Data from: Towards automated annotation of benthic survey images: variability of human experts and operational modes of automationOscar Beijbom, Peter J. Edmunds, Chris Roelfsema, Jennifer Smith, David I. Kline, Benjamin Neal, Matthew J. Dunlap, Vincent Moriarty, Tung-Yung Fan, Chih-Jui Tan, Stephen Chan, Tali Treibitz, Anthony Gamst, B. Greg Mitchell, David Kriegman & Benjamin P. Neal
Global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors have heightened the need to rapidly characterize ecological changes in marine benthic communities across large scales. Digital photography enables rapid collection of survey images to meet this need, but the subsequent image annotation is typically a time consuming, manual task. We investigated the feasibility of using automated point-annotation to expedite cover estimation of the 17 dominant benthic categories from survey-images captured at four Pacific coral reefs. Inter- and...
We examined invasive, casual (found occasionally outside cultivation) and non-invasive (found only in cultivation) species to investigate the role of species traits and two forms of biotic resistance (plant neighbours and herbivores) in limiting invasion in Hawaiian lowlands. Seeds of 21 species of common woody ornamentals from three plant families (Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae) that are non-invasive, casual or invasive in Hawai'i were outplanted at two field sites. We measured germination of seeds and growth and...
Data from: Can the source-sink hypothesis explain macrofaunal abundance patterns in the abyss? A modeling testSarah M. Hardy, Craig R. Smith & Andreas M. Thurnherr
Low food availability is a major structuring force in deep-sea benthic communities, sustaining only very low densities of organisms in parts of the abyss. These low population densities may result in an Allee effect, whereby local reproductive success is inhibited, and populations are maintained by larval dispersal from bathyal slopes. This slope–abyss source–sink (SASS) hypothesis suggests that the abyssal seafloor constitutes a vast sink habitat with macrofaunal populations sustained only by an influx of larval...
Data from: The relationship between microhabitat use, allometry, and functional variation in the eyes of Hawaiian Megalagrion damselfliesJeffrey A. Scales & Marguerite A. Butler
The evolution of visual systems is guided by visual requirements imposed by the environment, the size of the animal's eyes, and physical limitations imposed by the resolution-sensitivity trade-off. Given a particular eye surface area, resolution and sensitivity cannot be simultaneously maximized: gains in resolution, the ability of the eye to detect detail, will come at the cost of sensitivity, the ability to capture photons, and vice versa, without an increase to eye size. How this...
Data from: Characterizing driver-response relationships in marine pelagic ecosystems for improved ocean managementMary E. Hunsicker, Carrie V. Kappel, Kimberly A. Selkoe, Benjamin S. Halpern, Courtney Scarborough, Lindley Mease & Alisan Amrhein
Scientists and resources managers often use methods and tools that assume ecosystem components respond linearly to environmental drivers and human stressor. However, a growing body of literature demonstrates that many relationships are non-linear, where small changes in a driver prompt a disproportionately large ecological response. Here we aim to provide a comprehensive assessment of the relationships between drivers and ecosystem components to identify where and when non-linearities are likely to occur. We focus our analyses...
Data from: Transient dynamics reveal the importance of early life survival to the response of a tropical tree to harvestOrou G. Gaoue
Exploitation of non-timber forest products can contribute to the alleviation of poverty. However, overexploitation can also lead to species decline. Studies on the sustainability of harvest often use stationary population growth rates to assess harvesting effects. For such frequently harvested systems, transient analysis can provide new insights into the response of populations to harvest. To test the prediction that the effect of harvest differs between transient and asymptotic phases, I used four years of demographic...
The drivers of speciation remain among the most controversial topics in evolutionary biology. Initially, Darwin emphasized natural selection as a primary mechanism of speciation, but the architects of the modern synthesis largely abandoned that view in favour of divergence by geographic isolation. The balance between selection and isolation is still at the forefront of the evolutionary debate, especially for the world's tropical oceans where biodiversity is high, but isolating barriers are few. Here, we identify...
Relative to terrestrial plants, and despite similarities in life history characteristics, the potential for corals to exhibit intra-reef local adaptation in the form of genetic differentiation along an environmental gradient has received little attention. The potential for natural selection to act on such small scales is likely increased by the ability of coral larval dispersal and settlement to be influenced by environmental cues. Here, we combine genetic, spatial, and environmental data for a single patch...
Data from: Detecting adaptive evolution in phylogenetic comparative analysis using the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck modelClayton E. Cressler, Marguerite A. Butler & Aaron A. King
Phylogenetic comparative analysis is an approach to inferring evolutionary process from a combination of phylogenetic and phenotypic data. The last few years have seen increasingly sophisticated models employed in the evaluation of more and more detailed evolutionary hypotheses, including adaptive hypotheses with multiple selective optima and hypotheses with rate variation within and across lineages. The statistical performance of these sophisticated models has received relatively little systematic attention, however. We conducted an extensive simulation study to...
University of Hawaii at Manoa9
University of California System2
California State University, Northridge1
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor1
University of Queensland1
University of California, San Diego1
University of Alaska System1