440 Works

High rates of anticoagulant rodenticide exposure in California Barred Owls

Daniel Hofstadter
Pesticide use is pervasive and the exposure of non-target wildlife has been well documented over the past half century. Among pesticides, anticoagulant rodenticides (AR) have emerged as a particularly important threat in forests of the western United States, with exposure and mortality reported for several species of conservation concern. To further quantify this threat, we collected specimens of Barred Owls (Strix varia) and Barred Owl x Spotted Owl hybrids from the Klamath and Cascade Mountains...

Terrestrial lichen data for Saskatchewan, Canada

Jill Johnstone, Ruth Greuel, Sarah Hart, Alexandre Truchon-Savard & Philip McLoughlin
Increased fire activity due to climate change may impact the successional dynamics of boreal forests, with important consequences for caribou habitat. Early successional forests have been shown to support lower quantities of caribou forage lichens, but geographic variation in, and controls on, the rates of lichen recovery have been largely unexplored. In this study, we sampled across a broad region in northwestern Canada to compare lichen biomass accumulation in ecoprovinces, including the Saskatchewan Boreal Shield,...

Arresting the spread of invasive species in continental systems

Daniel Hofstadter, Nicholas Kryshak, Connor Wood, Brian Dotters, Kevin Roberts, Kevin Kelly, John Keane, Sarah Sawyer, Paula Shaklee, Anu Kramer, Rocky Gutiérrez & Zach Peery
Invasive species are a primary threat to biodiversity and are challenging to manage once populations become established. But removing them is further complicated when invasions occur in continental, mixed-ownership systems. We demonstrate a rare conservation success: the regional-scale removal of an invasive predator – the barred owl (Strix varia) – to benefit the spotted owl (S. occidentalis) in California, USA. Barred owl site occupancy declined six-fold from 0.19 to 0.03 following one year of removals,...

Disease or drought: Environmental fluctuations release zebra from a potential pathogen-triggered ecological trap

Yen-Hua Huang, Hendrina Joel, Martina Küsters, Zoe Barandongo, Claudine Cloete, Axel Hartmann, Pauline Kamath, Werner Kilian, John Mfune, Gabriel Shatumbu, Royi Zidon, Wayne Getz & Wendy Turner
When a transmission hotspot for an environmentally persistent pathogen establishes in otherwise high-quality habitat, the disease may exert a strong impact on a host population. However, fluctuating environmental conditions lead to heterogeneity in habitat quality and animal habitat preference, which may interrupt the overlap between selected and risky habitats. We evaluated spatiotemporal patterns in anthrax mortalities in a plains zebra (Equus quagga) population in Etosha National Park, Namibia, incorporating remote-sensing and host telemetry data. A...

MicroRNA quantitative RT-PCR analysis of CMT1A Plasma

John Svaren, Hongge Wang, Matthew Davison & Michael Shy
Objective: To determine if microRNA’s (miR) are elevated in the plasma of individuals affected by the inherited peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, type 1A (CMT1A), miR profiling was employed to compare control and CMT1A plasma. Methods: We undertook a screen of CMT1A and control plasma samples to identify miRs that are elevated in CMT1A using a pilot screen of plasma miR by next generation sequencing, followed by validation of selected miRs by quantitative PCR, and correlation...

Serological dataset and R code for: Patterns and processes of pathogen exposure in gray wolves across North America

Ellen E Brandell
The presence of many pathogens varies in a predictable manner with latitude, with infections decreasing from the equator towards the poles. We investigated the geographic trends of pathogens infecting a widely distributed carnivore: the gray wolf (Canis lupus). We compiled a large serological dataset of nearly 2000 wolves from 17 study areas, spanning 80º longitude and 50º latitude. Generalized linear mixed models were constructed to predict the probability of seropositivity of four important viruses: canine...

Code for: A metapopulation model of social group dynamics and disease applied to Yellowstone wolves

Ellen E. Brandell
Abstract The population structure of social species has important consequences for both their demography and transmission of their pathogens. We develop a new form of metapopulation model that tracks two key components of a species’ social system: average group size and number of groups within a population. While the model is general, we parameterize it to mimic the dynamics of the Yellowstone wolf population and two associated pathogens: sarcoptic mange and canine distemper. In the...

Taxonomic sampling and rare genomic changes overcome long-branch attraction in the phylogenetic placement of pseudoscorpions

Andrew Ontano, Guilherme Gainett, Shlomi Aharon, Jesús Balesteros, Ligia Benavides, Kevin Corbett, Efrat Gavish-Regev, Mark Harvey, Scott Monsma, Carlos Santibáñez-López, Emily Setton, Jakob Zehms, Jeanne Zeh, David Zeh & Prashant Sharma
Long-branch attraction is a systematic artifact that results in erroneous groupings of fast-evolving taxa. The combination of short, deep internodes in tandem with LBA artifacts has produced empirically intractable parts of the Tree of Life. One such group is the arthropod subphylum Chelicerata, whose backbone phylogeny has remained unstable despite improvements in phylogenetic methods and genome-scale datasets. Pseudoscorpion placement is particularly variable across datasets and analytical frameworks, with this group either clustering with other long-branch...

