28 Works

Data from: Extra-pair mating in a passerine bird with highly duplicated MHC class II: Preference for the golden mean

Silje Rekdal, Jarl Andreas Anmarkrud, Jan Lifjeld & Arild Johnsen
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are essential in vertebrate adaptive immunity, and they are highly diverse and duplicated in many lineages. While it is widely established that pathogen-mediated selection maintains MHC diversity through balancing selection, the role of mate choice in shaping MHC diversity is debated. Here, we investigate female mating preferences for MHC class II (MHCII) in the bluethroat (Luscinia svecica), a passerine bird with high levels of extra-pair paternity and extremely...

Does the response of D. melanogaster males to intrasexual competitors influence sexual isolation?

Lucas Marie-Orleach, Annui M. Sanz, Nathan W. Bailey & Michael G. Ritchie
The evolutionary consequences of phenotypic plasticity are debated. For example, reproductive barriers between incipient species can depend on the social environment, but most evidence for this comes from studies focussing on the effects of experiencing heterospecific individuals of the opposite sex. In Drosophila melanogaster, males are well known to invest strategically in ejaculate components and show different courtship behaviour when reared in the presence of male competitors. It is unknown whether such plasticity in response...

Data from: How many cubs can a mum nurse? Maternal age and size influence litter size in polar bears

Dorinda Marie Folio, Jon Aars, Olivier Gimenez, Andrew E. Derocher, Oystein Wiig & Sarah Cubaynes
Life history theory predicts that females' age and size affect the level of maternal investment in current reproduction, balanced against future reproductive effort, maintenance and survival. Using long-term (30 years) individual data on 193 female polar bears (Ursus maritimus), we assessed age- and size-specific variation on litter size. Litter size varied with maternal age, younger females had higher chances of losing a cub during their first months of life. Results suggest an improvement of reproductive...

Data from: Lyme neuroborreliosis and bird populations in northern Europe

Atle Mysterud, Dieter Heylen, Erik Mathyssen, Aïda Garcia, Solveig Jore & Hildegunn Viljugrein
Many vector-borne diseases are transmitted through complex pathogen-vector-host networks, which makes it challenging to identify the role of specific host groups in disease emergence. Lyme borreliosis in humans is now the most common vector-borne zoonosis in the northern hemisphere. The disease is caused by multiple genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato bacteria transmitted by ixodid (hard) ticks, and the major host groups transmit Borrelia genospecies with different pathogenicity, causing variable clinical symptoms in humans. The...

Narratives of Industry Responses to Cyberbullying: Perspectives on Self-regulation From and About the Industry

Tijana Milosevic, Brian O'Neill & Elisabeth Staksrud

Data from: Games academics play and their consequences: how authorship, h-index, and journal impact factors are shaping the future of academia

Jan Gogarten, Colin Chapman, Julio Bicca-Marques, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Pengfei Fan, Peter Fashing, Songtao Guo, Claire Hemingway, Fabian Leendertz, Baoguo Li, Ikki Matsuda, Rong Hou, Juan Carlos Serio-Silva & Nils Chr. Stenseth
Research is a highly competitive profession where evaluation plays a central role; journals are ranked and individuals are evaluated based on their publication number, the number of times they are cited, and their h-index. Yet, such evaluations are often done in inappropriate ways that are damaging to individual careers, particularly for young scholars, and to the profession. Furthermore, as with all indices, people can play games to better their scores. This has resulted in the...

Global data for soil water, groundwater and riverine freshwater dissolved organic radiocarbon

J.L. Adams, E. Tipping, P. Keenan, R.C. Helliwell, N. Pedentchouk, S. Buckingham, E. Gjessing, P. Ascough, C.L. Bryant & M.H. Garnett
This dataset includes dissolved organic radiocarbon content and dissolved organic carbon concentration data for river waters around the globe. The riverine dataset contains already published (n=1163) and new (n=101) data between the years 1962 – 2015. Soil solution data (n=139) from North American and European natural and semi-natural ecosystems are also included, which cover the period 1988 – 2008. Groundwater data containing 49 data points from boreholes in Europe and North America are also provided....

