42 Works

Data from: Reply to ‘Inconclusive evidence for rapid adaptive evolution’

Camilla Lo Cascio Sætre, Charles Coleiro, Martin Austad, Mark Gauci, Glenn-Peter Sætre, Kjetil Lysne Voje & Fabrice Eroukhmanoff
In our study, we showed that a newly founded population of reed warblers in Malta had undergone a decrease in body mass through 19 years, following a trajectory consistent with a population ascending an adaptive peak, an Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process (OU). Neto et al. claim that our result is an artifact of including migrants in the dataset, which inflated the average body mass in the initial years. Controlling for possible seasonal effects is important, which we...

Data from: Fine-scale population differences in Atlantic cod reproductive success: a potential mechanism for ecological speciation in a marine fish

Nancy E. Roney, Rebekah A. Oomen, Halvor Knutsen, Esben M. Olsen & Jeffrey A. Hutchings
Successful resource-management and conservation outcomes ideally depend on matching the spatial scales of population demography, local adaptation, and threat mitigation. For marine fish with high dispersal capabilities, this remains a fundamental challenge. Based on daily parentage assignments of more than 4000 offspring, we document fine-scaled temporal differences in individual reproductive success for two spatially adjacent (<10km) populations of a broadcast-spawning marine fish. Distinguished by differences in genetics and life history, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from...

Data from: Sperm divergence in a passerine contact zone: indication of reinforcement at the gametic level

Tomas Albrecht, Kamila Opletalova, Jiří Reif, Vaclav Janousek, Lubomir Pialek, Emily Rebecca Alison Cramer, Arild Johnsen & Radka Reifová
Postcopulatory sexual selection may promote evolutionary diversification in sperm form, but the contribution of between-species divergence in sperm morphology to the origin of reproductive isolation and speciation remains little understood. To assess the possible role of sperm diversification in reproductive isolation, we studied sperm morphology in two closely related species, the common nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos) and the thrush nightingale (L. luscinia), that hybridize in a secondary contact zone spanning Central and Eastern Europe. We found:...

Data from: Harvesting changes mating behavior in European lobster

Tonje K. Sørdalen, Kim T. Halvorsen, Hugo B. Harrison, Charlie D. Ellis, Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad, Halvor Knutsen, Even Moland & Esben M. Olsen
Removing individuals from a wild population can affect the availability of prospective mates and the outcome of competitive interactions, with subsequent effects on mating patterns and sexual selection. Consequently, the rate of harvest-induced evolution is predicted to be strongly dependent on the strength and dynamics of sexual selection yet, there is limited empirical knowledge on the interplay between selective harvesting and the mating systems of exploited species. In this study, we used genetic parentage assignment...

Data from: Advancing restoration ecology: a new approach to predict time to recovery

Knut Rydgren, Rune Halvorsen, Joachim P. Töpper, Inger Auestad, Liv Norunn Hamre, Eelke Jongejans & Jan Sulavik
1. Species composition is a vital attribute of any ecosystem. Accordingly, ecological restoration often has the original, or ‘natural’, species composition as its target. However, we still lack adequate methods for predicting the expected time to compositional recovery in restoration studies. 2. We describe and explore a new, ordination regression-based approach (ORBA) for predicting time to recovery that allows both linear and asymptotic (logarithmic) relationships of compositional change with time. The approach uses distances between...

Data from: Experimental heatwaves negatively impact sperm quality in the zebra finch

Laura L. Hurley, Callum S. McDiarmid, Christopher R. Friesen, Simon C. Griffith & Melissah Rowe
For sexually reproducing species, functionally competent sperm are critical to reproduction. While high atmospheric temperatures are known to influence the timing of breeding, incubation and reproductive success in birds, the effect of temperature on sperm quality remains largely unexplored. Here, we experimentally investigated the impact of ecologically relevant extreme temperatures on cloacal temperature and sperm morphology and motility in zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata. We periodically sampled males exposed to 30°C or 40°C temperatures daily for...

