33 Works

Best-practice forestry management delivers diminishing returns for coral reefs with increased land-clearing

Amelia Wenger, Daniel Harris, Samuel Weber, Ferguson Vaghi, Yashika Nand, Waisea Naisilisili, Alec Hughes, Jade Delevaux, Carissa Klein, James Watson, Peter Mumby & Stacy Jupiter
Protection of coastal ecosystems from deforestation may be the best way to protect coral reefs from sediment runoff. However, given the importance of generating economic activities for coastal livelihoods, the prohibition of development is often not feasible. In light of this, logging codes-of-practice have been developed to mitigate the impacts of logging on downstream ecosystems. However, no studies have assessed whether managed land-clearing can occur in tandem with coral reef conservation goals. This study quantifies...

Stacking microscopy images of the pteropod Limacina bulimoides

Le Qin Choo, Thijs M. P. Bal, Erica Goetze & Katja T. C. A. Peijnenburg
Pteropods, a group of holoplanktonic gastropods, are regarded as bioindicators of the effects of ocean acidification on open ocean ecosystems, because their thin aragonitic shells are susceptible to dissolution. While there have been recent efforts to address their capacity for physiological acclimation, it is also important to gain predictive understanding of their ability to adapt to future ocean conditions. However, little is known about the levels of genetic variation and large scale population structuring of...

Additive and non-additive responses of seedlings to simulated herbivory and drought data

Kasey Barton & Aaron Shiels
Drought is a global threat, increasing in severity and frequency throughout tropical ecosystems. Although plants often face drought in conjunction with biotic stressors, such as herbivory or disease, experimental studies infrequently test the simultaneous effects of drought and biotic stress. Because multiple simultaneous stressors may have non-additive and complex effects on plant performance, it is difficult to predict plant responses to multiple threats from research examining one stress at a time. Using an experimental approach...

The Depiction of Japanese Homosexuality through Masks and Mirrors

Thomas Schmidt
Matsumoto Toshio’s avant-garde documentary Funeral Parade of Roses (bara no sōretsu) depicts life in Shinjuku’s 1960s underground culture. Using Sakabe Megumi’s hermeneutical theory, the film’s depiction of sexuality is analysed through its use of literal and figurative mirrors and masks. It is argued that sexuality is highly performative and that the film itself is structured like a play of mirrors, questioning the nature of reality by deferring hypostasis ad infinitum. Keywords: Sakabe Megumi, Mirror and...

Spatial drivers of composition and connectivity across endangered tropical dry forests

Chris Balzotti, Gregory Asner, Edith Adkins & Elliott Parsons
1. Tropical dry forests are among the most threatened ecosystems in the world. Rapid loss, degradation, and fragmentation of these native ecosystems in a changing climate have driven a time-sensitive need to improve our understanding and management of remaining dry forests. 2. We used advanced remote sensing technologies, combined with extensive field data and machine learning, to better understand how spatial drivers (e.g., climate, fire, human) of canopy species composition vary in importance and correlate...

Data from: Properties of Markov chain Monte Carlo performance across many empirical alignments -- part I

Sean M Harrington, Van Wishingrad & Robert C Thomson
Nearly all current Bayesian phylogenetic applications rely on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods to approximate the posterior distribution for trees and other parameters of the model. These approximations are only reliable if Markov chains adequately converge and sample from the joint posterior distribution. While several studies of phylogenetic MCMC convergence exist, these have focused on simulated datasets or select empirical examples. Therefore, much that is considered common knowledge about MCMC in empirical systems derives...

Data from: Fishes alleviate the impacts of sediments on host corals

Tory J. Chase, Morgan S. Pratchett, Michael J. McWilliam, Margaux Y. Hein, Sterling B. Tebbett & Mia O. Hoogenboom
Mutualisms play a critical role in ecological communities, however the importance and prevalence of mutualistic associations can be modified by external stressors. On coral reefs, elevated sediments are a major stressor, reducing the health of corals and damaging reef resilience. Here, we investigated the influence of sediment stress on the mutualistic relationship between small damselfishes (Dascyllus aruanus and Pomacentrus moluccensis) and their coral host (Pocillopora damicornis). In an aquaria experiment, corals were exposed to sedimentation...

Making sense of virus size and the tradeoffs shaping viral fitness

Kyle Edwards, Grieg Steward & Christopher Schvarcz
Viruses span an impressive size range, with genome length varying a thousandfold and virion volume nearly a millionfold. For cellular organisms the scaling of traits with size is a pervasive influence on ecological processes, but whether size plays a central role in viral ecology is unknown. Here we focus on viruses of aquatic unicellular organisms, which exhibit the greatest known range of virus size. We outline hypotheses within a quantitative framework, and analyze data where...

