19 Works

Data from: Bird-mediated seed dispersal: reduced digestive efficiency in active birds modulates the dispersal capacity of plant seeds

Erik Kleyheeg, Casper H. A. Van Leeuwen, Mary A. Morison, Bart A. Nolet & Merel B. Soons
Plant populations in fragmented ecosystems rely largely on internal dispersal by animals. To unravel the mechanisms underlying this mode of dispersal, an increasing number of experimental feeding studies is carried out. However, while physical activity is known to affect vertebrate digestive processes, almost all current knowledge on mechanisms of internal seed dispersal has been obtained from experiments with resting animals. We investigated how physical activity of the mallard Anas platyrhynchos, probably the quantitatively most important...

Data from: Arctic fungal communities associated with roots of Bistorta vivipara do not respond to the same fine-scale edaphic gradients as the above-ground vegetation

Sunil Mundra, Rune Halvorsen, Håvard Kauserud, Eike Müller, Unni Vik & Pernille B. Eidesen
Soil conditions and microclimate are important determinants of the fine-scale distribution of plant species in the Arctic, creating locally heterogeneous vegetation. We hypothesize that root-associated fungal (RAF) communities respond to the same fine-scale environmental gradients as the aboveground vegetation, creating a coherent pattern between aboveground vegetation and RAF. We explored how RAF communities of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) plant Bistorta vivipara and aboveground vegetation structure of arctic plants were affected by biotic and abiotic variables at...

Data from: Ancient hybridizations among the ancestral genomes of bread wheat

Thomas Marcussen, Simen R. Sandve, Lise Heier, Manuel Spannagl, Matthias Pfeifer, The International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium, Kjetill S. Jakobsen, Brande B. H. Wulff, Burkhard Steuernagel, Klaus F. X. Mayer & Odd-Arne Olsen
The allohexaploid bread wheat genome consists of three closely related subgenomes (A, B, and D), but a clear understanding of their phylogenetic history has been lacking. We used genome assemblies of bread wheat and five diploid relatives to analyze genome-wide samples of gene trees, as well as to estimate evolutionary relatedness and divergence times. We show that the A and B genomes diverged from a common ancestor ~7 million years ago and that these genomes...

Data from: Ethnolinguistic structuring of sorghum genetic diversity in Africa and the role of local seed systems

Ola T. Westengen, Mark Atam Okongo, Leo Onek, Trygve Berg, Hari Upadhyaya, Siri Dharma Kaur Khalsa, Siri Birkeland, Nils C. Stenseth & Anne K. Brysting
Sorghum is a drought-tolerant crop with a vital role in the livelihoods of millions of people in marginal areas. We examined genetic structure in this diverse crop in Africa. On the continent-wide scale, we identified three major sorghum populations (Central, Southern, and Northern) that are associated with the distribution of ethnolinguistic groups on the continent. The codistribution of the Central sorghum population and the Nilo-Saharan language family supports a proposed hypothesis about a close and...

Data from: Walk the line: 600,000 years of molar evolution constrained by allometry in the fossil rodent Mimomys savini

Cyril Firmat, Iván Lozano-Fernández, Jordi Agustí, Geir H. Bolstad, Gloria Cuenca-Bescós, Thomas F. Hansen & Christophe Pélabon
The allometric-constraint hypothesis states that evolutionary divergence of morphological traits is restricted by integrated growth regulation. In this study, we test this hypothesis on a time-calibrated and well-documented palaeontological sequence of dental measurements on the Pleistocene arvicoline rodent species Mimomys savini from the Iberian Peninsula. Based on 507 specimens representing nine populations regularly spaced over 600 000 years, we compare static (within-population) and evolutionary (among-population) allometric slopes between the width and the length of the...

Data from: Bayesian estimation of speciation and extinction from incomplete fossil occurrence data

Daniele Silvestro, Jan Schnitzler, Lee Hsiang Liow, Alexandre Antonelli & Nicolas Salamin
The temporal dynamics of species diversity are shaped by variations in the rates of speciation and extinction, and there is a long history of inferring these rates using first and last appearances of taxa in the fossil record. Understanding diversity dynamics critically depends on unbiased estimates of the unobserved times of speciation and extinction for all lineages, but the inference of these parameters is challenging due to the complex nature of the available data. Here,...

Data from: Effects of domestication on parr maturity, growth, and vulnerability to predation in Atlantic salmon

Paul V. Debes & Jeffrey A. Hutchings
Domestication can change fitness-related traits. We investigated domestication-induced changes in fitness-related traits in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) under naturally enriched laboratory conditions with and without threat of predation. Selection in two strains for rapid growth for 3 and 5 generations resulted in 2 and 3 times larger sizes of under-yearling parr relative to their wild ancestor. An initially larger size and ability to outgrow prey size more rapidly resulted in lower size-selective predation mortality for...

