327 Works

Media and politics in Norway

Eli Skogerbø & Rune Karlsen

Lobbying in Scandinavia

Øyvind Ihlen, Anne Skorkjær Binderkrantz & PerOla Öberg

Power, Communication, and Politics in the Nordic Countries

Eli Skogerbø, Nete Nørgaard Kristensen, Lars Nord & Øyvind Ihlen

Global data for soil water, groundwater and riverine freshwater dissolved organic radiocarbon

J.L. Adams, E. Tipping, P. Keenan, R.C. Helliwell, N. Pedentchouk, S. Buckingham, E. Gjessing, P. Ascough, C.L. Bryant & M.H. Garnett
This dataset includes dissolved organic radiocarbon content and dissolved organic carbon concentration data for river waters around the globe. The riverine dataset contains already published (n=1163) and new (n=101) data between the years 1962 – 2015. Soil solution data (n=139) from North American and European natural and semi-natural ecosystems are also included, which cover the period 1988 – 2008. Groundwater data containing 49 data points from boreholes in Europe and North America are also provided....

Data from: Convergent morphology in Alpinieae (Zingiberaceae): recircumscribing Amomum as a monophyletic genus

Hugo De Boer, Mark Newman, Axel Dalberg Poulsen, A. Jane Droop, Tomas Fer, Le Thi Thu Hien, Kristyna Hlavata, Vichith Lamxay, James E. Richardson, Karin Steffen & Jana Leong-Škorničková
The tropical ginger genus Amomum (Zingiberaceae) has always posed challenges for classification based on morphological characters. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies showed Amomum to be paraphyletic but limited sampling and absence of the data of the type Amomum subulatum made it impossible to resolve the paraphyly and make nomenclatural changes. Here, Amomum is further investigated in a multi-marker phylogenetic framework using matK and nrITS including multiple accessions of the type, the genus Elettaria and additional accessions...

Data from: A method that accounts for differential detectability in mixed samples of long-term infections with applications to the case of Chronic Wasting Disease in cervids

Hildegunn Viljugrein, Petter Hopp, Sylvie L. Benestad, Erlend B. Nilsen, Jørn Våge, Saraya Tavornpanich, Christer M. Rolandsen, Olav Strand & Atle Mysterud
1. Surveillance of wildlife diseases is logistically difficult, and imperfect detection is a recurrent challenge for disease estimation. Using citizen science can increase sample sizes, but it is associated with a cost in terms of the anatomical type and quality of the sample. Additionally, biological tissue samples from remote areas lose quality due to autolysis. These challenges are faced in the case of emerging Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in cervids. 2. Here, we develop a...

Data from: Environmental determinism, and not interspecific competition, drive morphological variability in Australasian warblers (Acanthizidae)

Vicente García-Navas, Marta Rodriguez-Rey, Petter Z. Marki & Les Christidis
Interspecific competition is thought to play a key role in determining the coexistence of closely related species within adaptive radiations. Competition for ecological resources can lead to different outcomes from character displacement to, ultimately, competitive exclusion. Accordingly, divergent natural selection should disfavor those species that are the most similar to their competitor in resource use, thereby increasing morphological disparity. Here we examined ecomorphological variability within an Australo-Papuan bird radiation, the Acanthizidae, which include both allopatric...

Data from: Bird-mediated seed dispersal: reduced digestive efficiency in active birds modulates the dispersal capacity of plant seeds

Erik Kleyheeg, Casper H. A. Van Leeuwen, Mary A. Morison, Bart A. Nolet & Merel B. Soons
Plant populations in fragmented ecosystems rely largely on internal dispersal by animals. To unravel the mechanisms underlying this mode of dispersal, an increasing number of experimental feeding studies is carried out. However, while physical activity is known to affect vertebrate digestive processes, almost all current knowledge on mechanisms of internal seed dispersal has been obtained from experiments with resting animals. We investigated how physical activity of the mallard Anas platyrhynchos, probably the quantitatively most important...

