47 Works

Additional material associated with the Matters Arising article published in Nature by Munday and colleagues

Philip Munday, Danielle Dixson, Megan Welch, Douglas Chivers, Paolo Domenici, Martin Grosell, Rachel Heuer, Geoffrey Jones, Mark McCormick, Mark Meekan, Göran Nilsson, Timothy Ravasi & Sue-Ann Watson

Seedlings leaf loss by herbivory in a fertilized forest in Central Amazonia (2019 - 2020)

F.A. Antonieto, R.L. Assis, I.P. Hartley, R. Di Ponzio & C.A. Quesada
Data are presented showing for individual seedling, herbivory damage at the leaf level; galls, pathogens, trail herbivory presence/absence qualitative data; and leaf mortality. Data were collected in each leaf from a plot based fertilisation experiment. The experiment was carried out at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP) approximately 100 km north of Manaus. Data were collected bimonthly from February 2019 to January 2020, by the dataset first author. Leaf loss in percentage was...

A genome-wide linkage map for the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) provides insights into the evolutionary history of the avian genome

Ingerid Hagen, Sigbjørn Lien, Anna Billing, Tore O. Elgvin, Cassandra Trier, Alina K. Niskanen, Maja Tarka, Jon Slate, Glenn-Peter Sætre & Henrik Jensen
The house sparrow is an important model species for studying physiological, ecological and evolutionary processes in wild populations. Here, we present a medium density, genome wide linkage map for house sparrow (Passer domesticus) that has aided the assembly of the house sparrow reference genome, and that will provide an important resource for ongoing mapping of genes controlling important traits in the ecology and evolution of this species. Using a custom house sparrow 10K iSelect Illumina...

Improving the representation of high-latitude vegetation distribution in dynamic global vegetation models

Peter Horvath, Hui Tang, Rune Halvorsen, Frode Stordal, Lena Merete Tallaksen, Terje Koren Berntsen & Anders Bryn
Vegetation is an important component in global ecosystems, affecting the physical, hydrological and biogeochemical properties of the land surface. Accordingly, the way vegetation is parameterised strongly influences predictions of future climate by Earth system models. To capture future spatial and temporal changes in vegetation cover and its feedbacks to the climate system, dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM) are included as important components of land surface models. Variation in the predicted vegetation cover from DGVMs therefore...

Age of European silver eels during a period of declining abundance in Norway

Caroline Durif, Ola Diserud, Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad, Odd Terje Sandlund, Eva Thorstad, Knut Bergesen, Russell Poole, Steven Shema & Rosa Escobar-Lux
The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is critically endangered throughout its range. Knowledge about age distribution of future spawners (silver eels) is essential to monitor the status and contribute to the recovery of this species. Determination of age in anguillid eels is challenging, especially in eels from the northern part of the distribution area where growth is slow and age at maturation can be up to 30 years or more. Eels from the river Imsa in...

Micro-stepping Extended Focus reduces photobleaching and preserves structured illumination super-resolution features

Xian Hu, Salma Jalal, Michael Sheetz, Oddmund Bakke & Felix Margadant
Despite progress made in confocal microscopy, even fast systems still have insufficient temporal resolution for detailed live cell volume imaging, such as tracking rapid movement of membrane vesicles in three-dimensional space. Depending on the shortfall, this may result in undersampling and/or motion artifacts that ultimately limit the quality of the imaging data. By sacrificing the detailed information in the Z-direction, we propose a new imaging modality that involves capturing fast “projections” from the field of...

A genome-skimmed phylogeny of a widespread bryozoan family, Adeonidae

Russell John Scott Orr, Marianne N. Haugen, Björn Berning, Philip Bock, Robyn Cumming, Wayne Florence, Masato Hirose, Emanuela Di Martino, Mali H. Ramsfjell, Maja M. Sannum, Abigail M. Smith, Leandro M. Vieira, Andrea Waeschenbach & Lee Hsiang Liow
Understanding the phylogenetic relationships among species is one of the main goals of systematic biology. Simultaneously, credible phylogenetic hypotheses are often the first requirement for unveiling the evolutionary history of traits and for modelling macroevolutionary processes. However, many non-model taxa have not yet been sequenced to an extent such that statistically well-supported molecular phylogenies can be constructed for these purposes. Here, we use a genome-skimming approach to extract sequence information for 15 mitochondrial and 2...

Root associated fungi in Arctic Glacier Forlands raw sequences

Pernille Bronken Eidesen, Synnøve S. Botnen, Sunil Mundra & Håvard Kauserud
Climate change causes Arctic glaciers to retreat faster, exposing new areas for colonization. Several pioneer plants likely to colonize recent deglaciated, nutrient-poor areas depend on fungal partners for successful establishment. Little is known about general patterns or characteristics of facilitating fungal pioneers and how they vary with regional climate in the Arctic. The High Arctic Archipelago Svalbard represents an excellent study system to address these questions, as glaciers cover ∼60% of the land surface and...

