430 Works

Recovery of a cultivation grazer: A mechanism for compensatory growth of Thalassia testudinum in a Caribbean seagrass meadow grazed by green turtles

Alexandra Gulick, Robert Johnson, Clayton Pollock, Zandy Hillis-Starr, Alan Bolten & Karen Bjorndal
Recovery of green turtles (Chelonia mydas), mega-herbivores that consume seagrasses, is resulting in dramatic ecosystem-wide changes as meadows are returned to a natural grazed state. The green turtle grazing strategy, with long-term cultivation of meadows and high foraging site fidelity, is distinct from other terrestrial and aquatic mega-herbivores and may affect seagrass compensatory growth responses. Identifying mechanisms of compensatory growth responses to grazing is essential to understanding the functioning of plant systems under natural grazing...

Stresses affect inbreeding depression in complex ways: Disentangling stress-specific genetic effects from effects of initial size in plants

Tobias M. Sandner, Diethart Matthies & Donald M. Waller
The magnitude of inbreeding depression (ID) varies unpredictably among environments. ID often increases in stressful environments suggesting that these expose more deleterious alleles to selection or increase their effects. More simply, ID could increase under conditions that amplify phenotypic variation (CV²), e.g. by accentuating size hierarchies among plants. These mechanisms are difficult to distinguish when stress increases both ID and phenotypic variation. We grew in- and outbred progeny of Mimulus guttatus under six abiotic stress...

Data from: Early origin of sweet perception in the songbird radiation

Yasuka Toda, Meng-Ching Ko, Qiaoyi Liang, Eliot Miller, Alejandro Rico-Guevara, Tomoya Nakagita, Ayano Sakakibara, Kana Uemura, Timothy Sackton, Takashi Hayakawa, Simon Yung Wa Sin, Yoshiro Ishimaru, Takumi Misaka, Pablo Oteiza, James Crall, Scott Edwards, Shuichi Matsumura & Maude Baldwin
Early events in the evolutionary history of a clade can shape the sensory systems of descendant lineages. Although the avian ancestor may not have had a sweet receptor, the widespread incidence of nectar-feeding birds suggests multiple acquisitions of sugar detection. In this study, we identify a single early sensory shift of the umami receptor (the T1R1-T1R3 heterodimer) that conferred sweet-sensing abilities in songbirds, a large radiation containing nearly half of all living birds. We demonstrate...

Comparison of serological and molecular assays for Bartonella species in dogs with hemangiosarcoma

Erin Lashnits
Currently, a gold standard diagnostic test for Bartonella infection in dogs is lacking. This represents a critical limitation for the development and evaluation of new diagnostic tests, as well as for the diagnosis of, and research on, bartonellosis in dogs. This retrospective observational study aims to compare the results of commonly performed and newly-reported Bartonella spp. diagnostic tests in banked clinical specimens from 90 dogs with hemangiosarcoma (HSA) using composite reference standard (CRS) and random...

Performance and refinement of nitrogen fertilization tools

Curtis Ransom, Jason Clark, Gregory Bean, Christopher Bandura, Matthew Shafer, Newell Kitchen, James Camberato, Paul Carter, Richard Ferguson, Fabián Fernández, David Franzen, Carrie Laboski, David Myers, Emerson Nafziger & John Sawyer
Improving corn (Zea mays L.) N management is pertinent to economic and environmental objectives. However, there are limited comprehensive data sources to develop and test N fertilizer decision aid tools across a wide geographic range of soil and weather scenarios. Therefore, a public-industry partnership was formed to conduct standardized corn N rate response field studies throughout the U.S. Midwest. This research was conducted using a standardized protocol at 49 site-years across eight states over the...

Survey of Food Consumption of Households in the United States, Spring 1955.

Rueben Buse & Aaron Johnson

Wisconsin children, incomes and program participation survey (CHIPPS) of 1985

Slave Movement -- Records of Slave Ship Movement Between Africa and the Americas, 1817-1843

Philip D. Curtin & Herbert S. Klein

Bedforms of Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica: Character and Origin

R.B. Alley, N. Holschuh, D.R. MacAyea, B.R. Parizek, L. Zoet, K. Riverman, A. Muto, K. Christianson, E. Clyne, S. Anandakrishnan & N.T. Stevens
Bedforms of Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica both record and affect ice flow. Thwaites Glacier flows across the tectonic fabric of the West Antarctic rift system with its bedrock highs and sedimentary basins. Swath radar and seismic surveys of the glacier bed have revealed soft-sediment flutes 100 m or more high extending 15 km or more across basins downglacier from bedrock highs, and ending at prominent hard-bedded moats on stoss sides of the next topographic highs....

