, Norbert Benecke, Sandra Olsen, Dorcas Brown, David Anthony, Ken Massy, Vladimir Pitulko, Aleksei Kasparov … & Ludovic Orlando
The Eneolithic Botai culture of the Central Asian steppes provides the earliest archaeological evidence for horse husbandry, ~5500 years ago, but the exact nature of early horse domestication remains controversial. We generated 42 ancient-horse genomes, including 20 from Botai. Compared to 46 published ancient- and modern-horse genomes, our data indicate that Przewalski’s horses are the feral descendants of horses herded at Botai and not truly wild horses. All domestic horses dated from ~4000 years ago...

Data from: Genealogical lineage sorting leads to significant, but incorrect Bayesian multilocus inference of population structure

Pablo Orozco-TerWengel, Jukka Corander & Christian Schlötterer
Over the past decades the use of molecular markers has revolutionized biology and led to the foundation of a new research discipline -- phylogeography. Of particular interest has been the inference of population structure and biogeography. While initial studies focused on mtDNA as a molecular marker, it has become apparent that selection and genealogical lineage sorting could lead to erroneous inferences. As it is not clear to what extent these forces affect a given marker,...

Data from: The life cycle of Drosophila orphan genes

Nicola Palmieri, Carolin Kosiol & Christian Schlötterer
Orphans are genes restricted to a single phylogenetic lineage and emerge at high rates. While this predicts an accumulation of genes, the gene number has remained remarkably constant through evolution. This paradox has not yet been resolved. Because orphan genes have been mainly analyzed over long evolutionary time scales, orphan loss has remained unexplored. Here we study the patterns of orphan turnover among close relatives in the Drosophila obscura group. We show that orphans are...

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