14 Works

Das Verbot der Qualzucht aus tierschutzrechtlicher, kynologisch‐veterinärmedizinischer und ethischer Perspektive

Regina Binder, Rudolf Winkelmayer & Sonja Chvala-Mannsberger
Der vorliegende Beitrag setzt sich aus multidisziplinärer Sicht mit dem im österr Tierschutzgesetz verankerten Qualzuchtverbot auseinander. Er beleuchtet die Vollzugsprobleme, die einerseits aus der Konzeption dieser Bestimmung und andererseits aus der Organisation der Heimtierzucht resultieren. Am Beispiel einer brachycephalen Hunderasse wird aufgezeigt, dass die vom Gesetzgeber angeordneten Maßnahmen zur Reduzierung belasteter Nachkommen zT nur sehr zögerlich umgesetzt werden. Um das Qualzuchtverbot zu effektuieren, ist es insb erforderlich, klare Anforderungen zu normieren, deren Einhaltung zu überwachen...

Detecting selected haplotype blocks in evolve and resequence experiments

Kathrin A. Otte & Christian Schlötterer
Shifting from the analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms to the reconstruction of selected haplotypes greatly facilitates the interpretation of Evolve and Resequence (E&R) experiments. Merging highly correlated hitchhiker SNPs into haplotype blocks reduces thousands of candidates to few selected regions. Current methods of haplotype reconstruction from Pool-Seq data need a variety of data-specific parameters that are typically defined ad hoc and require haplotype sequences for validation. Here, we introduce haplovalidate, a tool which detects selected...

Dogs’ looking times and pupil dilation response reveal expectations about contact causality

Christoph Völter & Ludwig Huber
Contact causality is one of the fundamental principles allowing us to make sense of our physical environment. From an early age, humans perceive spatiotemporally contiguous launching events as causal. Surprisingly little is known about causal perception in nonhuman animals, particularly outside the primate order. Violation-of-expectation paradigms in combination with eye-tracking and pupillometry have been used to study physical expectations in human infants. In the current study, we establish this approach for dogs (Canis familiaris). We...

Horizontal gene transfer is the main driver of antimicrobial resistance in broiler chicks infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg

Adelumola Oladeinde, Zaid Abdo, Maximilian Press, Kimberly Cook, Nelson Cox, Benjamin Zwirzitz, Reed Woyda, Steven Lakin, , Torey Looft, Douglas Cosby, , Jean Guard, Eric Line, Michael Rothrock, Mark Berrang, Kyler Herrington, Gregory Zock, Jodie Plumblee Lawrence, Denice Cudnik, Sandra House, Kimberly Ingram, Leah Lariscy, Robert Wagner, Samuel Aggrey … & Casey Ritz
Overuse and misuse of antibiotics in clinical settings and in food production have been linked to the increased prevalence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AR). Consequently, public health and consumer concerns have resulted in a remarkable reduction in antibiotics used for food animal production. However, there are no data on the effectiveness of antibiotic removal in reducing AR shared through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). In this study, we used neonatal broiler chicks and Salmonella enterica...

Data from: Broad geographic sampling reveals predictable, pervasive, and strong seasonal adaptation in Drosophila

Heather E. Machado, Alan O. Bergland, Ryan Taylor, Susanne Tilk, Emily Behrman, Kelly Dyer, Daniel K. Fabian, Thomas Flatt, Josefa González, Talia L. Karasov, Iryna Kozeretska, Brian P. Lazzaro, Thomas JS Merritt, John E. Pool, Katherine O’Brien, Subhash Rajpurohit, Paula R. Roy, Stephen W. Schaeffer, Svitlana Serga, Paul Schmidt, Dmitri Petrov & Bernard Kim
To advance our understanding of adaptation to temporally varying selection pressures, we identified signatures of seasonal adaptation occurring in parallel among Drosophila melanogaster populations. Specifically, we estimated allele frequencies genome-wide from flies sampled early and late in the growing season from 20 widely dispersed populations. We identified parallel seasonal allele frequency shifts across North America and Europe, demonstrating that seasonal adaptation is a general phenomenon of temperate fly populations. Seasonally fluctuating polymorphisms are enriched at...

The genetic architecture of temperature adaptation is shaped by population ancestry and not by selection regime

Kathrin Otte, Viola Nolte, Francois Mallard & Christian Schlötterer
Understanding the genetic architecture of temperature adaptation is key for characterizing and predicting the effect of climate change on natural populations. One particularly promising approach is Evolve and Resequence (E&R), which combines advantages of experimental evolution such as time series, replicate populations and controlled environmental conditions, with whole genome sequencing. The recent analysis of replicate populations from two different Drosophila simulans founder populations, which were adapting to the same novel hot environment, uncovered very different...

