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PhD Thesis: Tracing Molecular Patterns of Adaptation in Arctic Brassicaceae

Siri Birkeland
Extreme environments can function as natural laboratories for studying how different organisms adapt to similar selection pressures at the genetic level. This thesis explores how three Arctic plant species independently adapted to some of the coldest biomes on Earth, and how they evolved similar suites of adaptations to extremes in light and temperature. It addresses fundamental questions in plant evolutionary biology, such as the extent to which adaptation follows the same genetic trajectories in different...

The genome of Draba nivalis shows signatures of adaptation to the extreme environmental stresses of the Arctic

Michael Nowak, Siri Birkeland, Terezie Mandáková, Rimjhim Roy Choudhury, Xinyi Guo, Lovisa Gustafsson, Abel Gizaw, Audun Schrøder-Nielsen, Marco Fracassetti, Anne Brysting, Loren Rieseberg, Tanja Slotte, Christian Parisod, Martin Lysak & Christian Brochmann
The Arctic is one of the most extreme terrestrial environments on the planet. Here we present the first complete genome assembly of a plant adapted to the high Arctic, Draba nivalis (Brassicaceae), an attractive model species for studying plant adaptation to the stresses imposed by this harsh environment. We used an iterative scaffolding strategy with data from short-reads, single-molecule long reads, proximity ligation data, and a genetic map to produce a 302 Mb assembly that...

Niche differentiation and evolution of the wood decay machinery in the invasive fungus Serpula lacrymans

Jaqueline Hess, Sudhagar V. Balasundaram, Renee I Bakkemo, Elodie Drula, Bernard Henrissat, Nils Högberg, Daniel Eastwood & Inger Skrede
Ecological niche breadth and the mechanisms facilitating its evolution are fundamental to understanding adaptation to changing environments, persistence of generalist and specialist lineages and the formation of new species. Woody substrates are structurally complex resources utilized by organisms with specialized decay machinery. Wood-decaying fungi represent ideal model systems to study evolution of niche breadth, as they vary greatly in their host range and preferred decay stage of the substrate. In order to dissect the genetic...

The influence of intraspecific sequence variation during DNA metabarcoding: A case study of eleven fungal species

Eva Lena Estensmo, Sundy Maurice, Morgado Luis, Martin-Sanchez Pedro, Skrede Inger & Kauserud Håvard
DNA metabarcoding has become a powerful approach for analyzing complex communities from environmental samples, but there are still methodological challenges limiting its full potential. While conserved DNA markers, like 16S and 18S, often are not able to discriminate among closely related species, other more variable markers – like the fungal ITS region, may include considerable intraspecific variation, which can lead to over-splitting of species during DNA metabarcoding analyses. Here we assess the effects of intraspecific...

UV radiation affects anti-predatory defense traits in Daphnia pulex

Franceen Eshun-Wilson, Raoul Wolf, Tom Andersen, Dag Hessen & Erik Sperfeld
In aquatic environments prey perceive predator threats by chemical cues called kairomones, which can induce changes in their morphology, life histories and behavior. Predator-induced defenses have allowed for prey, such as Daphnia pulex, to avert capture by common invertebrate predators, such as Chaoborus sp. larvae. However, the influence of additional stressors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), on the Daphnia-Chaoborus interaction is not settled as UVR may for instance deactivate the kairomone. In laboratory experiments, we...

Fungal sporocarps house diverse and host-specific communities of fungicolous fungi

Sundy Maurice, Gontran Arnault, Jenni Norden, Synnøve Smebye Botnen, Otto Miettinen & Håvard Kauserud
Sporocarps (fruit bodies) are the sexual reproductive stage in the life cycle of many fungi. They are highly nutritious and consequently vulnerable to grazing by birds and small mammals, and invertebrates, and can be infected by microbial and fungal parasites and pathogens. The complexity of communities thriving inside sporocarps is largely unknown. In this study, we revealed the diversity, taxonomic composition and host-preference of fungicolous fungi (i.e fungi that feed on other fungi) in sporocarps....