Data from: A consistent species richness-climate relationship for oaks across the Northern Hemisphere

Xiaoting Xu, Dimitar Dimitrov, Nawal Shrestha, Carsten Rahbek & Zhiheng Wang
Aim: Although the effects of climate on species richness are known, regional processes may lead to different species richness-climate relationships across continents resulting in species richness anomalies, especially for tropical groups. Phylogenetic niche conservatism may also influence species richness-climate relationships of different lineages. Here, we tested whether regional effects also exist for temperate lineages using the genus Quercus. Location: Northern Hemisphere Time period: Present day Major taxa studied: Quercus (Fagaceae) Methods: We used a dated...

Data from: Sperm head abnormalities are more frequent in songbirds with more helical sperm: A possible trade-off in sperm evolution

Hanna N. Støstad, Melissah Rowe, Arild Johnsen & Jan T. Lifjeld
Sperm morphology varies enormously across the animal kingdom. While knowledge of the factors that drive the evolution of interspecific variation in sperm morphology is accumulating, we currently have little understanding of factors that may constrain evolutionary change in sperm traits. We investigated whether susceptibility to sperm abnormalities could represent such a constraint in songbirds, a group characterised by a distinctive helical sperm head shape. Specifically, using 36 songbird species and data from light- and scanning...

Data from: Assessing restoration success by predicting time to recovery – but by which metric?

Knut Rydgren, Inger Auestad, Rune Halvorsen, Liv Hamre, Eelke Jongejans, Joachim Töpper & Jan Sulavik
1. Restoration of degraded ecosystems may take decades or even centuries. Accordingly, information about the current direction and speed of recovery provided by methods for predicting time to recovery may give important feedback to restoration schemes. While predictions of time to recovery have so far been based mostly upon change in species richness and other univariate predictors, the novel ordination-regression based approach (ORBA) affords a multivariate approach based upon species compositional change. 2. We used...

Interrelated ecological impacts of climate change on an apex predator

Kristin L. Laidre, Stephen Atkinson, Eric V. Regehr, Harry L. Stern, Erik W. Born, Øystein Wiig, Nicholas J. Lunn & Markus Dyck
Climate change has broad ecological implications for species that rely on sensitive habitats. For some top predators, loss of habitat is expected to lead to cascading behavioral, nutritional, and reproductive changes that ultimately accelerate population declines. In the case of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus), declining Arctic sea ice reduces access to prey and lengthens seasonal fasting periods. We used a novel combination of physical-capture, biopsy darting, and visual aerial observation data to project reproductive...

A classification framework for Bacillus anthracis defined by global genomic structure

Spencer Bruce, Nicholas Schiraldi, Pauline Kamath, W. Ryan Easterday & Wendy Turner
Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a considerable global health threat affecting wildlife, livestock, and the general public. In this study whole-genome sequence analysis of over 350 B. anthracis isolates was used to establish a new high-resolution global genotyping framework that is both biogeographically informative, and compatible with multiple genomic assays. The data presented in this study shed new light on the diverse global dissemination of this species and indicate that many lineages...

Data from: Growth mode and carbon source impact the surfaceome dynamics of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

Kirsi Savijoki, Tuula A. Nyman, Veera Kainulainen, Ilkka Miettinen, Pia Siljamäki, Adyary Fallarero, Jouko Sandholm, Reetta Satokari & Pekka Varmanen
Bacterial biofilms have clear implications in disease and in food applications involving probiotics. Here, we show that switching the carbohydrate source from glucose to fructose increased the biofilm formation and the total surface-antigenicity of a well-known probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Surfaceomes (all cell surface-associated proteins) of GG cells grown with glucose and fructose in planktonic and biofilm cultures were identified and compared, which indicated carbohydrate source-dependent variations, especially during biofilm growth. The most distinctive differences...

Data from: Catastrophic dynamics limit Atlantic cod recovery

Camilla Sguotti, Saskia Otto, Romain Frelat, Tom Langbehn, Marie Plambech Ryberg, Martin Lindegren, Joel Durant, Nils Stenseth & Christian Möllmann
Collapses and regime changes are pervasive in complex systems (such as marine ecosystems) governed by multiple stressors. The demise of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks constitutes a text book example of the consequences of overexploiting marine living resources, yet the drivers of these nearly synchronous collapses are still debated. Moreover, it is still unclear why rebuilding of collapsed fish stocks such as cod is often slow or absent. Here we apply the stochastic cusp model,...

