47 Works

Seedlings growth in a fertilized forest in Central Amazonia (2019 – 2020)

F.A. Antonieto, R.L. Assis, I.P. Hartley, R. Di Ponzio & C.A. Quesada
Data are presented showing seedling height, diameter at ground height (DGH), total number of leaves, number of leaves with herbivory damage and leaf mortality, from a plot based fertilisation experiment. The experiment was carried out at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP) approximately 100 km north of Manaus. Data were collected bimonthlyfrom February 2019 to January 2020, by the dataset first author. Height measurements were made with a tape measure and DRH measurements...

Did hard substrate taxa diversify prior to the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event?

Franziska Franeck & Lee Hsiang Liow
The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE) refers to one of the greatest increases in biodiversity during the Phanerozoic. Recent studies have shown that this taxonomic increase can be attributed to elevated origination rates around the Dapingian-Darriwilian boundary in the Middle Ordovician, while extinction rates stayed relatively constant throughout the Ordovician. Even though this global pattern of origination and extinction appears similar across diverse groups and geographic areas, earlier studies suggested that hard substrate taxa may...

Data from: Long-term mark-recapture and growth data for large-sized migratory brown trout (Salmo trutta) from Lake Mjøsa, Norway

Chloé Rebecca Nater, S. Jannicke Moe, Atle Rustadbakken, L. Asbjørn Vøllestad, Espen Lund, Tore Qvenild, Ola Hegge & Per Aass
This data package contains two unique publicly available time series of individual-based data originating from a 51-year mark-recapture study of a land-locked population of large-sized migratory brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Norway: the Hunder trout. In the period 1966-2015, nearly 14,000 adult Hunder trout have been captured and individually marked during their spawning migration from Lake Mjøsa to the river Gubrandsdalslågen. Almost a third of those individuals were later recaptured alive during a later spawning...

A review of response rates over time in registry-based studies using patient-reported outcome measures

Katherine Wang, Cathrine Eftang, Rune Jakobsen & Asbjørn Årøen
Objectives: Gain an overview of expected response rates (RRs) to patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in clinical quality registry-based studies and long-term cohorts in order to better evaluate the validity of registries and registry-based studies. Examine the trends of RRs over time and how they vary with study type, questionnaire format, and the use of reminders. Design: Literature review with systematic search. Data sources: PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, kvalitetsregistre.no, kvalitetsregister.se, and sundhed.dk. Eligibility criteria: Articles in all...

Data from: Congruence, but no cascade - pelagic biodiversity across 3 trophic levels in Nordic lakes

Tom Andersen, Dag O. Hessen, Johnny Håll, Maryia Khomich, Marcia Kyle, Markus Lindholm, Serana Rasconi, Birger Skjelbred, Jan-Erik Thrane & Bjørn Walseng
Covariation in species richness and community structure across taxonomical groups (cross-taxon congruence) has practical consequences for the identification of biodiversity surrogates and proxies, as well as theoretical ramifications for understanding the mechanisms maintaining and sustaining biodiversity. We found there to exist a high cross-taxon congruence between phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish in 73 large Scandinavian lakes across a 750 km longitudinal transect. The fraction of the total diversity variation explained by local environment alone was small...

Community composition of arctic root-associated fungi mirrors host plant phylogeny

S S Botnen, E Thoen, P B Eidesen, A K Krabberød & H Kauserud
The number of plant species regarded as non-mycorrhizal increases at higher latitudes, and several plant species in the High-Arctic Archipelago Svalbard have been reported as non-mycorrhizal. We used the rRNA ITS2 and 18S gene markers to survey which fungi, as well as other micro-eukaryotes, were associated with roots of 31 arctic plant species not usually regarded as mycorrhizal in Svalbard. We assessed to what degree the root-associated fungi showed any host preference and whether the...