The last moves: the effect of hunting and culling on the risk of disease spread from a population of reindeer

Atle Mysterud, Geir Rauset, Bram Van Moorter, Roy Andersen, Olav Strand & Inger Rivrud
1. Hunting and culling are frequently used to combat infectious wildlife diseases. The aim is to markedly lower population density in order to limit disease transmission or to eradicate the host. Massive host culling can yield a trade-off when combating wildlife disease; it follows that intrusive actions may have unintended behavioural side-effects, leading to the geographic spread of disease. The manner in which such excessive hunting and culling of hosts can affect the movement and...

Cooperative excitations within the superionic phase of PbF2

Chris Mohn
Links between dynamical Frenkel defects and collective diffusion of fluorides in beta-PbF2 are explored using Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. The calculated self diffusion coefficient and ionic conductivity are 3.2 x 10-5 cm2s-1 and 2.4 Omega-1 cm-1 at 1000 K in excellent agreement with results from pulsed field gradient and conductivity measurements: DPFG = 4 x 10-5 cm2 s-1 and sigmad.c. sim 3 Omega-1cm-1. The calculated ratio of tracer diffusion to conductivity diffusion is slightly less than...

Intraspecific genomic variation and local adaptation in a young hybrid species

Angelica Cuevas, Mark Ravinet, Glenn-Peter Sætre & Fabrice Eroukhmanoff
Hybridization increases genetic variation, hence hybrid species may have greater evolutionary potential once their admixed genomes have stabilized and incompatibilities have been purged. Yet, little is known about how such hybrid lineages evolve at the genomic level following their formation, in particular their adaptive potential. Here we investigate how the Italian sparrow (Passer italiae), a homoploid hybrid species, has evolved and locally adapted to its variable environment. Using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) on several...

Sick leave and return to work after surgery for type II SLAP lesions of the shoulder. A secondary analysis of a randomised sham - controlled study

Jens Ivar Brox, Øystein Skare, Petter Mowinckel, Jostein Skranes Brox, Olav Reikerås & Cecilie Piene Schrøder
Objectives: To compare days on sick leave and assess predictors of return to work following shoulder surgery. Design: A secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Setting: Orthopaedic Department. Participants: 114 patients with type II superior labral tear from anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesions of the shoulder. Interventions: Labral repair, biceps tenodesis or sham surgery. Outcome measures: Sick leave was obtained from national registers for the last year before and two years following surgery. Total...

The genome of Draba nivalis shows signatures of adaptation to the extreme environmental stresses of the Arctic

Michael Nowak, Siri Birkeland, Terezie Mandáková, Rimjhim Roy Choudhury, Xinyi Guo, Lovisa Gustafsson, Abel Gizaw, Audun Schrøder-Nielsen, Marco Fracassetti, Anne Brysting, Loren Rieseberg, Tanja Slotte, Christian Parisod, Martin Lysak & Christian Brochmann
The Arctic is one of the most extreme terrestrial environments on the planet. Here we present the first complete genome assembly of a plant adapted to the high Arctic, Draba nivalis (Brassicaceae), an attractive model species for studying plant adaptation to the stresses imposed by this harsh environment. We used an iterative scaffolding strategy with data from short-reads, single-molecule long reads, proximity ligation data, and a genetic map to produce a 302 Mb assembly that...

PhD Thesis: Tracing Molecular Patterns of Adaptation in Arctic Brassicaceae

Siri Birkeland
Extreme environments can function as natural laboratories for studying how different organisms adapt to similar selection pressures at the genetic level. This thesis explores how three Arctic plant species independently adapted to some of the coldest biomes on Earth, and how they evolved similar suites of adaptations to extremes in light and temperature. It addresses fundamental questions in plant evolutionary biology, such as the extent to which adaptation follows the same genetic trajectories in different...

UV radiation affects anti-predatory defense traits in Daphnia pulex

Franceen Eshun-Wilson, Raoul Wolf, Tom Andersen, Dag Hessen & Erik Sperfeld
In aquatic environments prey perceive predator threats by chemical cues called kairomones, which can induce changes in their morphology, life histories and behavior. Predator-induced defenses have allowed for prey, such as Daphnia pulex, to avert capture by common invertebrate predators, such as Chaoborus sp. larvae. However, the influence of additional stressors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), on the Daphnia-Chaoborus interaction is not settled as UVR may for instance deactivate the kairomone. In laboratory experiments, we...

Data from: Marine protected areas rescue a sexually selected trait in European lobster

Tonje Knutsen Sørdalen, Kim Tallaksen Halvorsen, Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad, Even Moland & Esben Moland Olsen
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly implemented worldwide to maintain and restore depleted populations. However, despite our knowledge on the myriad of positive responses to protection, there are few empirical studies on the ability to conserve species’ mating patterns and secondary sexual traits. In male European lobsters (Homarus gammarus), the size of claws relative to body size correlates positively with male mating success and is presumably under sexual selection. At the same time, an intensive...