Data from: Biogeography of plant root-associated fungal communities in the North-Atlantic region mirrors climatic variability

Synnøve Smebye Botnen, Marie L. Davey, Anders B. Aas, Tor Carlsen, Ella Thoen, Einar Heegaard, Unni Vik, Philipp Dresch, Sunil Mundra, Ursula Peintner, Andy F.S. Taylor & Håvard Kauserud
Aim Polar and alpine ecosystems appear to be particularly sensitive to increasing temperatures and the altered precipitation patterns linked to climate change. However, little is currently known about how these environmental drivers may affect edaphic organisms within these ecosystems. In this study, we examined communities of plant root-associated fungi (RAF) over large biogeographic scales and along climatic gradients in the North Atlantic region in order to gain insights into the potential effects of climate variability...

Data from: Measuring the magnitude of morphological integration: the effect of differences in morphometric representations and the inclusion of size

Fabio A Machado, Alex Hubbe, Diogo Melo, Arthur Porto & Gabriel Marroig
The magnitude of morphological integration is a major aspect of multivariate evolution, providing a simple measure of the intensity of association between morphological traits. Studies concerned with morphological integration usually translate phenotypes into morphometric representations to quantify how different morphological elements covary. Geometric and classic morphometric representations translate biological form in different ways, raising the question if magnitudes of morphological integration estimates obtained from different morphometric representations are compatible. Here we sought to answer this...

Revisiting a landmark study-system: no evidence for a punctuated mode of evolution in Metrarabdotos

Kjetil Voje, Emanuela Di Martino & Arthur Porto
Is speciation generally a ‘special time’ in morphological evolution or are lineage splitting events just ‘more of the same’ where the end product happens to be two separate lineages? Data on evolutionary dynamics during anagenetic and cladogenetic events among closely related lineages within a clade are rare, but the fossil record of the bryozoan genus Metrarabdotos is considered a textbook example of a clade where speciation causes rapid evolutionary change against a backdrop of morphological...

Explaining illness with evil: Pathogen prevalence fosters moral vitalism

Brock Bastian, Christin-Melanie Vauclair, Steve Loughnan, Paul Bain, Ashwini Ashokkumar, Maja Becker, Michal Bilewicz, Emma Collier-Baker, Carla Crespo, Paul W. Eastwick, Ronald Fischer, Malte Friese, Ángel Gómez, Valeschka M. Guerra, Jose Luis Castellanos Guevara, Katja Hanke, Nic Hooper, Li-Li Huang, Shi Junqi, Minoru Karasawa, Peter Kuppens, Siri Leknes, Müjde Peker, Cesar Pelay, Afoditi Pina … & William B. Swann
Pathogens represent a significant threat to human health leading to the emergence of strategies designed to help manage their negative impact. We examined how spiritual beliefs developed to explain and predict the devastating effects of pathogens and spread of infectious disease. Analysis of existing data in Studies 1 and 2 suggests that moral vitalism (beliefs about spiritual forces of evil) is higher in geographical regions characterized by historical higher levels of pathogens. Furthermore, drawing on...

From individuals to populations: How intraspecific competition shapes thermal reaction norms

Thomas Tully, François Mallard, Vincent Le Bourlot, Christie Le Coeur, Monique Avnaim, Romain Peronnet & David Claessen
1. Most ectotherms follow the temperature-size rule (TSR): in cold environments individuals grow slowly but reach a large asymptotic length. Intraspecific competition can induce plastic changes of growth rate and asymptotic length and competition may itself be modulated by temperature. 2. Our aim is to disentangle the joint effects of temperature and intraspecific competition on growth rate and asymptotic length. 3. We used two distinct clonal lineages of the Collembola Folsomia candida, to describe thermal...

Data from: Ancient DNA from mastics solidifies connection between material culture and genetics of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in Scandinavia

Natalia Kashuba, Emrah Kırdök, Hege Damlien, Mikael A. Manninen, Bengt Nordqvist, Per Persson & Anders Götherström
The discussion of an early postglacial dual-route colonization of the Scandinavian Peninsula is largely based on associating genomic data to an early dispersal of lithic technology from the East European Plain. However, a direct link between the two has been lacking. We tackle this problem by analysing human DNA from birch bark pitch mastics, “chewing gums”, from Huseby Klev, a site in western Sweden with eastern lithic technology. We generate genome-wide data for three individuals,...