Children’s experiences with cyberhate

Hana MacHackova, Catherine Blaya, Marie Bedrosova, David Smahel & Elisabeth Staksrud

Using ecological context to interpret spatiotemporal variation in natural selection

Elena Albertsen, Elena Albertsen, Øystein Opedal, Geir Bolstad, Rocio Barrales, Thomas Hansen, Christophe Pelabon & W. Scott Armbruster
Spatiotemporal variation in natural selection is expected, but difficult to estimate. Pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits provides a good system for understanding and linking variation in selection to differences in ecological context. We studied pollinator-mediated selection in five populations of Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae) in Costa Rica and Mexico. Using a nonlinear path-analytical approach, we assessed several functional components of selection, and linked variation in pollinator-mediated selection across time and space to variation in pollinator assemblages....

A molecular phylogeny of historical and contemporary specimens of an under-studied micro-invertebrate group

Russell Orr, Maja Sannum, Sanne Boessenkool, Emanuela Di Martino, Dennis Gordon, Hannah Mello, Matthias Obst, Mali Ramsfjell, Abigail Smith & Lee-Hsiang Liow
Resolution of relationships at lower taxonomic levels is crucial for answering many evolutionary questions, and as such, sufficiently varied species representation is vital. This latter goal is not always achievable with relatively fresh samples. To alleviate the difficulties in procuring rarer taxa, we have seen increasing utilization of historical specimens in building molecular phylogenies using high throughput sequencing. This effort, however, has mainly focused on large-bodied or well-studied groups, with small-bodied and under-studied taxa under-prioritized....

Do Synthesis Centers Synthesize? A Semantic Analysis of Topical Diversity in Research

Edward Hackett, Erin Leahy, John Parker, Ismael Rafols, Stephanie Hampton, Ugo Corte, Diego Chavarro, John Drake, Bart Penders, Laura Sheble, Niki Vermeulen & Todd Vision
Synthesis centers are a form of scientific organization that catalyzes and supports research that integrates diverse theories, methods and data across spatial or temporal scales to increase the generality, parsimony, applicability, or empirical soundness of scientific explanations. Synthesis working groups are a distinctive form of scientific collaboration that produce consequential, high-impact publications. But no one has asked if synthesis working groups synthesize: are their publications substantially more diverse than others, and if so, in what...

The genera Helvella and Dissingia (Ascomycota: Pezizomycetes) in Europe – Notes on species from Spain

Inger Skrede, L. Ballester Gonzalvo, C. Mathiesen & T. Schumacher
Phylogenetic analyses of 115 newly collected Helvella specimens from Spain using three genetic markers [heat shock protein 90 (hsp), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2) and the nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU)] confirm the assignment of the Spanish collections to one Dissingia and 30 Helvella species. The analyses were supplemented with an additional sample of 65 Spanish and extralimital Helvella specimens from the fungaria of Oslo (O), Trondheim (TRH), Copenhagen (C), Uppsala (UPS),...

Neither Here Nor There: a Note on Two Memoirs by Sephardic Egyptian Women

Nefissa Naguib

Nucleotide diversity of functionally different groups of immune response genes in Old World camels based on newly annotated and reference-guided assemblies

Jean Elbers, Sara Lado, Mark Rogers, José Melo-Ferreira, Jukka Corander, Petr Horin, Pamela Burger & Adiya Yadamsuren
Background Immune-response (IR) genes have an important role in the defense against highly variable pathogens, and therefore, genetic diversity in these genomic regions is essential for species’ survival and adaptation. Although current genome assemblies from Old World camelids are very useful for investigating genome-wide diversity, demography and population structure, they have inconsistencies and gaps that limit analyses at local genomic scales. Improved and more accurate genome assemblies and annotations are needed to study complex genomic...

Data from: The repeatable opportunity for selection differs between pre- and post-copulatory fitness components

Lucas Marie-Orleach, Nikolas Vellnow & Lukas Schärer
In species with multiple mating, intense sexual selection may occur both before and after copulation. However, comparing the strength of pre- and postcopulatory selection is challenging, because i) postcopulatory processes are generally difficult to observe and ii) the often-used opportunity for selection (I) metric contains both deterministic and stochastic components. Here, we quantified pre- and postcopulatory male fitness components of the simultaneously hermaphroditic flatworm, Macrostomum lignano. We did this by tracking fluorescent sperm—using transgenics—through the...