Data from: Seedling recruitment in subalpine grassland forbs: predicting field regeneration behaviour from lab germination responses

Vigdis Vandvik, Reidar Elven & Joachim Töpper
Environmental cueing that restricts seed germination onto times and places where mortality risk is relatively low may have considerable selective advantage. The predictive power of lab germination responses for field regeneration behaviour is rarely tested. We screened 11 alpine grassland forbs for germination behaviours predictive of microsite and seasonal selectivity, and seed carry-over across years. The predictions were tested in a field experiment. Germination in the lab ranged from 0.05% to 67.9%, and was affected...

Data from: Interpreting the evolutionary regression: the interplay between observational and biological errors in phylogenetic comparative studies

Thomas F. Hansen & Krzysztof Bartoszek
Regressions of biological variables across species are rarely perfect. Usually there are residual deviations from the estimated model relationship, and such deviations commonly show a pattern of phylogenetic correlations indicating that they have biological causes. We discuss the origins and effects of phylogenetically correlated biological variation in regression studies. In particular, we discuss the interplay of biological deviations with deviations due to observational or measurement errors, which are also important in comparative studies based on...

Data from: Postcopulatory sexual selection is associated with accelerated evolution of sperm morphology

Melissah Rowe, Tomas Albrecht, Emily Rebecca Alison Cramer, Arild Johnsen, Terje Laskemoen, Jason T. Weir & Jan T. Lifjeld
Rapid diversification of sexual traits is frequently attributed to sexual selection, though explicit tests of this hypothesis remain limited. Spermatozoa exhibit remarkable variability in size and shape, and studies report a correlation between sperm morphology (sperm length and shape) and sperm competition risk or female reproductive tract morphology. However, whether postcopulatory processes (e.g. sperm competition and cryptic female choice) influence the speed of evolutionary diversification in sperm form is unknown. Using passerine birds, we quantified...

Data from: Evolution of static allometries: adaptive change in allometric slopes of eye span in stalk-eyed flies

Kjetil Lysne Voje & Thomas F. Hansen
Julian Huxley showed that within-species (static) allometric (power-law) relations can arise from proportional growth regulation with the exponent in the power law equaling the factor of proportionality. Allometric exponents may therefore be hard to change and act as constraints on the independent evolution of traits. In apparent contradiction to this, many empirical studies have concluded that static allometries are evolvable. Many of these studies have been based, however, on a broad definition of allometry that...

Data from: Linking intra- and interspecific assortative mating: consequences for asymmetric sexual isolation

Erik I. Svensson, Anna Nordén, John T. Waller & Anna Runemark
Assortative mating is of interest because of its role in speciation and the maintenance of species boundaries. However, we know little about how within-species assortment is related to interspecific sexual isolation. Most previous studies of assortative mating have focused on a single trait in males and females, rather than utilizing multivariate trait information. Here we investigate how intraspecific assortative mating relates to sexual isolation in two sympatric and congeneric damselfly species (genus Calopteryx). We connect...

Data from: HS1BP3 negatively regulates autophagy by modulation of phosphatidic acid levels

Petter Holland, Helene Knævelsrud, Kristiane Søreng, Benan John Mathai, Alf Håkon Lystad, Serhiy Pankiv, Gunnveig T. Bjørndal, Sebastian W. Schultz, Viola H. Lobert, Robin B. Chan, Bowen Zhou, Knut Liestøl, Sven R. Carlsson, Thomas J. Melia, Gilbert Di Paolo & Anne Simonsen
A fundamental question is how autophagosome formation is regulated. Here we show that the PX domain protein HS1BP3 is a negative regulator of autophagosome formation. HS1BP3 depletion increased the formation of LC3-positive autophagosomes and degradation of cargo both in human cell culture and in zebrafish. HS1BP3 is localized to ATG16L1- and ATG9-positive autophagosome precursors and we show that HS1BP3 binds phosphatidic acid (PA) through its PX domain. Furthermore, we find the total PA content of...

