38 Works

Data from: Early diversification of sperm size in the evolutionary history of the old world leaf warblers (Phylloscopidae)

K. Supriya, Melissah Rowe, Terje Laskemoen, Dhananjai Mohan, Trevor Price, Jan Lifjeld, J. T. Lifjeld & T. D. Price
Sperm morphological traits are highly variable among species and are commonly thought to evolve by post-copulatory sexual selection. However, little is known about the evolutionary dynamics of sperm morphology, and whether rates of evolutionary change are variable over time and among taxonomic groups. Here, we examine sperm morphology from 21 species of Old World leaf warblers (Phylloscopidae), a group of generally dull, sexually monochromatic birds, which are known to have high levels of extra-pair paternity....

Data from: Weak geographical structure in sperm morphology across the range of two willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus subspecies in Scandinavia

Hanna N. Støstad, Silje L. Rekdal, Oddmund Kleven, Terje Laskemoen, Gunnhild Marthinsen, Arild Johnsen & Jan T. Lifjeld
Sperm morphology is highly diversified among species and at higher taxonomic levels. In birds, there is also increasing evidence of geographical differentiation in sperm traits within species, especially in those with strong sperm competition. Geographical divergences in sperm traits might imply the formation of a reproductive barrier in a speciation process. Here we study sperm morphology variation of willow warblers Phylloscopus trochilus in a geographical context in Scandinavia, across the range of two subspecies that...

Data from: Ecological speciation by temporal isolation in a population of the stonefly Leuctra hippopus (Plecoptera, Leuctridae)

Louis Boumans, Silje Hogner, John Brittain & Arild Johnsen
Stream dwelling invertebrates are ideal candidates for the study of ecological speciation as they are often adapted to particular environmental conditions within a stream and inhabit only certain reaches of a drainage basin, separated by unsuitable habitat. We studied an atypical population of the stonefly Leuctra hippopus at a site in central Norway, the Isterfoss rapids, in relation to three nearby and two remote conspecific populations. Adults of this population emerge about a month earlier...

Data from: Habitat discontinuities separate genetically divergent populations of a rocky shore marine fish

Enrique Blanco Gonzalez, Halvor Knutsen & Per Erik Jorde
Habitat fragmentation has been suggested to be responsible for major genetic differentiations in a range of marine organisms. In this study, we combined genetic data and environmental information to unravel the relative role of geography and habitat heterogeneity on patterns of genetic population structure of corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops), a rocky shore species at the northern limit of its distribution range in Scandinavia. Our results revealed a major genetic break separating populations inhabiting the western...

Data from: Temporal variation in habitat selection breaks the catch-22 of spatially contrasting predation risk from multiple predators

Karen Lone, Atle Mysterud, Terje Gobakken, John Odden, John Linnell & Leif Egil Loe
Predator avoidance depends on prey being able to discern how risk varies in space and time, but this is made considerably more complicated if risk is simultaneously present from multiple predators. This is the situation for an increasing number of mammalian prey species, as large carnivores recover or are reintroduced in ecosystems on several continents. Roe deer Capreolus capreolus in southern Norway illustrate a case in which prey face two predators with contrasting patterns of...

Data from: Interacting networks of resistance, virulence and core machinery genes identified by genome-wide epistasis analysis

Marcin J. Skwark, Nicholas J. Croucher, Santeri Puranen, Claire Chewapreecha, Maiju Pesonen, Ying Ying Xu, Paul Turner, Simon R. Harris, Stephen B. Beres, James M. Musser, Julian Parkhill, Stephen D. Bentley, Erik Aurell & Jukka Corander
Recent advances in the scale and diversity of population genomic datasets for bacteria now provide the potential for genome-wide patterns of co-evolution to be studied at the resolution of individual bases. Here we describe a new statistical method, genomeDCA, which uses recent advances in computational structural biology to identify the polymorphic loci under the strongest co-evolutionary pressures. We apply genomeDCA to two large population data sets representing the major human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) and...