Comparing three screen-based sedentary behaviours’ effect upon adolescents’ participation in physical activity: The ESSENS study

Arthur Chortatos, Sigrun Henjum, Liv Elin Torheim, Laura Terragni & Mekdes Gebremariam
Background: Literature focusing on the association between sedentary behaviours and physical activity has provided equivocal results and has been dominated by TV viewing as the indicator of sedentary behaviour. There is a need for more studies exploring the association between contemporary screen activities and physical activity among youth. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 742 adolescents was conducted in 2016. Data were collected at school through an online questionnaire. Regression analyses were used to explore the...

Genotypes of 6 InDel markers for species identification from the Calanus culture at the EMBRC-ERIC laboratory for low-level trophic interactions, NTNU SeaLab

Elise Skottene, Ann M. Tarrant, Dag Altin, Rolf Erik Olsen, Marvin Choquet & Kristina Ø. Kvile
Late developmental stages of marine copepods in the genus Calanus can spend extended periods in a dormant stage (diapause). During the growth season, copepods must accumulate sufficient lipid stores to survive diapause. Predation risk is often overlooked as a potential diapause-inducing cue. We tested experimentally if predation risk in combination with high or low food availability leads to differences in lipid metabolism, and potentially diapause initiation. Expression of lipid metabolism genes showed that food availability...

Increased signal diversity/complexity of spontaneous EEG, but not evoked EEG responses, in ketamine-induced psychedelic state in humans

Nadine Farnes, Bjørn Juel, Andre Nilsen, Luis Romundstad & Johan Storm
How and to what extent electrical brain activity reflects pharmacologically altered states and contents of consciousness, is not well understood. Therefore, we investigated whether measures of evoked and spontaneous electroencephalographic (EEG) signal diversity are altered by sub-anaesthetic levels of ketamine compared to normal wakefulness, and how these measures relate to subjective experience. High-density 62-channel EEG was used to record spontaneous brain activity and responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in 10 healthy volunteers before...

Multiple genetic trajectories to extreme abiotic stress adaptation in Arctic Brassicaceae

Siri Birkeland, A. Lovisa S. Gustafsson, Anne Krag Brysting, Christian Brochmann & Michael Nowak
Extreme environments offer powerful opportunities to study how different organisms have adapted to similar selection pressures at the molecular level. The Arctic is one of the most hostile environments on Earth, and the few plant species inhabiting this region typically possess suites of similar morphological and physiological adaptations to extremes in light and temperature. Here we compare patterns of molecular evolution in three Brassicaceae species that have independently colonized the Arctic, and present some of...

PhD Thesis: Tracing Molecular Patterns of Adaptation in Arctic Brassicaceae

Siri Birkeland
Extreme environments can function as natural laboratories for studying how different organisms adapt to similar selection pressures at the genetic level. This thesis explores how three Arctic plant species independently adapted to some of the coldest biomes on Earth, and how they evolved similar suites of adaptations to extremes in light and temperature. It addresses fundamental questions in plant evolutionary biology, such as the extent to which adaptation follows the same genetic trajectories in different...

The genome of Draba nivalis shows signatures of adaptation to the extreme environmental stresses of the Arctic

Michael Nowak, Siri Birkeland, Terezie Mandáková, Rimjhim Roy Choudhury, Xinyi Guo, Lovisa Gustafsson, Abel Gizaw, Audun Schrøder-Nielsen, Marco Fracassetti, Anne Brysting, Loren Rieseberg, Tanja Slotte, Christian Parisod, Martin Lysak & Christian Brochmann
The Arctic is one of the most extreme terrestrial environments on the planet. Here we present the first complete genome assembly of a plant adapted to the high Arctic, Draba nivalis (Brassicaceae), an attractive model species for studying plant adaptation to the stresses imposed by this harsh environment. We used an iterative scaffolding strategy with data from short-reads, single-molecule long reads, proximity ligation data, and a genetic map to produce a 302 Mb assembly that...