Data from: Fatal attraction: vegetation responses to nutrient inputs attract herbivores to infectious anthrax carcass sites

Wendy C. Turner, Kyrre L. Kausrud, Yathin S. Krishnappa, Joris P. G. M. Cromsigt, Holly H. Ganz, Isaac Mapaure, Claudine C. Cloete, Zepee Havarua, Martina Küsters, Wayne M. Getz & Nils Chr. Stenseth
Parasites can shape the foraging behaviour of their hosts through cues indicating risk of infection. When cues for risk co-occur with desired traits such as forage quality, individuals face a trade-off between nutrient acquisition and parasite exposure. We evaluated how this trade-off may influence disease transmission in a 3-year experimental study of anthrax in a guild of mammalian herbivores in Etosha National Park, Namibia. At plains zebra (Equus quagga) carcass sites we assessed (i) carcass...

Data from: Hydrology, shore morphology and species traits affect seed dispersal, germination and community assembly in shoreline plant communities

Casper H. A. Van Leeuwen, Judith M. Sarneel, José Van Paassen, Winnie J. Rip & Elisabeth S. Bakker
1.Seed dispersal and germination are two primary processes influencing plant community assembly. On freshwater shores, water levels regulate both processes. However, it is still unclear how water levels, shore morphology and species traits interactively affect seed dispersal and germination, and how these interactions determine plant community assembly. We hypothesize that a drawdown water regime enhances seed establishment compared to a year-round stable water level, that this increases species richness and diversity, and that this is...

Data from: Low host specificity among arctic root-assosiated fungi

Synnøve Botnen, Unni Vik, Tor Carlsen, Pernille B. Eidesen, Marie L. Davey & Håvard Kauserud
In High Arctic ecosystems, plant growth and reproduction are limited by low soil moisture and nutrient availability, low soil and air temperatures, and a short growing season. Mycorrhizal associations facilitate plant nutrient acquisition and water uptake and may therefore be particularly ecologically important in nutrition-poor and dry environments, such as parts of the Arctic. Similarly, endophytic root associates are thought to play a protective role, increasing plants' stress tolerance, and likely have an important ecosystem...

Data from: From gene trees to a dated allopolyploid network: insights from the angiosperm genus Viola (Violaceae)

Thomas Marcussen, Lise Heier, Anne K. Brysting, Bengt Oxelman & Kjetill S. Jakobsen
Allopolyploidisation acounts for a significant fraction of speciation events in many eukaryotic lineages. However, existing phylogenetic and dating methods require tree-like topologies and are unable to handle the network-like phylogenetic relationships of lineages containing allopolyploids. No explicit framework has so far been established for evaluating competing network topologies, and few attempts have been made to date phylogenetic networks. We used a four-step approach to generate a dated polyploid species network for the cosmopolitan angiosperm genus...

Data from: The founding of Mauritian endemic coffee trees by a synchronous long-distance dispersal event

Michael D. Nowak, Benjamin C. Haller & Anne D. Yoder
The stochastic process of long-distance dispersal is the exclusive means by which plants colonize oceanic islands. Baker's rule posits that self-incompatible plant lineages are unlikely to successfully colonize oceanic islands because they must achieve a coordinated long-distance dispersal of sufficiently numerous individuals to establish an outcrossing founder population. Here, we show for the first time that Mauritian Coffea species are self-incompatible and thus represent an exception to Baker's rule. The genus Coffea (Rubiaceae) is composed...

Data from: Genetic constraints predict evolutionary divergence in Dalechampia blossoms

Geir H. Bolstad, Thomas F. Hansen, Christophe Pélabon, Mohsen Falahati-Anbaran, Rocío Pérez-Barrales & W. Scott Armbruster
If genetic constraints are important, then rates and direction of evolution should be related to trait evolvability. Here we use recently developed measures of evolvability to test the genetic constraint hypothesis with quantitative genetic data on floral morphology from the Neotropical vine Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae). These measures were compared against rates of evolution and patterns of divergence among 24 populations in two species in the D. scandens species complex. We found clear evidence for genetic...

