47 Works

Neither Here Nor There: a Note on Two Memoirs by Sephardic Egyptian Women

Nefissa Naguib

Genotypes of 6 InDel markers for species identification from the Calanus culture at the EMBRC-ERIC laboratory for low-level trophic interactions, NTNU SeaLab

Elise Skottene, Ann M. Tarrant, Dag Altin, Rolf Erik Olsen, Marvin Choquet & Kristina Ø. Kvile
Late developmental stages of marine copepods in the genus Calanus can spend extended periods in a dormant stage (diapause). During the growth season, copepods must accumulate sufficient lipid stores to survive diapause. Predation risk is often overlooked as a potential diapause-inducing cue. We tested experimentally if predation risk in combination with high or low food availability leads to differences in lipid metabolism, and potentially diapause initiation. Expression of lipid metabolism genes showed that food availability...

Nucleotide diversity of functionally different groups of immune response genes in Old World camels based on newly annotated and reference-guided assemblies

Jean Elbers, Sara Lado, Mark Rogers, José Melo-Ferreira, Jukka Corander, Petr Horin, Pamela Burger & Adiya Yadamsuren
Background Immune-response (IR) genes have an important role in the defense against highly variable pathogens, and therefore, genetic diversity in these genomic regions is essential for species’ survival and adaptation. Although current genome assemblies from Old World camelids are very useful for investigating genome-wide diversity, demography and population structure, they have inconsistencies and gaps that limit analyses at local genomic scales. Improved and more accurate genome assemblies and annotations are needed to study complex genomic...

Multiple genetic trajectories to extreme abiotic stress adaptation in Arctic Brassicaceae

Siri Birkeland, A. Lovisa S. Gustafsson, Anne Krag Brysting, Christian Brochmann & Michael Nowak
Extreme environments offer powerful opportunities to study how different organisms have adapted to similar selection pressures at the molecular level. The Arctic is one of the most hostile environments on Earth, and the few plant species inhabiting this region typically possess suites of similar morphological and physiological adaptations to extremes in light and temperature. Here we compare patterns of molecular evolution in three Brassicaceae species that have independently colonized the Arctic, and present some of...

Comparing three screen-based sedentary behaviours’ effect upon adolescents’ participation in physical activity: The ESSENS study

Arthur Chortatos, Sigrun Henjum, Liv Elin Torheim, Laura Terragni & Mekdes Gebremariam
Background: Literature focusing on the association between sedentary behaviours and physical activity has provided equivocal results and has been dominated by TV viewing as the indicator of sedentary behaviour. There is a need for more studies exploring the association between contemporary screen activities and physical activity among youth. Methods: A cross-sectional study including 742 adolescents was conducted in 2016. Data were collected at school through an online questionnaire. Regression analyses were used to explore the...

Increased signal diversity/complexity of spontaneous EEG, but not evoked EEG responses, in ketamine-induced psychedelic state in humans

Nadine Farnes, Bjørn Juel, Andre Nilsen, Luis Romundstad & Johan Storm
How and to what extent electrical brain activity reflects pharmacologically altered states and contents of consciousness, is not well understood. Therefore, we investigated whether measures of evoked and spontaneous electroencephalographic (EEG) signal diversity are altered by sub-anaesthetic levels of ketamine compared to normal wakefulness, and how these measures relate to subjective experience. High-density 62-channel EEG was used to record spontaneous brain activity and responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in 10 healthy volunteers before...

Data from: The repeatable opportunity for selection differs between pre- and post-copulatory fitness components

Lucas Marie-Orleach, Nikolas Vellnow & Lukas Schärer
In species with multiple mating, intense sexual selection may occur both before and after copulation. However, comparing the strength of pre- and postcopulatory selection is challenging, because i) postcopulatory processes are generally difficult to observe and ii) the often-used opportunity for selection (I) metric contains both deterministic and stochastic components. Here, we quantified pre- and postcopulatory male fitness components of the simultaneously hermaphroditic flatworm, Macrostomum lignano. We did this by tracking fluorescent sperm—using transgenics—through the...

