The combination of experimental evolution with high-throughput sequencing of pooled individuals—i.e., evolve and resequence (E&R)—is a powerful approach to study adaptation from standing genetic variation under controlled, replicated conditions. Nevertheless, E&R studies in Drosophila melanogaster have frequently resulted in inordinate numbers of candidate SNPs, particularly for complex traits. Here, we contrast the genomic signature of adaptation following ∼60 generations in a novel hot environment for D. melanogaster and D. simulans. For D. simulans, the regions...
Data from: Extinctions, genetic erosion and conservation options for the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)Yoshan Moodley, Isa-Rita M. Russo, Desiré L. Dalton, Antoinette Kotzé, Shadrack Muya, Patricia Haubensak, Boglárka Bálint, Gopi K. Munimanda, Caroline Deimel, Andrea Setzer, Kara Dicks, Barbara Herzig-Straschil, Daniela C. Kalthoff, Hans R. Siegismund, Jan Robovský, Paul O’Donoghue & Michael W. Bruford
The black rhinoceros is again on the verge of extinction due to unsustainable poaching in its native range. Despite a wide historic distribution, the black rhinoceros was traditionally thought of as depauperate in genetic variation, and with very little known about its evolutionary history. This knowledge gap has hampered conservation efforts because hunting has dramatically reduced the species’ once continuous distribution, leaving five surviving gene pools of unknown genetic affinity. Here we examined the range-wide...
Data from: Stable isotopes reveal diet shift from pre-extinction to reintroduced Przewalski’s horsesPetra Kaczensky, Martina Burnik Šturm, Mikhail V. Sablin, Christian Voigt, Steve Smith, Oyunsaikhan Ganbaatar, Boglarka Balint, Chris Walzer & Natalia N. Spasskaya
The Przewalski’s horse (Equus ferus przewalskii), the only remaining wild horse within the equid family, is one of only a handful of species worldwide that went extinct in the wild, was saved by captive breeding, and has been successfully returned to the wild. However, concerns remain that after multiple generations in captivity the ecology of the Przewalski’s horse and / or the ecological conditions in its former range have changed in a way compromising the...
Data from: Unexpected high genetic diversity in small populations suggests maintenance by associative overdominanceMads F. Schou, Volker Loeschcke, Jesper Bechsgaard, Christian Schlötterer & Torsten N. Kristensen
The effective population size (Ne) is a central factor in determining maintenance of genetic variation. The neutral theory predicts that loss of variation depends on Ne, with less genetic drift in larger populations. We monitored genetic drift in 42 Drosophila melanogaster populations of different adult census population sizes (10, 50 or 500) using pooled RAD sequencing. In small populations, variation was lost at a substantially lower rate than expected. This observation was consistent across two...
Data from: Chironomus riparius (Diptera) genome sequencing reveals the impact of minisatellite transposable elements on population divergenceAnn-Marie Oppold, Hanno Schmidt, Marcel Rose, Sören Lukas Hellman, Florian Dolze, Fabian Ripp, Bettina Weich, Urs Schmidt-Ott, Erwin Schmidt, Robert Kofler, Thomas Hankeln & Markus Pfenninger
Active transposable elements (TEs) may result in divergent genomic insertion and abundance patterns among conspecific populations. Upon secondary contact, such divergent genetic backgrounds can theoretically give rise to classical Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities (DMI), thus contributing to the evolution of endogenous genetic barriers and eventually cause population divergence. We investigated differential TE abundance among conspecific populations of the non-biting midge Chironomus riparius and evaluated their potential role in causing endogenous genetic incompatibilities between these populations. We focussed...
Data from: The genetics of egg retention and fertilization success in Drosophila: one step closer to understanding the transition from facultative to obligate viviparityBarbara Horváth & Alex T. Kalinka
Oviparous, facultative egg retention enables Drosophila females to withhold fertilized eggs in their reproductive tracts until circumstances favor oviposition. The propensity to retain fertilized eggs varies greatly between species, and is correlated with other reproductive traits, such as egg size and ovariole number. While previous studies have described the phenomenon, no study to date has characterized within-species variation or the genetic basis of the trait. Here, we develop a novel microscope-based method for measuring egg...
Data from: Do pet dogs (Canis familiaris) follow ostensive and non-ostensive human gaze to distant space and to objects?Charlotte Duranton, Friederike Range & Zsófia Virányi
Dogs are renowned for being skilful at using human-given communicative cues such as pointing. Results are contradictory, however, when it comes to dogs' following human gaze, probably due to methodological discrepancies. Here we investigated whether dogs follow human gaze to one of two food locations better than into distant space even after comparable pre-training. In Experiments 1 and 2, the gazing direction of dogs was recorded in a gaze-following into distant space and in an...
Data from: Edible dormice (Glis glis) avoid areas with a high density of their preferred food plant - the European beechJessica Svea Cornils, Franz Hoelzl, Birgit Rotter, Claudia Bieber & Thomas Ruf
Background: Numerous species, especially among rodents, are strongly affected by the availability of pulsed resources. The intermittent production of large seed crops in northern hemisphere tree species (e.g., beech Fagus spec.,oak Quercus spec., pine trees Pinus spec.) are prime examples of these resource pulses. Adult edible dormice are highly dependent on high energy seeds to maximize their reproductive output. For juvenile dormice the energy rich food is important to grow and fatten in a very...
A range of nonhuman animals frequently manipulate and explore objects in their environment, which may enable them to learn about physical properties and potentially form more abstract concepts of properties such as weight and rigidity. Whether animals can apply the information learned during their exploration to solve novel problems, however, and whether they actually change their exploratory behaviour to seek functional information about objects have not been fully explored. We allowed kea (Nestor notabilis) and...
Data from: Regulation of transposable elements: interplay between TE-encoded regulatory sequences and host-specific trans-acting factors in Drosophila melanogasterAna Marija Jakšić, Robert Kofler & Christian Schlötterer
Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic elements that can move around the genome, and their expression is one precondition for this mobility. Because the insertion of TEs in new genomic positions is largely deleterious, the molecular mechanisms for transcriptional suppression have been extensively studied. In contrast, very little is known about their primary transcriptional regulation. Here, we characterize the expression dynamics of TE families in Drosophila melanogaster across a broad temperature range (13–29°C). In 71%...
The vertebrate brain shows an extremely conserved layout across taxa. Still, the relative sizes of separate brain regions vary markedly between species. One interesting pattern is that larger brains seem associated with increased relative sizes only of certain brain regions, for instance telencephalon and cerebellum. Till now, the evolutionary association between separate brain regions and overall brain size is based on comparative evidence and remains experimentally untested. Here we test the evolutionary response of brain...
It is believed that domestic dogs rarely form packs with age-graded hierarchical structures similar to those found in wolves. Dog-wolf comparisons in captivity suggest that human control has reduced dog dependency on cooperation with conspecifics, resulting in a more despotic dominance order. However, free-ranging dogs are under stronger natural selection than purebred dogs. They are dependent on companions’ social support but usually exhibit lower reproductive skew than wolves, possibly because access to easily available human-derived...
University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna12
University of Vienna3
University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz1
University of Cambridge1
Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre1
University of Chester1
University of Chicago1