Niche differentiation and evolution of the wood decay machinery in the invasive fungus Serpula lacrymans

Jaqueline Hess, Sudhagar V. Balasundaram, Renee I Bakkemo, Elodie Drula, Bernard Henrissat, Nils Högberg, Daniel Eastwood & Inger Skrede
Ecological niche breadth and the mechanisms facilitating its evolution are fundamental to understanding adaptation to changing environments, persistence of generalist and specialist lineages and the formation of new species. Woody substrates are structurally complex resources utilized by organisms with specialized decay machinery. Wood-decaying fungi represent ideal model systems to study evolution of niche breadth, as they vary greatly in their host range and preferred decay stage of the substrate. In order to dissect the genetic...

Data from: Phylogenetic conservatism and biogeographic affinity influence woody plant species richness-climate relationships in eastern Eurasia

Xiangyan Su, Nawal Shrestha, Xiaoting Xu, Denis Sandanov, Qinggang Wang, Siyang Wang, Dimitar Dimitrov & Zhiheng Wang
Mechanisms underlying species richness patterns remain a central yet controversial issue in biology. Climate has been regarded as a major determinant of species richness. However, the relative influences of different evolutionary processes, (i.e. niche conservatism, diversification rate, and time for speciation) on species richness-climate relationships remain to be tested. Here, using newly compiled distribution maps for 11,422 woody plant species in eastern Eurasia, we estimated species richness patterns for all species and for families with...

Data from: Marine protected areas rescue a sexually selected trait in European lobster

Tonje Knutsen Sørdalen, Kim Tallaksen Halvorsen, Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad, Even Moland & Esben Moland Olsen
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly implemented worldwide to maintain and restore depleted populations. However, despite our knowledge on the myriad of positive responses to protection, there are few empirical studies on the ability to conserve species’ mating patterns and secondary sexual traits. In male European lobsters (Homarus gammarus), the size of claws relative to body size correlates positively with male mating success and is presumably under sexual selection. At the same time, an intensive...

Data from: Ecological impact assessments of alien species in Norway

Hanno Sandvik, Olga Hilmo, Snorre Henriksen, Reidar Elven, Per Arvid Åsen, Hanne Hegre, Oddvar Pedersen, Per Anker Pedersen, Heidi Solstad, Vigdis Vandvik, Kristine B. Westergaard, Frode Ødegaard, Sandra Åström, Hallvard Elven, Anders Endrestøl, Øivind Gammelmo, Bjørn Arild Hatteland, Halvor Solheim, Björn Nordén, Leif Sundheim, Venche Talgø, Tone Falkenhaug, Bjørn Gulliksen, Anders Jelmert, Eivind Oug … & Lisbeth Gederaas
Due to globalisation, trade and transport, the spread of alien species is increasing dramatically. Some alien species become ecologically harmful by threatening native biota. This can lead to irreversible changes in local biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, and, ultimately, to biotic homogenisation. We risk-assessed all alien plants, animals, fungi and algae, within certain delimitations, that are known to reproduce in Norway. Mainland Norway and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard plus Jan Mayen were treated as separate...

UV radiation affects anti-predatory defense traits in Daphnia pulex

Franceen Eshun-Wilson, Raoul Wolf, Tom Andersen, Dag Hessen & Erik Sperfeld
In aquatic environments prey perceive predator threats by chemical cues called kairomones, which can induce changes in their morphology, life histories and behavior. Predator-induced defenses have allowed for prey, such as Daphnia pulex, to avert capture by common invertebrate predators, such as Chaoborus sp. larvae. However, the influence of additional stressors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), on the Daphnia-Chaoborus interaction is not settled as UVR may for instance deactivate the kairomone. In laboratory experiments, we...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    47

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    44
  • Text
    3

Affiliations

  • University of Oslo
    47
  • Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
    8
  • Norwegian Institute for Water Research
    4
  • University of Basel
    3
  • Oslo University Hospital
    2
  • Lund University
    2
  • University of Otago
    2
  • National Institute of Amazonian Research
    2
  • Masaryk University
    2
  • University Centre in Svalbard
    2