Data from: DNA barcoding of tuberous Orchidoideae: a resource for identification of orchids used in Salep

Abdolbaset Ghorbani, Barbara Gravendeel, Sugirthini Selliah, Shahin Zarré & Hugo De Boer
Tubers of terrestrial orchids are harvested and traded from the eastern Mediterranean to the Caspian Sea for the traditional product Salep. Overexploitation of wild populations and increased middle-class prosperity have escalated prices for Salep, causing overharvesting, depletion of native populations and providing an incentive to expand harvesting to untapped areas in Iran. Limited morphological distinctiveness among traded Salep tubers renders species identification impossible, making it difficult to establish which species are targeted and affected the...

Data from: DNA metabarcoding reveals diet overlap between the endangered Walia ibex and domestic goats - implications for conservation

Berihun Gebremedhin, Øystein Flagstad, Afework Bekele, Desalegn Chala, Vegar Bakkestuen, Sanne Boessenkool, Magnus Popp, Galina Gussarova, Audun Schrøder-Nielsen, Sileshi Nemomissa, Christian Brochmann, Nils Christian Stenseth, Laura Saskia Epp & Nils Chr. Stenseth
Human population expansion and associated degradation of the habitat of many wildlife species cause loss of biodiversity and species extinctions. The small Simen Mountains National Park in Ethiopia is one of the last strongholds for the preservation of a number of afro-alpine mammals, plants and birds, and it is home to the rare endemic Walia ibex, Capra walie. The narrow distribution range of this species as well as potential competition for resources with livestock, especially...

Data from: How many more? Sample size determination in studies of morphological integration and evolvability

Mark Grabowski & Arthur Porto
The variational properties of living organisms are an important component of current evolutionary theory. As a consequence, researchers working on the field of multivariate evolution have increasingly used integration and evolvability statistics as a way of capturing the potentially complex patterns of trait association and their effects over evolutionary trajectories. Little attention has been paid, however, to the cascading effects that inaccurate estimates of trait covariance have on these widely used evolutionary statistics. Here, we...

Data from: Tempo does not correlate with mode in the fossil record

Kjetil Lysne Voje
The dominating view of evolution based on the fossil record is that established species remain more or less unaltered during their existence. Substantial evolution is on the other hand routinely reported for contemporary populations, and most quantitative traits show high potential for evolution. These contrasting observations on long and short time scales are often referred to as the paradox of stasis, which rests on the fundamental assumption that periods of morphological stasis in the fossil...

Data from: Interactive effects of exogenous and endogenous factors on demographic rates of an African rodent

Chloé R. Nater, Cindy I. Canale, Koen J. Van Benthem, Chi-Hang Yuen, Ivana Schoepf, Neville Pillay, Arpat Ozgul & Carsten Schradin
Exogenous and endogenous environmental factors can have simultaneous additive as well as interacting effects on life-history traits. Ignoring such interactions can lead to a biased understanding of variability in demographic rates and consequently population dynamics. These interactions have been the focus of decades-long debates on the mechanisms underlying small mammal population fluctuations. They have often been studied indirectly through seasonal effects, but studies considering them directly and more mechanistically are rare. We investigated the joint...

Data from: Testing a post-copulatory pre-zygotic reproductive barrier in a passerine species pair

Emily R. A. Cramer, Terje Laskemoen, Fabrice Eroukhmanoff, Fredrik Haas, Jo S. Hermansen, Jan T. Lifjeld, Melissah Rowe, Glenn-Peter Sætre & Arild Johnsen
Sexual selection may drive speciation, but most research focuses on pre-copulatory sexual selection, overlooking post-copulatory processes. Post-copulatory sexual selection in allopatric populations could drive divergence in post-copulatory pre-zygotic (PCPZ) phenotypes, limiting gene flow upon secondary contact. Here, we performed in vitro experiments examining one potential PCPZ barrier between two closely related passerine species, house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and Spanish sparrows (Passer hispaniolensis). In birds, crossing in the vagina may be particularly challenging for sperm, so...

Data from: Interspecific interactions through 2 million years: are competitive outcomes predictable?

Lee Hsiang Liow, Emanuela Di Martino, Kjetil Lysne Voje, Seabourne Rust & Paul D. Taylor
Ecological interactions affect the survival and reproduction of individuals. However, ecological interactions are notoriously difficult to measure in extinct populations, hindering our understanding of how the outcomes of interactions such as competition vary in time and influence long-term evolutionary changes. Here, the outcomes of spatial competition in a temporally continuous community over evolutionary timescales are presented for the first time. Our research domain is encrusting cheilostome bryozoans from the Wanganui Basin of New Zealand over...