Sick leave and return to work after surgery for type II SLAP lesions of the shoulder. A secondary analysis of a randomised sham - controlled study

Jens Ivar Brox, Øystein Skare, Petter Mowinckel, Jostein Skranes Brox, Olav Reikerås & Cecilie Piene Schrøder
Objectives: To compare days on sick leave and assess predictors of return to work following shoulder surgery. Design: A secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Setting: Orthopaedic Department. Participants: 114 patients with type II superior labral tear from anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesions of the shoulder. Interventions: Labral repair, biceps tenodesis or sham surgery. Outcome measures: Sick leave was obtained from national registers for the last year before and two years following surgery. Total...

Data from: Marine protected areas rescue a sexually selected trait in European lobster

Tonje Knutsen Sørdalen, Kim Tallaksen Halvorsen, Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad, Even Moland & Esben Moland Olsen
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly implemented worldwide to maintain and restore depleted populations. However, despite our knowledge on the myriad of positive responses to protection, there are few empirical studies on the ability to conserve species’ mating patterns and secondary sexual traits. In male European lobsters (Homarus gammarus), the size of claws relative to body size correlates positively with male mating success and is presumably under sexual selection. At the same time, an intensive...

Data from: Phylogenetic conservatism and biogeographic affinity influence woody plant species richness-climate relationships in eastern Eurasia

Xiangyan Su, Nawal Shrestha, Xiaoting Xu, Denis Sandanov, Qinggang Wang, Siyang Wang, Dimitar Dimitrov & Zhiheng Wang
Mechanisms underlying species richness patterns remain a central yet controversial issue in biology. Climate has been regarded as a major determinant of species richness. However, the relative influences of different evolutionary processes, (i.e. niche conservatism, diversification rate, and time for speciation) on species richness-climate relationships remain to be tested. Here, using newly compiled distribution maps for 11,422 woody plant species in eastern Eurasia, we estimated species richness patterns for all species and for families with...

Data from: Ecological impact assessments of alien species in Norway

Hanno Sandvik, Olga Hilmo, Snorre Henriksen, Reidar Elven, Per Arvid Åsen, Hanne Hegre, Oddvar Pedersen, Per Anker Pedersen, Heidi Solstad, Vigdis Vandvik, Kristine B. Westergaard, Frode Ødegaard, Sandra Åström, Hallvard Elven, Anders Endrestøl, Øivind Gammelmo, Bjørn Arild Hatteland, Halvor Solheim, Björn Nordén, Leif Sundheim, Venche Talgø, Tone Falkenhaug, Bjørn Gulliksen, Anders Jelmert, Eivind Oug … & Lisbeth Gederaas
Due to globalisation, trade and transport, the spread of alien species is increasing dramatically. Some alien species become ecologically harmful by threatening native biota. This can lead to irreversible changes in local biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, and, ultimately, to biotic homogenisation. We risk-assessed all alien plants, animals, fungi and algae, within certain delimitations, that are known to reproduce in Norway. Mainland Norway and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard plus Jan Mayen were treated as separate...

Trait-fitness associations do not predict within-species phenotypic evolution over 2 million years

Emanuela Di Martino & Lee Hsiang Liow
Long-term patterns of phenotypic change are the cumulative results of tens of thousands to millions of years of evolution. Yet, empirical and theoretical studies of phenotypic selection are largely based on contemporary populations. The challenges in studying phenotypic evolution, in particular trait-fitness associations in the deep past, are barriers to linking micro- and macroevolution. Here, we capitalize on the unique opportunity offered by a marine colonial organism commonly preserved in the fossil record to investigate...

Stable species boundaries despite ten million years of hybridization in tropical eels

Julia Barth, Chrysoula Gubili, Michael Matschiner, Ole Tørresen, Shun Watanabe, Bernd Egger, Yu-San Han, Eric Feunteun, Ruben Sommaruga, Robert Jehle & Robert Schabetsberger
Genomic evidence is increasingly underpinning that hybridization between taxa is commonplace, challenging our views on the mechanisms that maintain their boundaries. Here, we focus on seven catadromous eel species (genus Anguilla), and use genome-wide sequence data from more than 450 individuals sampled across the tropical Indo-Pacific, morphological information, and three newly assembled draft genomes to compare contemporary patterns of hybridization with signatures of past gene flow across a time-calibrated phylogeny. We show that the seven...