Data from: Competition between sympatric wolf taxa: an example involving African and Ethiopian Wolves

Tariku Mekonnen Gutema, Anagaw Atickem, Afework Bekele, Claudio Sillero-Zubiri, Mohammed Kasso, Diress Tsegaye, Vivek V. Venkataraman, Peter J. Fashing, Dietmar Zinner & Nils C. Stenseth
Carnivore populations are declining globally due to range contraction, persecution and prey depletion. One consequence of these patterns is increased range and niche overlap with other carnivores, and thus an elevated potential for competitive exclusion. Here we document competition between an endangered canid, the Ethiopian wolf (EW), and the newly discovered African wolf (AW) in central Ethiopia. The diet of the ecological specialist EW was dominated by rodents whereas the AW consumed more diverse diet...

Data from: Signatures of human-commensalism in the house sparrow genome

Mark Ravinet, Tore Oldeide Elgvin, Cassandra Trier, Mansour Aliabadian, Andrey Gavrilov & Glenn-Peter Sætre
House sparrows (Passer domesticus) are a hugely successful anthrodependent species; occurring on nearly every continent. Yet, despite their ubiquity and familiarity to humans, surprisingly little is known about their origins. We sought to investigate the evolutionary history of the house sparrow and identify the processes involved in its transition to a human-commensal niche. We used a whole genome resequencing dataset of 120 individuals from three Eurasian species, including three populations of Bactrianus sparrows, a non-commensal,...

Data from: Bayesian divergence-time estimation with genome-wide SNP data of sea catfishes (Ariidae) supports Miocene closure of the Panamanian isthmus

Madlen Stange, Marcelo R. Sánchez-Villagra, Walter Salzburger & Michael Matschiner
The closure of the Isthmus of Panama has long been considered to be one of the best defined biogeographic calibration points for molecular divergence-time estimation. However, geological and biological evidence has recently cast doubt on the presumed timing of the initial isthmus closure around 3 Ma but has instead suggested the existence of temporary land bridges as early as the Middle or Late Miocene. The biological evidence supporting these earlier land bridges was based either...

Data from: Disentangling structural genomic and behavioral barriers in a sea of connectivity

Julia M. I. Barth, David Villegas-Ríos, Carla Freitas, Even Moland, Bastiaan Star, Carl André, Halvor Knutsen, Ian Bradbury, Jan Dierking, Christoph Petereit, David Righton, Julian Metcalfe, Kjetill S. Jakobsen, Esben M. Olsen, Sissel Jentoft & Julia M.I. Barth
Genetic divergence among populations arises through natural selection or drift and is counteracted by connectivity and gene flow. In sympatric populations, isolating mechanisms are thus needed to limit the homogenizing effects of gene flow to allow for adaptation and speciation. Chromosomal inversions act as an important mechanism maintaining isolating barriers, yet their role in sympatric populations and divergence with gene flow is not entirely understood. Here, we revisit the question whether inversions play a role...

Data from: Positive correlations between pre- and post-copulatory sexual traits in warblers

K. Supriya, Trevor D. Price & Melissah Rowe
Theoretical models predict that investment in pre-copulatory and post-copulatory sexually selected traits should trade-off. At the macroevolutionary scale, the majority of studies to date have focused on male weaponry as the target of pre-copulatory sexual selection, but the trade-off should equally apply to traits used to attract females, such as bird song and plumage. We studied the Old World leaf warblers (Phylloscopidae), a group of socially monogamous songbirds that experience relatively high levels of sperm...

Data from: Diversifying selection drives parallel evolution of gill raker number and body size along the speciation continuum of European whitefish

Katja Häkli, Kjartan Østbye, Kimmo K. Kahilainen, Per-Arne Amundsen, Kim Præbel & Kim Praebel
Adaptive radiation is the evolution of ecological and phenotypical diversity. It arises via ecological opportunity that promotes the exploration of underutilized or novel niches mediating specialization and reproductive isolation. The assumed precondition for rapid local adaptation is diversifying natural selection, but random genetic drift could also be a major driver of this process. We used 27 populations of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) from nine lakes distributed in three neighbouring subarctic watercourses in northern Fennoscandia as...