Data from: HS1BP3 negatively regulates autophagy by modulation of phosphatidic acid levels

Petter Holland, Helene Knævelsrud, Kristiane Søreng, Benan John Mathai, Alf Håkon Lystad, Serhiy Pankiv, Gunnveig T. Bjørndal, Sebastian W. Schultz, Viola H. Lobert, Robin B. Chan, Bowen Zhou, Knut Liestøl, Sven R. Carlsson, Thomas J. Melia, Gilbert Di Paolo & Anne Simonsen
A fundamental question is how autophagosome formation is regulated. Here we show that the PX domain protein HS1BP3 is a negative regulator of autophagosome formation. HS1BP3 depletion increased the formation of LC3-positive autophagosomes and degradation of cargo both in human cell culture and in zebrafish. HS1BP3 is localized to ATG16L1- and ATG9-positive autophagosome precursors and we show that HS1BP3 binds phosphatidic acid (PA) through its PX domain. Furthermore, we find the total PA content of...

Data from: ITS all right mama: Investigating the formation of chimeric sequences in the ITS2 region by DNA metabarcoding analyses of fungal mock communities of different complexities

Anders Bjørnsgaard Aas, Marie Louise Davey & Håvard Kauserud
The formation of chimeric sequences can create significant methodological bias in PCR-based DNA metabarcoding analyses. During mixed-template amplification of barcoding regions, chimera formation is frequent and well documented. However, profiling of fungal communities typically uses the more variable rDNA region ITS. Due to a larger research community, tools for chimera detection have been developed mainly for the 16S/18S markers. However, these tools are widely applied to the ITS region without verification of their performance. We...

Data from: Linking intra- and interspecific assortative mating: consequences for asymmetric sexual isolation

Erik I. Svensson, Anna Nordén, John T. Waller & Anna Runemark
Assortative mating is of interest because of its role in speciation and the maintenance of species boundaries. However, we know little about how within-species assortment is related to interspecific sexual isolation. Most previous studies of assortative mating have focused on a single trait in males and females, rather than utilizing multivariate trait information. Here we investigate how intraspecific assortative mating relates to sexual isolation in two sympatric and congeneric damselfly species (genus Calopteryx). We connect...

Data from: Evolution of the immune system influences speciation rates in teleost fishes

Martin Malmstrøm, Michael Matschiner, Ole K. Tørresen, Bastiaan Star, Lars G. Snipen, Thomas F. Hansen, Helle T. Baalsrud, Alexander J. Nederbragt, Reinhold Hanel, Walter Salzburger, Nils C. Stenseth, Kjetill S. Jakobsen & Sissel Jentoft
Teleost fishes constitute the most species-rich vertebrate clade and exhibit extensive genetic and phenotypic variation, including diverse immune defense strategies. The genomic basis of a particularly aberrant strategy is exemplified by Atlantic cod, in which a loss of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II functionality coincides with a marked expansion of MHC I genes. Through low-coverage genome sequencing (9–39×), assembly and comparative analyses for 66 teleost species, we show here that MHC II is missing in...

Data from: Long live the alien: is high genetic diversity a pivotal aspect of crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) long-lasting and successful invasion?

Emiliano Trucchi, Benoit Facon, Paolo Gratton, Emiliano Mori, Nils Chr. Stenseth & Sissel Jentoft
Studying the evolutionary dynamics of an alien species surviving and continuing to expand after several generations can provide fundamental information on the relevant features of clearly successful invasions. Here, we tackle this task by investigating the dynamics of the genetic diversity in invasive crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) populations, introduced to Italy about 1500 years ago, which are still growing in size, distribution range and ecological niche. Using genome-wide RAD markers, we describe the structure of...

Data from: Seedling recruitment in subalpine grassland forbs: predicting field regeneration behaviour from lab germination responses

Vigdis Vandvik, Reidar Elven & Joachim Töpper
Environmental cueing that restricts seed germination onto times and places where mortality risk is relatively low may have considerable selective advantage. The predictive power of lab germination responses for field regeneration behaviour is rarely tested. We screened 11 alpine grassland forbs for germination behaviours predictive of microsite and seasonal selectivity, and seed carry-over across years. The predictions were tested in a field experiment. Germination in the lab ranged from 0.05% to 67.9%, and was affected...

