16 Works

Data from: Speed-mediated properties of schooling

Maud I.A. Kent, Ryan Lukeman, Joseph Lizier & Ashley J.W. Ward
Collectively moving animals often display a high degree of synchronisation and cohesive group-level formations, such as elongated schools of fish. These global patterns emerge as the result of localised rules of interactions. However, the exact relationship between speed, polarisation, neighbour positioning and group structure has produced conflicting results and is largely limited to modelling approaches. This hinders our ability to understand how information spreads between individuals, which may determine the collective functioning of groups. We...

Data from: The ontogeny of fairness in seven societies

Peter R. Blake, Katherine McAuliffe, John Corbit, Tara C. Callaghan, Oumar Barry, Aleah Bowie, Lauren Kleutsch, Karen L. Kramer, Elizabeth Ross, Hurnan Vongsachang, Richard Wrangham & Felix Warneken
A sense of fairness plays a critical role in supporting human cooperation. Adult norms of fair resource sharing vary widely across societies, suggesting that culture shapes the acquisition of fairness behaviour during childhood. Here we examine how fairness behaviour develops in children from seven diverse societies, testing children from 4 to 15 years of age (n = 866 pairs) in a standardized resource decision task. We measured two key aspects of fairness decisions: disadvantageous inequity...

Additional file 1 of Structural interventions that affect racial inequities and their impact on population health outcomes: a systematic review

Emily C. Clark, Emily Cranston, Tionné Polin, Sume Ndumbe-Eyoh, Danielle MacDonald, Claire Betker & Maureen Dobbins
Additional file 1. Search Strategies.

Data from: The impact of geographic range, sampling, ecology, and time on extinction risk in the volatile clade Graptoloida

James Boyle, H. David Sheets, Shuang-Ye Wu, Daniel Goldman, Michael J. Melchin, Cooper A. Roger, Peter M. Sadler & Charles E. Mitchell
Although extinction risk has been found to have a consistent negative relationship with geographic range across wide temporal and taxonomic scales, the effect has been difficult to disentangle from factors such as sampling, ecological niche, or clade. In addition, studies of extinction risk have focused on benthic invertebrates with less work on planktic taxa. We employed a global set of 1114 planktic graptolite species from the Ordovician to lower Devonian to analyze the predictive power...

Data from: Age-related sex differences in body condition and telomere dynamics of red-sided garter snakes

Nicky Rollings, Emily J. Uhrig, Randolf W. Krohmer, Heather L. Waye, Robert T. Mason, Mats Olsson, Camilla M. Whittington, Christopher R. Friesen & Randolph W. Krohmer
Life-history strategies vary dramatically between the sexes, which may drive divergence in sex-specific senescence and mortality rates. Telomeres are tandem nucleotide repeats that protect the ends of chromosomes from erosion during cell division. Telomeres have been implicated in senescence and mortality because they tend to shorten with stress, growth and age. We investigated age-specific telomere length in female and male red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis. We hypothesized that age-specific telomere length would differ between...

Methane emissions from contrasting production regions within Alberta, Canada: Implications under new federal methane regulations

Elizabeth O'Connell, David Risk, Emmaline Atherton, Evelise Bourlon, Chelsea Fougère, Jennifer Baillie & David Lowry
Aggressive reductions of oil and gas sector methane, a potent greenhouse gas, have been proposed in Canada. Few large-scale measurement studies have been conducted to confirm a baseline. This study used a vehicle-based gas monitoring system to measure fugitive and vented gas emissions across Lloydminster (heavy oil), Peace River (heavy oil/bitumen), and Medicine Hat (conventional gas) developments in Alberta, Canada. Four gases (CO2, CH4, H2S, C2H6), and isotopic δ13CCH4 were recorded in real-time at 1...

Additional file 1 of Structural interventions that affect racial inequities and their impact on population health outcomes: a systematic review

Emily C. Clark, Emily Cranston, Tionné Polin, Sume Ndumbe-Eyoh, Danielle MacDonald, Claire Betker & Maureen Dobbins
Additional file 1. Search Strategies.

Additional file 2 of Structural interventions that affect racial inequities and their impact on population health outcomes: a systematic review

Emily C. Clark, Emily Cranston, Tionné Polin, Sume Ndumbe-Eyoh, Danielle MacDonald, Claire Betker & Maureen Dobbins
Additional file 2. Excluded Studies.