Data from: Contemporaneous radiations of fungi and plants linked to symbiosis

François Lutzoni, Michael D. Nowak, Michael E. Alfaro, Valérie Reeb, Jolanta Miadlikowska, Michael Krug, A. Elizabeth Arnold, Louise A. Lewis, David L. Swofford, David Hibbett, Khidir Hilu, Timothy Y. James, Dietmar Quandt & Susana Magallón
Interactions between fungi and plants, including parasitism, mutualism, and saprotrophy, have been invoked as key to their respective macroevolutionary success. Here we evaluate the origins of plant-fungal symbioses and saprotrophy using a time-calibrated phylogenetic framework that reveals linked and drastic shifts in diversification rates of each kingdom. Fungal colonization of land was associated with at least two origins of terrestrial green algae and preceded embryophytes (as evidenced by losses of fungal flagellum, ca. 720 Ma),...

Data from: Sequence clustering threshold has little effect on the recovery of microbial community structure

Synnøve Smebye Botnen, Marie Louise Davey, Rune Halvorsen & Håvard Kauserud
Analysis of microbial community structure by multivariate ordination methods, using data obtained by high throughput sequencing of amplified markers (i.e., DNA metabarcoding), often requires clustering of DNA sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Parameters for the clustering procedure tend not to be justified but are set by tradition rather than being based on explicit knowledge. In this study, we explore the extent to which ordination results are affected by variation in parameter settings for the...

Data from: Explaining European fungal fruiting phenology with climate variability

Carrie Andrew, Einar Heegaard, Klaus Høiland, Beatrice Senn-Irlet, Thomas W. Kuyper, Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber, Paul M. Kirk, Jacob Heilmann-Clausen, Alan C. Gange, Simon Egli, Claus Bässler, Ulf Büntgen, Lynne Boddy & Håvard Kauserud
Here we assess the impact of geographically dependent (latitude, longitude and altitude) changes in bioclimatic (temperature, precipitation and primary productivity) variability on fungal fruiting phenology across Europe. Two main nutritional guilds of fungi, saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal, were further separated into spring and autumn fruiters. We used a path‐analysis to investigate how biogeographic patterns in fungal fruiting phenology coincided with seasonal changes in climate and primary production. Across central to northern Europe, mean fruiting varied by...

Data from: Low fasting serum insulin and dementia in nondiabetic women followed for 34 years

Kirsten Mehlig, Leif Lapidus, Dag Steinar Thelle, Margda Waern, Henrik Zetterberg, Cecilia Björkelund, Ingmar Skoog & Lauren Lissner
Objective: A previous study reported a U-shaped association between fasting insulin and dementia in a 5-year follow-up of a male cohort, which was now re-investigated in a representative population of women followed over 34 years, and taking into account the incidence of diabetes. Methods: Fasting values for insulin and glucose were obtained from serum samples in 1212 non-diabetic women aged 38-60 at the 1968 baseline. Risk of dementia was assessed by Cox proportional hazard regression...

Data from: Rapid divergence of genome architectures following the origin of an ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in the genus Amanita

Jaqueline Hess, Inger Skrede, Maryam Chaib De Mares, Matthieu Hainaut, Bernard Henrissat & Anne Pringle
Fungi are evolutionary shape shifters and adapt quickly to new environments. Ectomycorrhizal (EM) symbioses are mutualistic associations between fungi and plants and have evolved repeatedly and independently across the fungal tree of life, suggesting lineages frequently reconfigure genome content to take advantage of open ecological niches. To date analyses of genomic mechanisms facilitating EM symbioses have involved comparisons of distantly related species, but here, we use the genomes of three EM and two asymbiotic (AS)...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    42

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    42

Affiliations

  • University of Oslo
    42
  • University of Gothenburg
    4
  • University of Agder
    4
  • University of Washington
    3
  • University of Copenhagen
    3
  • Norwegian University of Life Sciences
    3
  • Duke University
    2
  • University of Cambridge
    2
  • Charles University
    2
  • University of Basel
    2