The genera Helvella and Dissingia (Ascomycota: Pezizomycetes) in Europe – Notes on species from Spain

Inger Skrede, L. Ballester Gonzalvo, C. Mathiesen & T. Schumacher
Phylogenetic analyses of 115 newly collected Helvella specimens from Spain using three genetic markers [heat shock protein 90 (hsp), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2) and the nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU)] confirm the assignment of the Spanish collections to one Dissingia and 30 Helvella species. The analyses were supplemented with an additional sample of 65 Spanish and extralimital Helvella specimens from the fungaria of Oslo (O), Trondheim (TRH), Copenhagen (C), Uppsala (UPS),...

Do Synthesis Centers Synthesize? A Semantic Analysis of Topical Diversity in Research

Edward Hackett, Erin Leahy, John Parker, Ismael Rafols, Stephanie Hampton, Ugo Corte, Diego Chavarro, John Drake, Bart Penders, Laura Sheble, Niki Vermeulen & Todd Vision
Synthesis centers are a form of scientific organization that catalyzes and supports research that integrates diverse theories, methods and data across spatial or temporal scales to increase the generality, parsimony, applicability, or empirical soundness of scientific explanations. Synthesis working groups are a distinctive form of scientific collaboration that produce consequential, high-impact publications. But no one has asked if synthesis working groups synthesize: are their publications substantially more diverse than others, and if so, in what...

Community composition of arctic root-associated fungi mirrors host plant phylogeny

S S Botnen, E Thoen, P B Eidesen, A K Krabberød & H Kauserud
The number of plant species regarded as non-mycorrhizal increases at higher latitudes, and several plant species in the High-Arctic Archipelago Svalbard have been reported as non-mycorrhizal. We used the rRNA ITS2 and 18S gene markers to survey which fungi, as well as other micro-eukaryotes, were associated with roots of 31 arctic plant species not usually regarded as mycorrhizal in Svalbard. We assessed to what degree the root-associated fungi showed any host preference and whether the...

Using ecological context to interpret spatiotemporal variation in natural selection

Elena Albertsen, Elena Albertsen, Øystein Opedal, Geir Bolstad, Rocio Barrales, Thomas Hansen, Christophe Pelabon & W. Scott Armbruster
Spatiotemporal variation in natural selection is expected, but difficult to estimate. Pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits provides a good system for understanding and linking variation in selection to differences in ecological context. We studied pollinator-mediated selection in five populations of Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae) in Costa Rica and Mexico. Using a nonlinear path-analytical approach, we assessed several functional components of selection, and linked variation in pollinator-mediated selection across time and space to variation in pollinator assemblages....

Data from: Congruence, but no cascade - pelagic biodiversity across 3 trophic levels in Nordic lakes

Tom Andersen, Dag O. Hessen, Johnny Håll, Maryia Khomich, Marcia Kyle, Markus Lindholm, Serana Rasconi, Birger Skjelbred, Jan-Erik Thrane & Bjørn Walseng
Covariation in species richness and community structure across taxonomical groups (cross-taxon congruence) has practical consequences for the identification of biodiversity surrogates and proxies, as well as theoretical ramifications for understanding the mechanisms maintaining and sustaining biodiversity. We found there to exist a high cross-taxon congruence between phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish in 73 large Scandinavian lakes across a 750 km longitudinal transect. The fraction of the total diversity variation explained by local environment alone was small...

A molecular phylogeny of historical and contemporary specimens of an under-studied micro-invertebrate group

Russell Orr, Maja Sannum, Sanne Boessenkool, Emanuela Di Martino, Dennis Gordon, Hannah Mello, Matthias Obst, Mali Ramsfjell, Abigail Smith & Lee-Hsiang Liow
Resolution of relationships at lower taxonomic levels is crucial for answering many evolutionary questions, and as such, sufficiently varied species representation is vital. This latter goal is not always achievable with relatively fresh samples. To alleviate the difficulties in procuring rarer taxa, we have seen increasing utilization of historical specimens in building molecular phylogenies using high throughput sequencing. This effort, however, has mainly focused on large-bodied or well-studied groups, with small-bodied and under-studied taxa under-prioritized....

