408 Works

Data from: Reduced male fertility is common but highly variable in form and severity in a natural house mouse hybrid zone

Leslie M. Turner, Denise J. Schwahn & Bettina Harr
Barriers to gene flow between naturally hybridizing taxa reveal the initial stages of speciation. Reduced hybrid fertility is a common feature of reproductive barriers separating recently diverged species. In house mice (Mus musculus), hybrid male sterility has been studied extensively using experimental crosses between subspecies. Here, we present the first detailed picture of hybrid male fertility in the European M. m. domesticus – M. m. musculus hybrid zone. Complete sterility appears rare or absent in...

Data from: Testing for beneficial reversal of dominance during salinity shifts in the invasive copepod Eurytemora affinis, and implications for the maintenance of genetic variation

Marijan Posavi, Gregory William Gelembiuk, Bret Larget & Carol Eunmi Lee
Maintenance of genetic variation at loci under selection has profound implications for adaptation under environmental change. In temporally and spatially varying habitats, non-neutral polymorphism could be maintained by heterozygote advantage across environments (marginal overdominance), which could be greatly increased by beneficial reversal of dominance across conditions. We tested for reversal of dominance and marginal overdominance in salinity tolerance in the salt-to-freshwater invading copepod Eurytemora affinis. We compared survival of F1 offspring generated by crossing saline...

Data from: Spatial scales of genetic structure and gene flow in Calochortus albus (Liliaceae)

Jillian M. Henss, Jackson R. Moeller, Terra J. Theim & Thomas J. Givnish
Calochortus (Liliaceae) displays high species richness, restriction of many individual taxa to narrow ranges, geographic coherence of individual clades, and parallel adaptive radiations in different regions. Here we test the first part of a hypothesis that all of these patterns may reflect gene flow at small geographic scales. We use amplified fragment length polymorphism variation to quantify the geographic scales of spatial genetic structure and apparent gene flow in Calochortus albus, a widespread member of...

Data from: Contemporary genetic structure of an endemic freshwater turtle reflects Miocene orogenesis of New Guinea.

Arthur Georges, Xiuwen Zhang, Peter Unmack, Brendan N. Reid, Minh Le, William P. McCord & Brenden N. Reid
The island of New Guinea lies in one of the most tectonically active regions in the world and has long provided outstanding opportunity for studies of biogeography. Several chelid turtles, of clear Gondwanal origin, occur in New Guinea; all species except one, the endemic Elseya novaeguineae, are restricted to the lowlands south of the Central Ranges. Elseya novaeguineae is found throughout New Guinea. We use mitochondrial and nuclear gene variation among populations of E. novaeguineae...

GABAA presynaptic inhibition regulates the gain and kinetics of retinal output neurons

Jenna Nagy, Briana Ebbinghaus, Mrinalini Hoon & Raunak Sinha
Output signals of neural circuits, including the retina, are shaped by a combination of excitatory and inhibitory signals. Inhibitory signals can act presynaptically on axon terminals to control neurotransmitter release and regulate circuit function. However, it has been difficult to study the role of presynaptic inhibition in most neural circuits due to lack of cell-type specific and receptor-type specific perturbations. In this study, we used a transgenic approach to selectively eliminate GABAA inhibitory receptors from...

Governmental Units Analysis Data, 1960: Urban Racial Disorders, 1961-1968

Seymour Spilerman

Study of American Families, 1994

Robert M. Hauser & Robert D. Mare

Wisconsin consumer attitudes regarding acceptance of food-related biotechnology, 1990

Robin Douthitt

Political Elites in Mexico, 1900-1971

Peter H. Smith

Slave Movement During the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

National Health Measurement Study (NHMS), 2005-2006

Dennis G. Fryback

Puerto Rican Elderly: Health Conditions (PREHCO) Wave 2, 2006-2007

Alberto Palloni

B0 and B1 inhomogeneities in the liver at 1.5T and 3.0T

Scott B. Reeder, Nathan T. Roberts, Diego Hernando, Louis A. Hinshaw, Timothy J. Colgan & Takanori Ii

Evaluating the Impact of a Mandatory Pre-Abortion Ultrasound Viewing Law: A Mixed Methods Study

Ushma Upadhyay, Katrina Kimport, Elise Belusa, Nicole Johns, Douglas Laube & Sarah Roberts
BackgroundSince mid-2013, Wisconsin abortion providers have been legally required to display and describe pre-abortion ultrasound images. We aimed to understand the impact of this law.MethodsWe used a mixed-methods study design at an abortion facility in Wisconsin. We abstracted data from medical charts one year before the law to one year after and used multivariable models, mediation/moderation analysis, and interrupted time series to assess the impact of the law, viewing, and decision certainty on likelihood of...

Data from: Cooling cows efficiently with sprinklers: physiological responses to water spray

Cassandra B. Tucker, Karin E. Schütz &
Dairies in the United States commonly cool cattle with sprinklers mounted over the feed bunk that intermittently spray the cows’ backs. These systems use potable water—an increasingly scarce resource—but there is little experimental evidence about how much is needed to cool cows or about droplet size, which is thought to affect hair coat penetration. Our objectives were to determine how sprinkler flow rate and droplet size affect physiological measures of heat load in a hot,...