Niche differentiation and evolution of the wood decay machinery in the invasive fungus Serpula lacrymans

Jaqueline Hess, Sudhagar V. Balasundaram, Renee I Bakkemo, Elodie Drula, Bernard Henrissat, Nils Högberg, Daniel Eastwood & Inger Skrede
Ecological niche breadth and the mechanisms facilitating its evolution are fundamental to understanding adaptation to changing environments, persistence of generalist and specialist lineages and the formation of new species. Woody substrates are structurally complex resources utilized by organisms with specialized decay machinery. Wood-decaying fungi represent ideal model systems to study evolution of niche breadth, as they vary greatly in their host range and preferred decay stage of the substrate. In order to dissect the genetic...

Trait-fitness associations do not predict within-species phenotypic evolution over 2 million years

Emanuela Di Martino & Lee Hsiang Liow
Long-term patterns of phenotypic change are the cumulative results of tens of thousands to millions of years of evolution. Yet, empirical and theoretical studies of phenotypic selection are largely based on contemporary populations. The challenges in studying phenotypic evolution, in particular trait-fitness associations in the deep past, are barriers to linking micro- and macroevolution. Here, we capitalize on the unique opportunity offered by a marine colonial organism commonly preserved in the fossil record to investigate...

Fungal sporocarps house diverse and host-specific communities of fungicolous fungi

Sundy Maurice, Gontran Arnault, Jenni Norden, Synnøve Smebye Botnen, Otto Miettinen & Håvard Kauserud
Sporocarps (fruit bodies) are the sexual reproductive stage in the life cycle of many fungi. They are highly nutritious and consequently vulnerable to grazing by birds and small mammals, and invertebrates, and can be infected by microbial and fungal parasites and pathogens. The complexity of communities thriving inside sporocarps is largely unknown. In this study, we revealed the diversity, taxonomic composition and host-preference of fungicolous fungi (i.e fungi that feed on other fungi) in sporocarps....

The influence of intraspecific sequence variation during DNA metabarcoding: A case study of eleven fungal species

Eva Lena Estensmo, Sundy Maurice, Morgado Luis, Martin-Sanchez Pedro, Skrede Inger & Kauserud Håvard
DNA metabarcoding has become a powerful approach for analyzing complex communities from environmental samples, but there are still methodological challenges limiting its full potential. While conserved DNA markers, like 16S and 18S, often are not able to discriminate among closely related species, other more variable markers – like the fungal ITS region, may include considerable intraspecific variation, which can lead to over-splitting of species during DNA metabarcoding analyses. Here we assess the effects of intraspecific...

Data from: Phylogenetic conservatism and biogeographic affinity influence woody plant species richness-climate relationships in eastern Eurasia

Xiangyan Su, Nawal Shrestha, Xiaoting Xu, Denis Sandanov, Qinggang Wang, Siyang Wang, Dimitar Dimitrov & Zhiheng Wang
Mechanisms underlying species richness patterns remain a central yet controversial issue in biology. Climate has been regarded as a major determinant of species richness. However, the relative influences of different evolutionary processes, (i.e. niche conservatism, diversification rate, and time for speciation) on species richness-climate relationships remain to be tested. Here, using newly compiled distribution maps for 11,422 woody plant species in eastern Eurasia, we estimated species richness patterns for all species and for families with...

Data from: Ecological impact assessments of alien species in Norway

Hanno Sandvik, Olga Hilmo, Snorre Henriksen, Reidar Elven, Per Arvid Åsen, Hanne Hegre, Oddvar Pedersen, Per Anker Pedersen, Heidi Solstad, Vigdis Vandvik, Kristine B. Westergaard, Frode Ødegaard, Sandra Åström, Hallvard Elven, Anders Endrestøl, Øivind Gammelmo, Bjørn Arild Hatteland, Halvor Solheim, Björn Nordén, Leif Sundheim, Venche Talgø, Tone Falkenhaug, Bjørn Gulliksen, Anders Jelmert, Eivind Oug … & Lisbeth Gederaas
Due to globalisation, trade and transport, the spread of alien species is increasing dramatically. Some alien species become ecologically harmful by threatening native biota. This can lead to irreversible changes in local biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, and, ultimately, to biotic homogenisation. We risk-assessed all alien plants, animals, fungi and algae, within certain delimitations, that are known to reproduce in Norway. Mainland Norway and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard plus Jan Mayen were treated as separate...

Registration Year

  • 2020
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Affiliations

  • University of Oslo
    47
  • Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
    8
  • Norwegian Institute for Water Research
    4
  • University of Basel
    3
  • Oslo University Hospital
    2
  • Lund University
    2
  • University of Otago
    2
  • National Institute of Amazonian Research
    2
  • Masaryk University
    2
  • University Centre in Svalbard
    2