The unique spatial ecology of human hunters

Atle Mysterud, Inger Maren Rivrud, Hildegunn Viljugrein, Vegard Gundersen & Christer Rolandsen
Human hunters are described as ‘superpredators’ with a unique ecology. Chronic Wasting Disease among cervids and African swine fever among wild boar are emerging wildlife diseases in Europe with huge economic and cultural repercussions. Understanding hunter movements at broad scales has implications for how to control their spread. Here we show, based on the analysis of the settlement patterns and movements of reindeer (n = 9,685), red deer (n = 47,845), moose (n = 60,365),...

Data from: The ecology of the collapse of Rapa Nui society

Mauricio Lima, Eugenia Gayo, Claudio Latorre, Calogero M. Santoro, Sergio A. Estay, Nuria Cañellas-Bolta, Olga Margalef, Santiago Giralt, Alberto Saez, Sergi Plá-Rabes & Nils Chr. Stenseth
Collapses of food producer societies are recurrent events in prehistory and have triggered a growing concern for identifying the underlying causes of convergences/divergences across cultures around the world. One of the most studied and used as a paradigmatic case is the population collapse of the Rapa Nui society. Here, we test different hypotheses about by developing explicit population dynamic models that integrate feedbacks between climatic, demographic and ecological factors that underpinned the socio-cultural trajectory of...

Drivers and dynamics of a massive adaptive radiation in cichlid fishes

Fabrizia Ronco, Michael Matschiner, Astrid Böhne, Anna Boila, Heinz H. Büscher, Athimed El Taher, Adrian Indermaur, Milan Malinsky, Virginie Ricci, Ansgar Kahmen, Sissel Jentoft & Walter Salzburger
Adaptive radiation is the likely source of much of the ecological and morphological diversity of life. How adaptive radiations proceed and what determines their extent remains elusive in most cases. Here we report the in-depth examination of the spectacular adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes in African Lake Tanganyika. Based on whole-genome phylogenetic analyses, multivariate morphological measurements of three ecologically relevant trait complexes (body shape, upper oral jaw morphology, and lower pharyngeal jaw shape), scoring of...

The roles of temperature, nest predators and information parasites for geographical variation in egg covering behaviour of tits (Paridae)

Olli Loukola, Peter Adamik, Frank Adriaensen, Emilio Barba, Blandine Doligez, Einar Flensted-Jensen, Tapio Eeva, Sami Kivelä, Toni Laaksonen, Chiara Morosinotto, Raivo Mänd, Petri Niemelä, Vladimir Remeš, Jelmer Samplonius, Manrico Sebastiano, Juan Carlos Senar, Tore Slagsvold, Alberto Sorace, Barbara Tschirren, János Török & Jukka Forsman
Aim: Nest building is widespread among animals. Nests may provide receptacles for eggs, developing offspring and the parents, and protect them from adverse environmental conditions. Nests may also indicate the quality of the territory and its owner and can be considered as an extended phenotype of its builder(s). Nests may, thus, function as a sexual and social signal. Here, we examined ecological and abiotic factors—temperature, nest predation and interspecific information utilization—shaping geographical variation in a...

Data from: Innate and adaptive immune proteins in the preen gland secretions of male house sparrows

Diana Carneiro, Gábor A Czirják & Melissah Rowe
Recent studies have demonstrated that preen oil acts to reduce or eliminate feather-associated bacteria. The mechanisms underlying this antibacterial activity, however, are incompletely understood. In addition to the activity of alcohols (i.e. 3,7-dimethyloctan-1-ol), recent research has suggested that antimicrobial peptides may underlie the antibacterial activity of preen oil. Here, we document the presence of innate and adaptive immune proteins, lysozyme and immunoglobulin Y (IgY), in the preen oil of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We suggest...

Basic self-disturbances are associated with sense of coherence in patients with psychotic disorders

Ingrid Hartveit Svendsen, Elisabeth Haug, Ingrid Melle, Merete Glenne Øie, Paul Møller & Barbaby Nelson
Background: The Sense of Coherence (SOC) theory gives a possible explanation of how people can experience subjective good health despite severe illness. Basic self-disturbances (BSDs) are subtle non-psychotic disturbances that may destabilize the person’s sense of self, identity, corporeality, and the overall ‘grip’ of the world. Aim: Our objective was to investigate associations between BSDs and SOC in patients with psychotic disorders. Design: This is a cross-sectional study of 56 patients diagnosed with psychotic disorders...