Mesophyll photosynthetic sensitivity to leaf water potential in Eucalyptus: A new dimension of plant adaptation to native moisture supply

Amanda Salvi, Duncan Smith, Mark Adams, Katherine McCulloh & Thomas J. Givnish
Photosynthetic sensitivity to drought is a fundamental constraint on land-plant evolution and ecosystem function. However, little is known about how the sensitivity of photosynthesis to non-stomatal limitations varies among species in the context of phylogenetic relationships. Using saplings of 10 Eucalyptus species, we measured maximum CO2-saturated photosynthesis using A-ci curves at several different leaf water potentials (PSIleaf) to quantify mesophyll photosynthetic sensitivity to PSIleaf (MPS), a measure of how rapidly non-stomatal limitations to carbon uptake...

Hierarchical genetic structure and implications for conservation of the world’s largest salmonid, Hucho taimen

Lanie M. Galland, James B. Simmons, Joshua P. Jahner, Agusto R. Luzuriaga-Neira, Matthew R. Sloat, Sudeep Chandra, Zeb Hogan, Olaf P. Jensen & Thomas L. Parchman
Population genetic analyses can evaluate how evolutionary processes shape diversity and inform conservation and management of imperiled species. Taimen (Hucho taimen), the world’s largest freshwater salmonid, is threatened, endangered, or extirpated across much of its range due to anthropogenic activity including overfishing and habitat degradation. We generated genetic data using high throughput sequencing of reduced representation libraries for taimen from multiple drainages in Mongolia and Russia. Nucleotide diversity estimates were within the range documented in...

Biometric conversion factors as a unifying platform for comparative assessment of invasive freshwater bivalves

Neil Coughlan, Eoghan Cunningham, Ross Cuthbert, Patrick Joyce, Pedro Anastacio, Filipe Banha, Nicolás Bonel, Stephanie Bradbeer, Elizabeta Briski, Vincent Butitta, Zuzana Čadková, Jaimie Dick, Karel Douda, Lawrence Eagling, Noé Ferreira-Rodríguez, Leandro Hünicken, Mattias Johansson, Louise Kregting, Anna Labecka, Deliang Li, Florencia Liquin, Jonathan Marescaux, Todd Morris, Patrycja Nowakowska, Małgorzata Ożgo … & Francisco Sylvester
1. Invasive bivalves continue to spread and negatively impact freshwater ecosystems worldwide. As different metrics for body size and biomass are frequently used within the literature to standardise bivalve related ecological impacts (e.g. respiration and filtration rates), the lack of broadly applicable conversion equations currently hinders reliable comparison across bivalve populations. To facilitate improved comparative assessment amongst studies originating from disparate geographic locations, we report body size and biomass conversion equations for six invasive freshwater...

Positive associations of soil organic matter and crop yields across a regional network of working farms

Emily Oldfield, Mark Bradford, Abigail Augarten, Eric Cooley, Amber Radatz, Timothy Radatz & Matthew Ruark
The amount of soil organic matter (SOM) is considered a key indicator of soil properties associated with higher fertility. Despite the ubiquity of assumptions surrounding SOM’s contributions to soil functioning, we lack quantitative relationships between SOM and yield outcomes on working farms. We quantified the relationship between SOM and yields of corn (Zea mays L.) and silage for a dataset of 170 fields arrayed across 49 farms in a network of growers based in Wisconsin...

Coevolution, diversification, and alternative states in two-trophic communities

Tobin Northfield, Jörgen Ripa, Lucas Nell & Anthony Ives
Single-trait eco-evolutionary models of arms races between consumers and their resource species often show inhibition rather than promotion of community diversification. In contrast, modeling arms races involving multiple traits, we found that arms races can promote diversification when trade-off costs among traits make simultaneous investment in multiple traits either more beneficial or more costly. Coevolution between resource and consumer species generates an adaptive landscape for each, with the configuration giving predictable suites of consumer and...

Caught in a bottleneck: habitat loss for woolly mammoths in central North America and the ice-free corridor during the last deglaciation

Yue Wang, Chris Widga, Russell Graham, Jenny McGuire, Warren Porter, David Wårlind & John Williams
The dataset is to describe the habitat structure and bioenergetic characteristics of woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius) in North America during the last deglaciation between 15 and 10 ka. The habitat structure includes fractional woody cover (FWC) and net primary productivity (NPP) for 20 plant functional types (PFTs). NPP is based on the dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS (LPJG). FWC is based on LPJ-GUESS and fossil pollen records in the Neotoma Paleoecology Database. The bioenergetic characteristics of...

Selection on convergent functional traits drives compositional divergence in a tallgrass prairie restoration experiment

Nisa Karimi & Andrew Hipp
1. Plant biodiversity is often partitioned into taxonomic diversity (species composition and abundance), phylogenetic diversity (breadth of evolutionary lineages) and functional diversity (resource‐use strategies or physical traits). Evaluating the effects and interplay of these dimensions can provide insights into how assembly processes drive compositional changes in plant communities. However, teasing apart the effects of different biodiversity dimensions is challenging in observational studies or retrospective analyses. 2. To evaluate how plant phylogenetic and trait history shape...

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