Data from: Wood modification by furfuryl alcohol caused delayed decomposition response in Rhodonia (Postia) placenta

Inger Skrede, Monica Hongrø Solbakken, Jaqueline Hess, Carl Gunnar Fossdal, Olav Hegnar & Gry Alfredsen
The aim of this study was to investigate differential expression profiles of the brown rot fungus Rhodonia placenta (previously Postia placenta) harvested at several time points when grown on radiata pine (Pinus radiata) and radiata pine with three different levels of modification by furfuryl alcohol, an environmentally benign commercial wood protection system. The entire gene expression pattern of a decay fungus is followed in untreated and modified wood from initial to advanced stages of decay....

Data from: Sperm head abnormalities are associated with excessive omega-6 fatty acids in two finch species feeding on sunflower seeds

Hanna Nyborg Støstad, Melissah Rowe, Arild Johnsen, Oldřich Tomášek, Tomáš Albrecht & Jan Terje Lifjeld
In a rapidly changing world, it is important to understand how urban environments impact wildlife. For example, supplementary feeding of birds, though well‐intended, might have unexpected negative effects on the health of individual animals. Sunflower seeds are commonly provided in garden bird feeders, but they contain high levels of linoleic acid (LA), an omega‐6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Omega‐6 PUFAs are associated with increased oxidative stress, which can damage cell membranes, and in particular sperm...

Data from: Predicting evolutionary potential: a numerical test of evolvability measures

Thomas F. Hansen, Thomas Mørtvedt Solvin & Mihaela Pavlicev
Despite sophisticated mathematical models, the theory of microevolution is mostly treated as a qualitative rather than a quantitative tool. Numerical measures of selection, constraints, and evolutionary potential are often too loosely connected to theory to provide operational predictions of the response to selection. In this paper, we study the ability of a set of operational measures of evolvability and constraint to predict short‐term selection responses generated by individual‐based simulations. We focus on the effects of...

Data from: Improving Illumina assemblies with Hi-C and long reads: an example with the North African dromedary

Jean P. Elbers, Mark F. Rogers, Polina L. Perelman, Anastasia A. Proskuryakova, Natalia A. Serdyukova, Warren E. Johnson, Petr Horin, Jukka Corander, David Murphy & Pamela A. Burger
Researchers have assembled thousands of eukaryotic genomes using Illumina reads, but traditional mate-pair libraries cannot span all repetitive elements, resulting in highly fragmented assemblies. However, both chromosome conformation capture techniques, such as Hi-C and Dovetail Genomics Chicago libraries and long-read sequencing, such as Pacific Biosciences and Oxford Nanopore, help span and resolve repetitive regions and therefore improve genome assemblies. One important livestock species of arid regions that does not have a high-quality contiguous reference genome...

Data from: Northern bottlenose whales in a pristine environment respond strongly to close and distant navy sonar signals

Paul Wensveen, Saana Isojunno, Rune Hansen, Alexander Von Benda-Beckmann, Lars Kleivane, Sander Van IJsselmuide, Frans-Peter Lam, Petter Kvadsheim, Stacy DeRuiter, Charlotte Curé, Tomoko Narazaki, Peter Tyack & Patrick Miller
Impact assessments for sonar operations typically use received sound levels to predict behavioural disturbance in marine mammals. However, there are indications that cetaceans may learn to associate exposures from distant sound sources with lower perceived risk. To investigate the roles of source distance and received level in an area without frequent sonar activity, we conducted multi-scale controlled exposure experiments (n = 3) with 12 northern bottlenose whales near Jan Mayen, Norway. Animals were tagged with...

Registration Year

  • 2019
    28

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    27
  • Text
    1

Affiliations

  • University of Oslo
    28
  • Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research
    3
  • Sun Yat-sen University
    2
  • University of Alberta
    2
  • Norwegian University of Life Sciences
    2
  • University of Bath
    1
  • Victoria University of Wellington
    1
  • University of Antwerp
    1
  • Norwegian Defence Research Establishment
    1
  • University of Washington
    1