Wisconsin Study of Families and Work 1990 - 2012

Janet Shibley Hyde & Marilyn J. Essex

Summary of Study of Microcomputers in Small- and Medium-Sized Colombian Firms, 1985-1986

Mary C. McEniry

Private Prison News Project: Article Data from New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Chicago Tribune, and Houston Chronicle, 1985-2008

Pamela Oliver & Brett C. Burkhardt

National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH), Wave 3 (2001-2003)

Larry L. Bumpass & James A. Sweet

Online Politics and Young Voters 2006: The Use of Political Websites by American Youth and Effects on Political Engagement

Michael A. Xenos

Puerto Rican Elderly: Health Conditions (PREHCO) Wave 1, 2002-2003

Alberto Palloni, Ana Luisa Dávila & Melba Sánchez-Ayéndez

Voting Behavior in the Wisconsin State Legislature: 2003-2010, Gridlock

Jacob O. Stampen

Voting Behavior in the Wisconsin State Legislature: 2011-2018, Machine Rule

Jacob O. Stampen

Transmission of West Nile and five other temperate mosquito-borne viruses peaks at temperatures between 23-26ºC

Marta Shocket, Anna Verwillow, Mailo Numazu, Hani Slamani, Jeremy Cohen, Fadoua El Moustaid, Jason Rohr, Leah Johnson & Erin Mordecai
The temperature-dependence of many important mosquito-borne diseases has never been quantified. These relationships are critical for understanding current distributions and predicting future shifts from climate change. We used trait-based models to characterize temperature-dependent transmission of 10 vector–pathogen pairs of mosquitoes (Culex pipiens, Cx. quinquefascsiatus, Cx. tarsalis, and others) and viruses (West Nile, Eastern and Western Equine Encephalitis, St. Louis Encephalitis, Sindbis, and Rift Valley Fever viruses), most with substantial transmission in temperate regions. Transmission is...

Data from: Trait plasticity and tradeoffs shape intraspecific variation in competitive response in a foundation tree species

Olivia Cope, Richard Lindroth, Andrew Helm, Ken Keefover-Ring & Eric Kruger
The ability to tolerate neighboring plants (i.e., degree of competitive response) is a key determinant of plant success in high-competition environments. Plant genotypes adjust their functional trait expression under high levels of competition, which may help explain intraspecific variation in competitive response. However, the relationships between traits and competitive response are not well understood, especially in trees. In this study, we investigated among-genotype associations between tree trait plasticity and competitive response. We manipulated competition intensity...

Data from: Characterization of 42 polymorphic microsatellite loci in Mimulus ringens (Phrymaceae) using Illumina sequencing

Schyler O. Nunziata, Jeffrey D. Karron, Randall J. Mitchell, Stacey L. Lance, Kenneth L. Jones & Dorset W. Trapnell
Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were isolated and characterized in Mimulus ringens (Phrymaceae), a herbaceous wetland perennial, to facilitate studies of mating patterns and population genetic structure. Methods and Results: A total of 42 polymorphic loci were identified from a sample of 24 individuals from a single popula- tion in Ohio, USA. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to nine, and median observed heterozygosity was 0.435. Conclusions: This large number of...

Data from: Daily foraging patterns in free-living birds: exploring the predation-starvation trade-off

David N. Bonter, Benjamin Zuckerberg, Carolyn W. Sedgwick & Wesley M. Hochachka
Daily patterns in the foraging behaviour of birds are assumed to balance the counteracting risks of predation and starvation. Predation risks are a function of the influence of weight on flight performance and foraging behaviours that may expose individuals to predators. Although recent research sheds light on daily patterns in weight gain, little data exist on daily foraging routines in free-living birds. In order to test the predictions of various hypotheses about daily patterns of...

Data from: A Palaeozoic stem-group to mite harvestmen revealed through integration of phylogenetics and development

Russell J. Garwood, Prashant P. Sharma, Jason A. Dunlop & Gonzalo Giribet
Successfully placing fossils in phylogenies is integral to understanding the tree of life. Crown-group Paleozoic members of the arachnid order Opiliones are indicative of ancient origins and one of the earliest arthropod terrestrialization events. Opiliones epitomize morphological stasis, and all known fossils have been placed within the four extant suborders. Here we report a Carboniferous harvestman species, Hastocularis argusgen. nov., sp. nov., reconstructed with microtomography (microCT). Phylogenetic analysis recovers this species, and the Devonian Eophalangium...

Data from: The estimation of tree posterior probabilities using conditional clade probability distributions

Bret Larget
In this paper I introduce the idea of conditional independence of separated subtrees as a principle by which to estimate the posterior probability of trees using conditional clade probability distributions rather than simple sample relative frequencies. I describe an algorithm for these calculations and software which implements these ideas. I show that these alternative calculations are very similar to simple sample relative frequencies for high probability trees, but are substantially more accurate for relatively low...

Data from: The role of cis regulatory evolution in maize domestication

Zachary H. Lemmon, Robert Bukowski, Qi Sun & John F. Doebley
Gene expression differences between divergent lineages caused by modification of cis regulatory elements are thought to be important in evolution. We assayed genome-wide cis and trans regulatory differences between maize and its wild progenitor, teosinte, using deep RNA sequencing in F1 hybrid and parent inbred lines for three tissue types (ear, leaf and stem). Pervasive regulatory variation was observed with approximately 70% of ~17,000 genes showing evidence of regulatory divergence between maize and teosinte. However,...

Data from: Identification of X-linked quantitative trait loci affecting cold tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster and fine-mapping by selective sweep analysis

Nicolas Svetec, Annegret Werzner, Ricardo Wilches, Pavlos Pavlidis, José M. Álvarez-Castro, Karl W. Broman, Dirk Metzler & Wolfgang Stephan
Drosophila melanogaster is a cosmopolitan species that colonizes a great variety of environments. One trait that shows abundant evidence for naturally segregating genetic variance in different populations of D. melanogaster is cold tolerance. Previous work has found quantitative trait loci (QTL) exclusively on the second and the third chromosomes. To gain insight into the genetic architecture of cold tolerance on the X chromosome and to compare the results with our analyses of selective sweeps, a...

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