Data from: Surf and Turf Vision: Patterns and predictors of visual acuity in compound eye evolution

Kathryn Feller, Lorian Schweikert, Camilla Sharkey, Alyssa McDuffee-Altekruse, Heather Bracken-Grissom, Nathan Lord & Megan Porter
Eyes have the flexibility to evolve to meet the ecological demands of their users. Relative to camera-type eyes, the fundamental limits of optical diffraction in arthropod compound eyes restricts the ability to resolve fine detail (visual acuity) to much lower degrees. We tested the capacity of several ecological factors to predict arthropod visual acuity, while simultaneously controlling for shared phylogenetic history. In this study, we have generated the most comprehensive review of compound eye visual...

Data from: Mean annual temperature influences local fine root proliferation in tropical montane wet forest

Suzanne Pierre, Timothy J. Fahey, Creighton Litton, Christian Giardina & Jed Sparks
Mean annual temperature (MAT) is an influential climate factor affecting the bioavailability of growth-limiting nutrients nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). In tropical montane wet forests, warmer MAT drives higher N bioavailability, while patterns of P availability are inconsistent across MAT. Two important nutrient acquisition strategies, fine root proliferation into bulk soil and root association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, are dependent on C availability to the plant via primary production. The case study presented here tests...

Multiple and extra-pair mating in a pair-living hermaphrodite, the intertidal limpet Siphonaria gigas

Jessica Schaefer, John Christy & Peter Marko
Pair-living is a common social system found across animal taxa, and the relationship between pair-living and reproduction varies greatly among species. Siphonaria gigas, hermaphroditic pulmonate gastropods, often live in pairs in the rocky intertidal zone of the tropical Eastern Pacific. Combining genetic parentage analysis using four polymorphic microsatellite loci with behavioral observations from a 10-week field study, we provide the first description of the mating system of a Siphonaria species incorporating genetic data. S. gigas...

Cultural keystone species revisited: are we asking the right questions?

Michael Coe
The cultural keystone species theory predicts plant species that are culturally important, play a role in resource acquisition, fulfil a psycho-socio-cultural function within a given culture, have high use-value, have an associated naming and terminology in a native language, and a high level of species irreplaceability qualify for cultural keystone species designation. This theory was proposed as a framework for understanding relationships between human societies and species that are integral to their culture. A greater...

Most cultural importance indices do not predict species cultural keystone status

Michael Coe
The use of quantitative indices to quantify the importance of a plant species to human societies is widespread. While quantifi- cation may yield support for standardized methodologies and facilitate generalizations, it is important to examine the potential limitations of these indices. Moreover, because these indices are calculated at the species level, failure to control for phylogenetic relatedness in predictive models may yield misleading conclusions. We test if commonly used cultural importance indices predict species cultural...

Genomics confirms surprising ecological divergence and isolation in an endangered butterfly

Julian Dupuis, Scott Geib, Kendall Osborne & Daniel Rubinoff
Phylogeographic patterns in phytophagous organisms are often contextualized in light of geographic isolation and ecological (host, habitat) specialization. However, assessing the relative impact of these phenomena is not straightforward, even in areas where phylogeography is well-studied, such as the California Floristic Province. Here, we use genome-wide markers to elucidate population genomic and phylgeographic patterns for a group of monophytophagous butterflies in southern California. This group is of high conservation interest because it includes the El...

Dominance of endemics in the reef fish assemblages of the Hawaiian Archipelago

Alan Friedlander, Mary Donovan, Edward DeMartini & Brian Bowen
Aim: Species ranges provide a valuable foundation for resolving biogeographic regions, evolutionary processes, and extinction risks. To inform conservation priorities, here we develop the first bioregionalization based on reef fish abundance of the Hawaiian Archipelago, which spans nearly 10° of latitude across 2,400 km, including 8 high volcanic islands in the populated main Hawaiian Islands (MHI), and 10 low islands (atolls, shoals, and islets) in the remote northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI).. Location: The Hawaiian Archipelago....

Evidence that more than a third of Paleozoic articulate brachiopod genera (Strophomenata) lived infaunally

Steven M. Stanley
The Strophomenata, which includes two large orders, the Strophomenida and Productida, was the largest group of Paleozoic brachiopods. Nearly all uncemented strophomenatans possessed an unusual concave brachial valve. Most of these animals have been considered to have lived epifaunally, but had they rested on the sea floor, not only would they have faced intense predation, but their physical instability would have been fatal. I conclude that nearly all strophomenatans, like similar, concavo-convex pectinid bivalves, lived...

Adjacency matrices and nodal attributes for prestige and homophily predict network structure for social learning of medicinal plant knowledge

Matthew Bond & Orou Gaoue
Human subsistence societies have thrived in environmental extremes while maintaining biodiversity through social learning of ecological knowledge, such as techniques to prepare food and medicine from local resources. However, there is limited understanding of which processes shape social learning patterns and configuration in ecological knowledge networks, or how these processes apply to resource management and biological conservation. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the prestige (rarity or exclusivity) of knowledge shapes social learning...