Data from: Sperm head morphology is associated with sperm swimming speed: a comparative study of songbirds using electron microscopy

Hanna Nyborg Støstad, Arild Johnsen, Jan Terje Lifjeld & Melissah Rowe
Sperm exhibit extraordinary levels of morphological diversification across the animal kingdom. In songbirds, sperm have a helically shaped head incorporating a distinct acrosomal membrane or ‘helical keel’, the form and extent of which varies across species. The functional significance of this helical shape, however, remains unknown. Using scanning electron microscopy, we quantified inter- and intra-specific variation in sperm head morphology across 36 songbird species (Passeriformes: Passerida). Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we investigated the relationship between...

Data from: Games academics play and their consequences: how authorship, h-index, and journal impact factors are shaping the future of academia

Jan Gogarten, Colin Chapman, Julio Bicca-Marques, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Pengfei Fan, Peter Fashing, Songtao Guo, Claire Hemingway, Fabian Leendertz, Baoguo Li, Ikki Matsuda, Rong Hou, Juan Carlos Serio-Silva & Nils Chr. Stenseth
Research is a highly competitive profession where evaluation plays a central role; journals are ranked and individuals are evaluated based on their publication number, the number of times they are cited, and their h-index. Yet, such evaluations are often done in inappropriate ways that are damaging to individual careers, particularly for young scholars, and to the profession. Furthermore, as with all indices, people can play games to better their scores. This has resulted in the...

Drivers and dynamics of a massive adaptive radiation in cichlid fishes

Fabrizia Ronco, Michael Matschiner, Astrid Böhne, Anna Boila, Heinz H. Büscher, Athimed El Taher, Adrian Indermaur, Milan Malinsky, Virginie Ricci, Ansgar Kahmen, Sissel Jentoft & Walter Salzburger
Adaptive radiation is the likely source of much of the ecological and morphological diversity of life. How adaptive radiations proceed and what determines their extent remains elusive in most cases. Here we report the in-depth examination of the spectacular adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes in African Lake Tanganyika. Based on whole-genome phylogenetic analyses, multivariate morphological measurements of three ecologically relevant trait complexes (body shape, upper oral jaw morphology, and lower pharyngeal jaw shape), scoring of...

The unique spatial ecology of human hunters

Atle Mysterud, Inger Maren Rivrud, Hildegunn Viljugrein, Vegard Gundersen & Christer Rolandsen
Human hunters are described as ‘superpredators’ with a unique ecology. Chronic Wasting Disease among cervids and African swine fever among wild boar are emerging wildlife diseases in Europe with huge economic and cultural repercussions. Understanding hunter movements at broad scales has implications for how to control their spread. Here we show, based on the analysis of the settlement patterns and movements of reindeer (n = 9,685), red deer (n = 47,845), moose (n = 60,365),...

The roles of temperature, nest predators and information parasites for geographical variation in egg covering behaviour of tits (Paridae)

Olli Loukola, Peter Adamik, Frank Adriaensen, Emilio Barba, Blandine Doligez, Einar Flensted-Jensen, Tapio Eeva, Sami Kivelä, Toni Laaksonen, Chiara Morosinotto, Raivo Mänd, Petri Niemelä, Vladimir Remeš, Jelmer Samplonius, Manrico Sebastiano, Juan Carlos Senar, Tore Slagsvold, Alberto Sorace, Barbara Tschirren, János Török & Jukka Forsman
Aim: Nest building is widespread among animals. Nests may provide receptacles for eggs, developing offspring and the parents, and protect them from adverse environmental conditions. Nests may also indicate the quality of the territory and its owner and can be considered as an extended phenotype of its builder(s). Nests may, thus, function as a sexual and social signal. Here, we examined ecological and abiotic factors—temperature, nest predation and interspecific information utilization—shaping geographical variation in a...