Medicaid Waiver Dataset: Coverage for Childless Adults 1996 – 2014

Marguerite Burns & Laura Dague

National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH), Wave 1 (1987-1988)

Larry L. Bumpass, Vaughn Call & James A. Sweet

National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH), Wave 2 (1992-1994)

Larry L. Bumpass & James A. Sweet

Data from: A continuous morphological approach to study the evolution of pollen in a phylogenetic context: an example with the order Myrtales

Ricardo Kriebel, Mohammad Khabbazian & Kenneth J. Sytsma
The study of pollen morphology has historically allowed evolutionary biologists to assess phylogenetic relationships among Angiosperms, as well as to better understand the fossil record. During this process, pollen has mainly been studied by discretizing some of its main characteristics such as size, shape, and exine ornamentation. One large plant clade in which pollen has been used this way for phylogenetic inference and character mapping is the order Myrtales, composed by the small families Alzateaceae,...

Distinguishing Impatiens capensis from Impatiens pallida (Balsaminaceae) using leaf traits

Heather Whitfield & Rachel Toczydlowski
Impatiens capensis (orange jewelweed) and Impatiens pallida (yellow jewelweed) are annual species with similar phenotypes that grow in similar environments throughout the eastern United States. This makes them extremely difficult to distinguish when (chasmogamous) flowers are absent. We use morphometric analyses to identify leaf characters that distinguish these species. After collecting and scanning 342 leaves from plants of each species growing in co-occurring populations in Madison, WI, we quantified: leaf size, shape (using elliptical Fourier...

Fluorescent biomarkers demonstrate prospects for spreadable vaccines to control disease transmission in wild bats

Kevin Bakker, Tonie Rocke, Rachel Abbott, Carlos Tello, Jorge Carrera, William Valderrama, Carlos Shiva, Nestor Falcon, Jorge Osorio & Daniel Streicker
Vaccines that autonomously transfer among individuals have been proposed as a strategy to control infectious diseases within wildlife populations. However, understanding rates of spread and epidemiological efficacy in real world systems remain elusive. Here, we investigated whether topical vaccines that transfer among bats through social contacts can control vampire bat rabies, a medically and economically important zoonosis in Latin America. Field experiments in 3 Peruvian bat colonies which used fluorescent biomarkers as a proxy for...

Human walking in the real world: interactions between terrain type, gait parameters, and energy expenditure

Daniel Kowalsky, John Rebula, Lauro Ojeda, Peter Adamczyk & Art Kuo
Humans often traverse real-world environments with a variety of surface irregularities and inconsistencies, which can disrupt steady gait and require additional effort. Such effects have, however, scarcely been demonstrated quantitatively, because few laboratory biomechanical measures apply outdoors. Walking can nevertheless be quantified by other means. In particular, the foot’s trajectory in space can be reconstructed from foot-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs), to yield measures of stride and associated variabilities. But it remains unknown whether such...

Estimating correlations among demographic parameters in population models

Thomas Riecke, Alan Leach, James Sedinger, Benjamin Sedinger & Perry Williams
Estimating correlations among demographic parameters is critical to understanding population dynamics and life-history evolution, where correlations among parameters can inform our understanding of life-history trade-offs, result in effective applied conservation actions, and shed light on evolutionary ecology. The most common approaches rely on the multivariate normal distribution, and its conjugate inverse Wishart prior distribtion. However, the inverse Wishart prior for the covariance matrix of multivariate normal distributions has a strong influence on posterior distributions. As...

Data from: Are attractive male crickets better able to pay the costs of an immune challenge?

Clint D. Kelly, Melissa S. C. Telemeco, Lyric C. Bartholomay & Melissa S.C. Telemeco
Reproduction and immunity are fitness-related traits that trade-off with each other. Parasite-mediated theories of sexual selection suggest, however, that higher-quality males should suffer smaller costs to reproduction-related traits and behaviours (e.g., sexual display) from an immune challenge because these males possess more resources with which to deal with the challenge. We used Gryllus texensis field crickets to test the prediction that attractive males should better maintain the performance of fitness-related traits (e.g., calling effort) in...

Data from: Long-term avian community response to housing development at the boundary of U.S. protected areas: effect size increases with time

Eric M. Wood, Anna M. Pidgeon, Volker C. Radeloff, David P. Helmers, Patrick D. Culbert, Nicholas S. Keuler & Curtis H. Flather
1. Biodiversity conservation is a primary function of protected areas. However, protected areas also attract people, and therefore, land use has intensified at the boundaries of these lands globally. In the USA, since the 1970s, housing growth at the boundaries (<1 km) of protected areas has increased at a rate far higher than on more distant private lands. Here, we designed our analyses to address our central hypothesis that increasing housing density in and near...

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