Nucleotide diversity of functionally different groups of immune response genes in Old World camels based on newly annotated and reference-guided assemblies

Jean Elbers, Sara Lado, Mark Rogers, José Melo-Ferreira, Jukka Corander, Petr Horin, Pamela Burger & Adiya Yadamsuren
Background Immune-response (IR) genes have an important role in the defense against highly variable pathogens, and therefore, genetic diversity in these genomic regions is essential for species’ survival and adaptation. Although current genome assemblies from Old World camelids are very useful for investigating genome-wide diversity, demography and population structure, they have inconsistencies and gaps that limit analyses at local genomic scales. Improved and more accurate genome assemblies and annotations are needed to study complex genomic...

Increased signal diversity/complexity of spontaneous EEG, but not evoked EEG responses, in ketamine-induced psychedelic state in humans

Nadine Farnes, Bjørn Juel, Andre Nilsen, Luis Romundstad & Johan Storm
How and to what extent electrical brain activity reflects pharmacologically altered states and contents of consciousness, is not well understood. Therefore, we investigated whether measures of evoked and spontaneous electroencephalographic (EEG) signal diversity are altered by sub-anaesthetic levels of ketamine compared to normal wakefulness, and how these measures relate to subjective experience. High-density 62-channel EEG was used to record spontaneous brain activity and responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in 10 healthy volunteers before...

Genotypes of 6 InDel markers for species identification from the Calanus culture at the EMBRC-ERIC laboratory for low-level trophic interactions, NTNU SeaLab

Elise Skottene, Ann M. Tarrant, Dag Altin, Rolf Erik Olsen, Marvin Choquet & Kristina Ø. Kvile
Late developmental stages of marine copepods in the genus Calanus can spend extended periods in a dormant stage (diapause). During the growth season, copepods must accumulate sufficient lipid stores to survive diapause. Predation risk is often overlooked as a potential diapause-inducing cue. We tested experimentally if predation risk in combination with high or low food availability leads to differences in lipid metabolism, and potentially diapause initiation. Expression of lipid metabolism genes showed that food availability...

Comparing three screen-based sedentary behaviours’ effect upon adolescents’ participation in physical activity: The ESSENS study

Arthur Chortatos, Sigrun Henjum, Liv Elin Torheim, Laura Terragni & Mekdes Gebremariam
Background: Literature focusing on the association between sedentary behaviours and physical activity has provided equivocal results and has been dominated by TV viewing as the indicator of sedentary behaviour. There is a need for more studies exploring the association between contemporary screen activities and physical activity among youth. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 742 adolescents was conducted in 2016. Data were collected at school through an online questionnaire. Regression analyses were used to explore the...

Data from: The repeatable opportunity for selection differs between pre- and post-copulatory fitness components

Lucas Marie-Orleach, Nikolas Vellnow & Lukas Schärer
In species with multiple mating, intense sexual selection may occur both before and after copulation. However, comparing the strength of pre- and postcopulatory selection is challenging, because i) postcopulatory processes are generally difficult to observe and ii) the often-used opportunity for selection (I) metric contains both deterministic and stochastic components. Here, we quantified pre- and postcopulatory male fitness components of the simultaneously hermaphroditic flatworm, Macrostomum lignano. We did this by tracking fluorescent sperm—using transgenics—through the...

Neither Here Nor There: a Note on Two Memoirs by Sephardic Egyptian Women

Nefissa Naguib

Multiple genetic trajectories to extreme abiotic stress adaptation in Arctic Brassicaceae

Siri Birkeland, A. Lovisa S. Gustafsson, Anne Krag Brysting, Christian Brochmann & Michael Nowak
Extreme environments offer powerful opportunities to study how different organisms have adapted to similar selection pressures at the molecular level. The Arctic is one of the most hostile environments on Earth, and the few plant species inhabiting this region typically possess suites of similar morphological and physiological adaptations to extremes in light and temperature. Here we compare patterns of molecular evolution in three Brassicaceae species that have independently colonized the Arctic, and present some of...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    47

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    44
  • Text
    3

Affiliations

  • University of Oslo
    47
  • Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
    8
  • Norwegian Institute for Water Research
    4
  • University of Basel
    3
  • Oslo University Hospital
    2
  • Lund University
    2
  • University of Otago
    2
  • National Institute of Amazonian Research
    2
  • Masaryk University
    2
  • University Centre in Svalbard
    2