Early life growth and telomere length in wild boar piglets 2018

Magdalena Spießberger, Franz Hoelzl, Steve Smith, Sebastian Vetter & Julia Nowack
Life history theory predicts a trade-off between growth rates and lifespan, which is reflected by telomere length, a biomarker of somatic state. We investigated the correlation between telomere length and early life growth of wild boar piglets, Sus scrofa, kept under semi-natural conditions with high food availability to examine our hypothesis that increased pre-and post-natal growth will lead to telomere length attrition but that a high supply of nutrient may provide the possibility to compensate...

Data from: Wild Goffin’s cockatoos flexibly manufacture and use tool sets

Mark O'Hara, Berenika Mioduszewska, Roger Mundry, , Tri Haryoko, Rini Rachmatika, Dewi Malia Prawiradilaga, Ludwig Huber & Alice Marie Isabel Auersperg
The use of different tools to achieve a single goal is considered unique to human and primate technology. To unravel the origins of such complex behaviors, it is crucial to investigate tool use that does not occur species wide. These cases can be assumed to have emerged innovatively and be applied flexibly, thus emphasizing creativity and intelligence. However, it is intrinsically challenging to record tool innovations in natural settings that do not occur species-wide. Here...

Longitudinal documentation of pathogens prevalence and loads assessed during the Pneumocystis spp. study in pigs

Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang
Data underlying the article "Pneumocystis spp. in pigs: a longitudinal quantitative study and co-infections assessment in Austrian farms"

Longitudinal documentation of clinical symptoms assessed during the Pneumocystis spp. study in pigs

Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang
Data underlying the article "Pneumocystis spp. in pigs: a longitudinal quantitative study and co-infections assessment in Austrian farms"

Landscape genomics of a widely distributed snake (Dolichophis caspius, Gmelin, 1789) across Eastern Europe and Western Asia

Sarita Mahtani-Williams, William Fulton, Amelie Desvars-Larrive, Sara Lado, Jean Elbers, Bálint Halpern, Dávid Herczeg, Gergely Babocsay, Boris Lauš, Zoltán Tamás Nagy, Daniel Jablonski, Oleg Kukushkin, Pablo Orozco-TerWengel, Judit Vörös & Pamela Burger
Across the distribution of the Caspian whipsnake (Dolichophis caspius), populations have become increasingly disconnected due to habitat alterations. To understand population dynamics and the adaptive potential of this widespread but locally endangered snake, we investigated population structure, admixture and effective migration patterns. We took a landscape-genomic approach to identify selected genotypes associated with environmental variables relevant to D. caspius. With double-digest restriction-site associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing of 53 samples resulting in 17,518 single nucleotide polymorphisms...

Fat storage influences fasting endurance more than body size in an ungulate

L. Monica Trondrud, Gabriel Pigeon, Elżbieta Król, Steve Albon, Alina L. Evans, Walter Arnold, Catherine Hambly, R. Justin Irvine, Erik Ropstad, Audun Stien, Vebjørn Veiberg, John R. Speakman & Leif Egil Loe
1. The fasting endurance hypothesis (FEH) predicts strong selection for large body size in mammals living in environments where food supply is interrupted over prolonged periods of time. The Arctic is a highly seasonal and food restricted environment, but contrary to predictions from the FEH, empirical evidence shows that Arctic mammals are often smaller than their temperate conspecifics. Intraspecific studies integrating physiology and behaviour of different-sized individuals, may shed light on this paradox. 2. We...

Innate and adaptive immune genes associated with MERS-CoV infection in dromedaries

Sara Lado, Jean Pierre Elbers, Martin Plasil, Tom Loney, Pia Weidingler, Jeremy Camp, Jolanta Kolodziejek, Jan Futas, Dafalla Kannan, Pablo Orozco-TerWengel, Petr Horin, Norbert Nowotny & Pamela Burger
The recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has refocused attention to the betacoronaviruses, only eight years after the emergence of another zoonotic betacoronavirus, the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). While the wild source of SARS-CoV-2 may be disputed, for MERS-CoV, dromedaries are considered as source of zoonotic human infections. Testing 100 immune- response genes in 121 dromedaries from United Arab Emirates (UAE) for potential association with present MERS-CoV infection, we identified candidate genes with important functions in...

Supplementary material and data from: Cranial volume and palate length of cats, Felis spp., under domestication, hybridisation and in wild populations

Raffaela Lesch
Reduced brain size, compared with wild individuals, is argued to be a key characteristic among domestic mammal species, and is often thought to be a component of the “domestication syndrome”. However, brain size comparisons are often based on old, inaccessible literature and in some cases drew comparisons between domestic animals and wild species that are no longer thought to represent the true progenitor species of the domesticated variant in question. Here we set out to...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    14

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    13
  • Journal Article
    1

Affiliations

  • University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
    14
  • University of Georgia
    2
  • Cardiff University
    2
  • University of Kansas
    1
  • Frankfurt Zoological Society
    1
  • University of Pennsylvania
    1
  • Stanford University
    1
  • Université de Sherbrooke
    1
  • The Arctic University of Norway
    1
  • University of Virginia
    1