A review of response rates over time in registry-based studies using patient-reported outcome measures

Katherine Wang, Cathrine Eftang, Rune Jakobsen & Asbjørn Årøen
Objectives: Gain an overview of expected response rates (RRs) to patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in clinical quality registry-based studies and long-term cohorts in order to better evaluate the validity of registries and registry-based studies. Examine the trends of RRs over time and how they vary with study type, questionnaire format, and the use of reminders. Design: Literature review with systematic search. Data sources: PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, kvalitetsregistre.no, kvalitetsregister.se, and sundhed.dk. Eligibility criteria: Articles in all...

Data from: Long-term mark-recapture and growth data for large-sized migratory brown trout (Salmo trutta) from Lake Mjøsa, Norway

Chloé Rebecca Nater, S. Jannicke Moe, Atle Rustadbakken, L. Asbjørn Vøllestad, Espen Lund, Tore Qvenild, Ola Hegge & Per Aass
This data package contains two unique publicly available time series of individual-based data originating from a 51-year mark-recapture study of a land-locked population of large-sized migratory brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Norway: the Hunder trout. In the period 1966-2015, nearly 14,000 adult Hunder trout have been captured and individually marked during their spawning migration from Lake Mjøsa to the river Gubrandsdalslågen. Almost a third of those individuals were later recaptured alive during a later spawning...

Did hard substrate taxa diversify prior to the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event?

Franziska Franeck & Lee Hsiang Liow
The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE) refers to one of the greatest increases in biodiversity during the Phanerozoic. Recent studies have shown that this taxonomic increase can be attributed to elevated origination rates around the Dapingian-Darriwilian boundary in the Middle Ordovician, while extinction rates stayed relatively constant throughout the Ordovician. Even though this global pattern of origination and extinction appears similar across diverse groups and geographic areas, earlier studies suggested that hard substrate taxa may...

Seedlings growth in a fertilized forest in Central Amazonia (2019 – 2020)

F.A. Antonieto, R.L. Assis, I.P. Hartley, R. Di Ponzio & C.A. Quesada
Data are presented showing seedling height, diameter at ground height (DGH), total number of leaves, number of leaves with herbivory damage and leaf mortality, from a plot based fertilisation experiment. The experiment was carried out at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP) approximately 100 km north of Manaus. Data were collected bimonthlyfrom February 2019 to January 2020, by the dataset first author. Height measurements were made with a tape measure and DRH measurements...

Children’s experiences with cyberhate

Hana MacHackova, Catherine Blaya, Marie Bedrosova, David Smahel & Elisabeth Staksrud

Stable species boundaries despite ten million years of hybridization in tropical eels

Julia Barth, Chrysoula Gubili, Michael Matschiner, Ole Tørresen, Shun Watanabe, Bernd Egger, Yu-San Han, Eric Feunteun, Ruben Sommaruga, Robert Jehle & Robert Schabetsberger
Genomic evidence is increasingly underpinning that hybridization between taxa is commonplace, challenging our views on the mechanisms that maintain their boundaries. Here, we focus on seven catadromous eel species (genus Anguilla), and use genome-wide sequence data from more than 450 individuals sampled across the tropical Indo-Pacific, morphological information, and three newly assembled draft genomes to compare contemporary patterns of hybridization with signatures of past gene flow across a time-calibrated phylogeny. We show that the seven...

Drivers and dynamics of a massive adaptive radiation in cichlid fishes

Fabrizia Ronco, Michael Matschiner, Astrid Böhne, Anna Boila, Heinz H. Büscher, Athimed El Taher, Adrian Indermaur, Milan Malinsky, Virginie Ricci, Ansgar Kahmen, Sissel Jentoft & Walter Salzburger
Adaptive radiation is the likely source of much of the ecological and morphological diversity of life. How adaptive radiations proceed and what determines their extent remains elusive in most cases. Here we report the in-depth examination of the spectacular adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes in African Lake Tanganyika. Based on whole-genome phylogenetic analyses, multivariate morphological measurements of three ecologically relevant trait complexes (body shape, upper oral jaw morphology, and lower pharyngeal jaw shape), scoring of...