Data from: Phylogenomics of Lophotrochozoa with consideration of systematic error

Kevin M. Kocot, Torsten H. Struck, Julia Merkel, Damien S. Waits, Christiane Todt, Pamela M. Brannock, David A. Weese, Johanna T. Cannon, Leonid L. Moroz, Bernhard Lieb & Kenneth M. Halanych
Phylogenomic studies have improved understanding of deep metazoan phylogeny and show promise for resolving incongruences among analyses based on limited numbers of loci. One region of the animal tree that has been especially difficult to resolve, even with phylogenomic approaches, is relationships within Lophotrochozoa (the animal clade that includes molluscs, annelids, and flatworms among others). Lack of resolution in phylogenomic analyses could be due to insufficient phylogenetic signal, limitations in taxon and/or gene sampling, or...

Data from: Lateral plate number in low-plated threespine stickleback: a study of plasticity and heritability

Truls H. Hansson, Barbara Fischer, Anna B. Mazzarella, Kjetil L. Voje & Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad
In the threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus model system, phenotypes are often classified into three morphs according to lateral plate number. Morph identity has been shown to be largely genetically determined, but substantial within-morph variation in plate number exists. In this study, we test whether plate number has a plastic component in response to salinity in the low-plated morph using a split-clutch experiment where families were split in two, one half raised in water at 0...

Data from: Host and tissue variation overshadow the response of boreal moss-associated fungal communities to increased nitrogen load

Marie L. Davey, Marte J. Skogen, Einar Heegaard, Rune Halvorsen, Håvard Kauserud & Mikael Ohlson
Human activity has more than doubled the amount of nitrogen entering the global nitrogen cycle, and the boreal forest biome is a nitrogen-limited ecosystem sensitive to nitrogen load perturbation. Although bryophyte-associated microbes contribute significantly to boreal forest ecosystem function, particularly in carbon and nitrogen cycling, little is known about their responses to anthropogenic global change. Amplicon pyrosequencing of the ITS2 region of rDNA was used to investigate how fungal communities associated with three bryophyte species...

Data from: The temporal window of ecological adaptation in postglacial lakes: a comparison of head morphology, trophic position and habitat use in Norwegian threespine stickleback populations

Kjartan Østbye, Chris Harrod, Finn Gregersen, Tom Klepaker, Michael Schulz, Dolph Schluter & Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad
Background: Studying how trophic traits and niche use are related in natural populations is important in order to understand adaptation and specialization. Here, we describe trophic trait diversity in twenty-five Norwegian freshwater threespine stickleback populations and their putative marine ancestor, and relate trait differences to postglacial lake age. By studying lakes of different ages, depths and distance to the sea we examine key environmental variables that may predict adaptation in trophic position and habitat use....

Data from: Bayesian phylogenetic estimation of clade ages supports trans-atlantic dispersal of cichlid fishes

Michael Matschiner, Zuzana Musilová, Julia M.I. Barth, Zuzana Starostová, Walter Salzburger, Mike Steel & Remco Bouckaert
Divergence-time estimation based on molecular phylogenies and the fossil record has provided insights into fundamental questions of evolutionary biology. In Bayesian node dating, phylogenies are commonly time calibrated through the specification of calibration densities on nodes representing clades with known fossil occurrences. Unfortunately, the optimal shape of these calibration densities is usually unknown and they are therefore often chosen arbitrarily, which directly impacts the reliability of the resulting age estimates. As possible solutions to this...

Data from: BMI and WHR are reflected in female facial shape and texture: a geometric morphometric image analysis

Christine Mayer, Sonja Windhager, Katrin Schaefer & Philipp Mitteroecker
Facial markers of body composition are frequently studied in evolutionary psychology and are important in computational and forensic face recognition. We assessed the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with facial shape and texture (color pattern) in a sample of young Middle European women by a combination of geometric morphometrics and image analysis. Faces of women with high BMI had a wider and rounder facial outline relative to the size of...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    38

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    38

Affiliations

  • University of Oslo
    38
  • University of Vienna
    4
  • University of Agder
    3
  • University of Bergen
    3
  • University of Helsinki
    3
  • Uppsala University
    3
  • Norwegian University of Life Sciences
    3
  • Oslo University Hospital
    2
  • Lund University
    2
  • Tohoku University
    2