Cheilostome cyclostome assemblage 2020

Lee Hsiang Liow
Examining the supposition that local-scale competition drives macroevolutionary patterns has become a familiar goal in fossil biodiversity studies. But it is an elusive goal, hampered by inadequate confirmation of ecological equivalence and interactive processes between clades, patchy sampling, few comparative analyses of local species assemblages over long geologic intervals, and a dearth of appropriate statistical tools. We address these concerns by reevaluating one of the classic examples of clade displacement in the fossil record, in...

Data from: Innate and adaptive immune proteins in the preen gland secretions of male house sparrows

Diana Carneiro, Gábor A Czirják & Melissah Rowe
Recent studies have demonstrated that preen oil acts to reduce or eliminate feather-associated bacteria. The mechanisms underlying this antibacterial activity, however, are incompletely understood. In addition to the activity of alcohols (i.e. 3,7-dimethyloctan-1-ol), recent research has suggested that antimicrobial peptides may underlie the antibacterial activity of preen oil. Here, we document the presence of innate and adaptive immune proteins, lysozyme and immunoglobulin Y (IgY), in the preen oil of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We suggest...

Metagenomics: A viable tool for reconstructing herbivore diet

Physilia Chua, Alex Crampton-Platt, Youri Lammers, Inger Alsos, Sanne Boessenkool & Kristine Bohmann
Metagenomics can generate data on the diet of herbivores, without the need for primer selection and PCR enrichment steps as is necessary in metabarcoding. Metagenomic approaches to diet analysis have remained relatively unexplored, requiring validation of bioinformatic steps. Currently, no metagenomic herbivore diet studies have utilised both chloroplast and nuclear markers as reference sequences for plant identification, which would increase the number of reads that could be taxonomically informative. Here, we explore how in silico...

Data from: The ecology of the collapse of Rapa Nui society

Mauricio Lima, Eugenia Gayo, Claudio Latorre, Calogero M. Santoro, Sergio A. Estay, Nuria Cañellas-Bolta, Olga Margalef, Santiago Giralt, Alberto Saez, Sergi Plá-Rabes & Nils Chr. Stenseth
Collapses of food producer societies are recurrent events in prehistory and have triggered a growing concern for identifying the underlying causes of convergences/divergences across cultures around the world. One of the most studied and used as a paradigmatic case is the population collapse of the Rapa Nui society. Here, we test different hypotheses about by developing explicit population dynamic models that integrate feedbacks between climatic, demographic and ecological factors that underpinned the socio-cultural trajectory of...

Basic self-disturbances are associated with sense of coherence in patients with psychotic disorders

Ingrid Hartveit Svendsen, Elisabeth Haug, Ingrid Melle, Merete Glenne Øie, Paul Møller & Barbaby Nelson
Background: The Sense of Coherence (SOC) theory gives a possible explanation of how people can experience subjective good health despite severe illness. Basic self-disturbances (BSDs) are subtle non-psychotic disturbances that may destabilize the person’s sense of self, identity, corporeality, and the overall ‘grip’ of the world. Aim: Our objective was to investigate associations between BSDs and SOC in patients with psychotic disorders. Design: This is a cross-sectional study of 56 patients diagnosed with psychotic disorders...

Stable species boundaries despite ten million years of hybridization in tropical eels

Julia Barth, Chrysoula Gubili, Michael Matschiner, Ole Tørresen, Shun Watanabe, Bernd Egger, Yu-San Han, Eric Feunteun, Ruben Sommaruga, Robert Jehle & Robert Schabetsberger
Genomic evidence is increasingly underpinning that hybridization between taxa is commonplace, challenging our views on the mechanisms that maintain their boundaries. Here, we focus on seven catadromous eel species (genus Anguilla), and use genome-wide sequence data from more than 450 individuals sampled across the tropical Indo-Pacific, morphological information, and three newly assembled draft genomes to compare contemporary patterns of hybridization with signatures of past gene flow across a time-calibrated phylogeny. We show that the seven...

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