Data from: Ecological changes in coyotes (Canis latrans) in response to the Ice Age megafaunal extinctions

Julie A. Meachen, Adrianna C. Janowicz, Jori E. Avery & Rudyard W. Sadleir
Coyotes (Canis latrans) are an important species in human-inhabited areas. They control pests and are the apex predators in many ecosystems. Because of their importance it is imperative to understand how environmental change will affect this species. The end of the Pleistocene Ice Age brought with it many ecological changes for coyotes and here we statistically determine the changes that occurred in coyotes, when these changes occurred, and what the ecological consequences were of these...

The BenBioDen database, a global database for meio-, macro- and megabenthic biomass and densities

Tanja Stratmann, Dick Van Oevelen, Pedro Martínez Arbizu, Chih-Lin Wei, Jian-Xiang Liao, Mathieu Cusson, Ricardo A. Scrosati, Philippe Archambault, Paul V. R. Snelgrove, Patricia A. Ramey-Balci, Brenda J. Burd, Ellen Kenchington, Kent Gilkinson, Rénald Belley & Karline Soetaert
Benthic fauna refers to all fauna that live in or on the seafloor, which researchers typically divide into size classes meiobenthos (32/ 64 µm – 0.5/ 1 mm), macrobenthos (250 µm – 1 cm), and megabenthos (> 1 cm). Benthic fauna play important roles in bioturbation activity, mineralization of organic matter, and in marine food webs. Evaluating their role in these ecosystem functions requires knowledge of their global distribution and biomass. We therefore established the...

Community-wide consequences of nonconsumptive predator effects on a foundation species

Alexis Catalán, Joseline Büchner-Miranda, Bárbara Riedemann, Oscar Chaparro, Nelson Valdivia & Ricardo Scrosati
1. Predators can exert nonconsumptive effects (NCEs) on prey, which often take place through prey behavioural adjustments to minimize predation risk. As NCEs are widespread in nature, interest is growing to determine whether NCEs on a prey species can indirectly influence several other species simultaneously, thus leading to changes in community structure. 2. In this study, we investigate whether a predator can exert NCEs on a foundation species and indirectly affect community structure. 3. Through...

Structural interventions that affect racial inequities and their impact on population health outcomes: a systematic review

Emily C. Clark, Emily Cranston, Tionné Polin, Sume Ndumbe-Eyoh, Danielle MacDonald, Claire Betker & Maureen Dobbins
Abstract Structural racism is the historical and ongoing reinforcement of racism within society due to discriminatory systems and inequitable distribution of key resources. Racism, embedded within institutional structures, processes and values, perpetuates historical injustices and restricts access to structural factors that directly impact health, such as housing, education and employment. Due to the complex and pervasive nature of structural racism, interventions that act at the structural level, rather than the individual level, are necessary to...

Data from: Mechanisms underlying predator-driven biotic resistance against introduced barnacles on the Pacific coast of Hokkaido, Japan

Takefumi Yorisue, Julius A. Ellrich & Kyosuke Momota
Introduced species are a major threat to coastal ecosystems worldwide. Thus, understanding biotic resistance (i.e. the ability of native species to limit introduced species) is a central goal of invasion biology. This paper examines mechanisms underlying biotic resistance. Consumption can limit introduced prey provided that native predators prefer such prey. Furthermore, predator nonconsumptive effects (NCEs), mediated through predator-released cues perceived by prey, can limit prey recruitment, a key demographic process for prey populations. However, information...

Government Corruption and Foreign Direct Investment Under the Threat of Expropriation

Christopher Hajzler & Jonathan Rosborough
Foreign investment is often constrained by two forms of political risk: expropriation and corruption. We examine the role of government corruption in foreign direct investment (FDI) when contracts are not fully transparent and investors face the threat of expropriation. Using a novel dataset on worldwide expropriations of FDI over the 1990–2014 period, we find a positive relationship between the extent of foreign investor protections and the likelihood of expropriation when a country’s government is perceived...

Additional file 2 of Structural interventions that affect racial inequities and their impact on population health outcomes: a systematic review

Emily C. Clark, Emily Cranston, Tionné Polin, Sume Ndumbe-Eyoh, Danielle MacDonald, Claire Betker & Maureen Dobbins
Additional file 2. Excluded Studies.

Structural interventions that affect racial inequities and their impact on population health outcomes: a systematic review

Emily C. Clark, Emily Cranston, Tionné Polin, Sume Ndumbe-Eyoh, Danielle MacDonald, Claire Betker & Maureen Dobbins
Abstract Structural racism is the historical and ongoing reinforcement of racism within society due to discriminatory systems and inequitable distribution of key resources. Racism, embedded within institutional structures, processes and values, perpetuates historical injustices and restricts access to structural factors that directly impact health, such as housing, education and employment. Due to the complex and pervasive nature of structural racism, interventions that act at the structural level, rather than the individual level, are necessary to...

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