The unique spatial ecology of human hunters

Atle Mysterud, Inger Maren Rivrud, Hildegunn Viljugrein, Vegard Gundersen & Christer Rolandsen
Human hunters are described as ‘superpredators’ with a unique ecology. Chronic Wasting Disease among cervids and African swine fever among wild boar are emerging wildlife diseases in Europe with huge economic and cultural repercussions. Understanding hunter movements at broad scales has implications for how to control their spread. Here we show, based on the analysis of the settlement patterns and movements of reindeer (n = 9,685), red deer (n = 47,845), moose (n = 60,365),...

The roles of temperature, nest predators and information parasites for geographical variation in egg covering behaviour of tits (Paridae)

Olli Loukola, Peter Adamik, Frank Adriaensen, Emilio Barba, Blandine Doligez, Einar Flensted-Jensen, Tapio Eeva, Sami Kivelä, Toni Laaksonen, Chiara Morosinotto, Raivo Mänd, Petri Niemelä, Vladimir Remeš, Jelmer Samplonius, Manrico Sebastiano, Juan Carlos Senar, Tore Slagsvold, Alberto Sorace, Barbara Tschirren, János Török & Jukka Forsman
Aim: Nest building is widespread among animals. Nests may provide receptacles for eggs, developing offspring and the parents, and protect them from adverse environmental conditions. Nests may also indicate the quality of the territory and its owner and can be considered as an extended phenotype of its builder(s). Nests may, thus, function as a sexual and social signal. Here, we examined ecological and abiotic factors—temperature, nest predation and interspecific information utilization—shaping geographical variation in a...

Basic self-disturbances are associated with sense of coherence in patients with psychotic disorders

Ingrid Hartveit Svendsen, Elisabeth Haug, Ingrid Melle, Merete Glenne Øie, Paul Møller & Barbaby Nelson
Background: The Sense of Coherence (SOC) theory gives a possible explanation of how people can experience subjective good health despite severe illness. Basic self-disturbances (BSDs) are subtle non-psychotic disturbances that may destabilize the person’s sense of self, identity, corporeality, and the overall ‘grip’ of the world. Aim: Our objective was to investigate associations between BSDs and SOC in patients with psychotic disorders. Design: This is a cross-sectional study of 56 patients diagnosed with psychotic disorders...

Data from: The ecology of the collapse of Rapa Nui society

Mauricio Lima, Eugenia Gayo, Claudio Latorre, Calogero M. Santoro, Sergio A. Estay, Nuria Cañellas-Bolta, Olga Margalef, Santiago Giralt, Alberto Saez, Sergi Plá-Rabes & Nils Chr. Stenseth
Collapses of food producer societies are recurrent events in prehistory and have triggered a growing concern for identifying the underlying causes of convergences/divergences across cultures around the world. One of the most studied and used as a paradigmatic case is the population collapse of the Rapa Nui society. Here, we test different hypotheses about by developing explicit population dynamic models that integrate feedbacks between climatic, demographic and ecological factors that underpinned the socio-cultural trajectory of...

Data from: Innate and adaptive immune proteins in the preen gland secretions of male house sparrows

Diana Carneiro, Gábor A Czirják & Melissah Rowe
Recent studies have demonstrated that preen oil acts to reduce or eliminate feather-associated bacteria. The mechanisms underlying this antibacterial activity, however, are incompletely understood. In addition to the activity of alcohols (i.e. 3,7-dimethyloctan-1-ol), recent research has suggested that antimicrobial peptides may underlie the antibacterial activity of preen oil. Here, we document the presence of innate and adaptive immune proteins, lysozyme and immunoglobulin Y (IgY), in the preen oil of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We suggest...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    47

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    44
  • Text
    3

Affiliations

  • University of Oslo
    47
  • Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
    8
  • Norwegian Institute for Water Research
    4
  • University of Basel
    3
  • Oslo University Hospital
    2
  • Lund University
    2
  • University of Otago
    2
  • National Institute of Amazonian Research
    2
  • Masaryk University
    2
  • University Centre in Svalbard
    2