Data from: Hybrid speciation by sorting of parental incompatibilities in Italian sparrows

Jo S. Hermansen, Fredrik Haas, Richard I. Bailey, Alexander J. Nederbragt, Cassandra N. Trier, Alfonso Marzal, Glenn-Peter Sætre & Glenn-Peter Saetre
Speciation by hybridization is emerging as a significant contributor to biological diversification. Yet, little is known about the relative contributions of (i) evolutionary novelty and (ii) sorting of preexisting parental incompatibilities to the build-up of reproductive isolation under this mode of speciation. Few studies have addressed empirically whether hybrid animal taxa are intrinsically isolated from their parents, and no study has so far investigated by which of the two aforementioned routes intrinsic barriers evolve. Here,...

Data from: Implications of the circumpolar genetic structure of polar bears for their conservation in a rapidly warming Arctic

Elizabeth Peacock, Sarah A. Sonsthagen, Martyn E. Obbard, Andrei Boltunov, Eric V. Regehr, Nikita Ovsyanikov, Jon Aars, Stephen N. Atkinson, George K. Sage, Andrew G. Hope, Eve Zeyl, Lutz Bachmann, Dorothee Ehrich, Kim T. Scribner, Steven C. Amstrup, Stanislav Belikov, Erik W. Born, Andrew E. Derocher, Ian Stirling, Mitchell K. Taylor, Øystein Wiig, David Paetkau & Sandra L. Talbot
We provide an expansive analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) circumpolar genetic variation during the last two decades of decline in their sea-ice habitat. We sought to evaluate whether their genetic diversity and structure have changed over this period of habitat decline, how their current genetic patterns compare with past patterns, and how genetic demography changed with ancient fluctuations in climate. Characterizing their circumpolar genetic structure using microsatellite data, we defined four clusters that largely...

Data from: Frequent and seasonally variable sublethal anthrax infections are accompanied by short-lived immunity in an endemic system

Carrie A. Cizauskas, Steven E. Bellan, Wendy C. Turner, Russell E. Vance & Wayne M. Getz
1. Few studies have examined host-pathogen interactions in wildlife from an immunological perspective, particularly in the context of seasonal and longitudinal dynamics. In addition, though most ecological immunology studies employ serological antibody assays, endpoint titer determination is usually based on subjective criteria and needs to be made more objective. 2. Despite the fact that anthrax is an ancient and emerging zoonotic infectious disease found worldwide, its natural ecology is not well understood. In particular, little...

Data from: The evolutionary history of Afrocanarian blue tits inferred from genome-wide SNPs

Jostein Gohli, Erica Leder, Eduardo Garcia-Del-Rey, Lars Erik Johannessen, Arild Johnsen, Terje Laskemoen, Magnus Popp, Jan T. Lifjeld & Erica H. Leder
A common challenge in phylogenetic reconstruction is to find enough suitable genomic markers to reliably trace splitting events with short internodes. Here we present phylogenetic analyses based on genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of an enigmatic avian radiation, the subspecies complex of Afrocanarian blue tits (Cyanistes teneriffae). The two sister species, the Eurasian blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) and the azure tit (Cyanistes cyanus), constituted the outgroup. We generated a large data set of SNPs for analysis...

Data from: Phosphorus limitation enhances parasite impact: feedback effects at the population level

Katja Pulkkinen, Marcin W. Wojewodzic & Dag O. Hessen
Background: Nutrient deficiency affects the growth and population dynamics of consumers. Endoparasites can be seen as consumers that drain carbon (C) or energy from their host while simultaneously competing for limiting resources such as phosphorus (P). Depending on the relative demands of the host and the parasite for the limiting nutrient, intensified resource competition under nutrient limitation can either reduce the parasite?s effect on the host or further reduce the fitness of the nutrient-limited host....

Data from: Parasite-mediated selection drives an immunogenetic tradeoff in plains zebras (Equus quagga)

Pauline L. Kamath, Wendy C. Turner, Martina Küsters & Wayne M. Getz
Pathogen evasion of the host immune system is a key force driving extreme polymorphism in genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Although this gene family is well characterized in structure and function, there is still much debate surrounding the mechanisms by which MHC diversity is selectively maintained. Many studies have investigated relationships between MHC variation and specific pathogens, and have found mixed support for and against the hypotheses of heterozygote advantage, frequency-dependent or fluctuating...

Registration Year

  • 2014
    19

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    19

Affiliations

  • University of Oslo
    19
  • University of California, Berkeley
    3
  • Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie
    2
  • University of Gothenburg
    2
  • University Centre in Svalbard
    2
  • Norwegian University of Life Sciences
    2
  • Norwegian University of Science and Technology
    2
  • Rovira i Virgili University
    1
  • The University of Texas at Austin
    1
  • Princeton University
    1