Evolutionary biogeography of the reef-building coral genus Galaxea across the Indo-Pacific ocean

Patricia Wepfer, Patricia H. Wepfer, Yuichi Nakajima, Makamas Sutthacheep, Veronica Z. Radice, Zoe Richards, Put Ang, Tullia Terraneo, Mareike Sudek, Atsushi Fujimura, Robert J. Toonen, Alexander S. Mikheyev, Evan P. Economo & Satoshi Mitarai
Stony corals (Scleractinia) form the basis for some of the most diverse ecosytems on Earth, but we have much to learn about their evolutionary history and systematic relationships. In order to improve our understanding of species in corals we here investigated phylogenetic relationships between morphologically defined species and genetic lineages in the genus Galaxea (Euphyllidae) using a combined phylogenomic and phylogeographic ap- proach. Previous studies revealed the nominal species G. fascicularis included three genetically well-differ-...

Data from: Properties of Markov chain Monte Carlo performance across many empirical alignments --part II

Sean M Harrington, Van Wishingrad & Robert C Thomson
Nearly all current Bayesian phylogenetic applications rely on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods to approximate the posterior distribution for trees and other parameters of the model. These approximations are only reliable if Markov chains adequately converge and sample from the joint posterior distribution. While several studies of phylogenetic MCMC convergence exist, these have focused on simulated datasets or select empirical examples. Therefore, much that is considered common knowledge about MCMC in empirical systems derives...

Phylogeography of lionfishes (Pterois) indicate taxonomic over splitting and hybrid origin of the invasive Pterois volitans

Christie L. Wilcox, Hiroyuki Motomura, Mizuki Matsunuma & Brian W. Bowen
The evolutionary consequences of hybridization are poorly understood, especially in the marine realm where hybridization was once thought to be a rare occurrence. Previous research indicated that the lionfishes Pterois volitans and P. miles are sister species, both of which have been detected in the recent invasion of the Atlantic. Anecdotal data from the invasive range indicates they may hybridize, but previous studies have not examined the potential for these species to hybridize in the...

Data from: Increased diversity and concordant shifts in community structure of coral-associated Symbiodiniaceae and bacteria subjected to chronic human disturbance

Danielle Claar, Jamie McDevitt-Irwin, Melissa Garren, Rebecca Vega Thurber, Ruth Gates & Julia Baum
Coral-associated bacteria and endosymbiotic algae (Symbiodiniaceae spp.) are both vitally important for the biological function of corals. Yet little is known about their co-occurrence within corals, how their diversity varies across coral species, or how they are impacted by anthropogenic disturbances. Here, we sampled coral colonies (n = 472) from seven species, encompassing a range of life history traits, across a gradient of chronic human disturbance (n = 11 sites on Kiritimati (Christmas) atoll) in...

Data from: Consumer responses to experimental pulsed subsidies in isolated vs. connected habitats

Amber Wright, Jonah Piovia-Scott, Louie H. Yang, David A. Spiller & Thomas W. Schoener
Increases in consumer abundance following a resource pulse can be driven by diet shifts, aggregation, and reproductive responses, with combined responses expected to result in faster response times and larger numerical increases. Previous work in plots on large Bahamian islands has shown that lizards (Anolis sagrei) increased in abundance following pulses of seaweed deposition, which provide additional prey (i.e., seaweed detritivores). Numerical responses were associated with rapid diet shifts and aggregation, followed by increased reproduction....

Does breeding season variation affect evolution of a sexual signaling trait in a tropical lizard clade?

Levi Gray, Anthony Barley, David Hillis, Carlos Pavón-Vázquez, Steven Poe & Brittney White
Sexually selected traits can be expected to increase in importance when the period of sexual behavior is constrained, such as in seasonally restricted breeders. Anolis lizard male dewlaps are classic examples of multifaceted signaling traits, with demonstrated intraspecific reproductive function reflected in courtship behavior. Fitch and Hillis found a correlation between dewlap size and seasonality in mainland Anolis using traditional statistical methods. Here, we present two tests of the Fitch-Hillis Hypothesis using new phylogenetic and...

Collaborative Research: Dissolved organic matter feedbacks in coral reef resilience: The genomic & geochemical basis for microbial modulation of algal phase shifts

Craig Nelson
Coral reef degradation, whether driven by overfishing, nutrient pollution, declining water quality, or other anthropogenic factors, is associated with a phase shift towards a reefs dominated by fleshy algae. In many cases managing and ameliorating these stressors does not lead to a return to coral dominance, and reefs languish in an algal-dominated state for years. Nearly a decade of research has demonstrated that trajectories toward increasing algal dominance are restructuring microbial community composition and metabolism;...

Project Report NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai, Project HA-18-01 (Legs 1, 2, and 3)

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PIFSC project report ; Project HA-18-01 (Legs 1, 2, and 3)

Registration Year

  • 2020
    33

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    30
  • Text
    2
  • Output Management Plan
    1

Affiliations

  • University of Hawaii at Manoa
    33
  • United States Department of Agriculture
    4
  • University of California, Santa Barbara
    3
  • University of Queensland
    2
  • University of California, Berkeley
    2
  • Florida International University
    2
  • University of Kentucky
    2
  • Wildlife Conservation Society
    2
  • University of California, Davis
    2
  • University of Guam
    1