5,250 Works

Data from: Shape analysis of moss (Bryophyta) sporophytes: insights into land plant evolution

Jeffrey P. Rose, Ricardo Kriebel & Kenneth J. Sytsma
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The alternation of generations life cycle represents a key feature of land-plant evolution and has resulted in a diverse array of sporophyte forms and modifications in all groups of land plants. We test the hypothesis that evolution of sporangium (capsule) shape of the mosses—the second most diverse land-plant lineage—has been driven by differing physiological demands of life in diverse habitats. This study provides an important conceptual framework for analyzing the evolution...

Data from: Assessing faculty professional development in STEM higher education: sustainability of outcomes

Terry L. Derting, Heather A. Passmore, Timothy P. Henkel, Bryan Arnold, Jessica Middlemis Maher & Diane Ebert-May
We tested the effectiveness of Faculty Institutes for Reforming Science Teaching IV (FIRST), a professional development program for postdoctoral scholars, by conducting a study of program alumni. Faculty professional development programs are critical components of efforts to improve teaching and learning in the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) disciplines, but reliable evidence of the sustained impacts of these programs is lacking. We used a paired design in which we matched a FIRST alumnus employed...

Data from: Conditional vulnerability of plant diversity to atmospheric nitrogen deposition across the United States

Samuel M. Simkin, Edith B. Allen, William D. Bowman, Christopher M. Clark, Jayne Belnap, Matthew L. Brooks, Brian S. Cade, Scott L. Collins, Linda H. Geiser, Frank S. Gilliam, Sarah E. Jovan, Linda H. Pardo, Bethany K. Schulz, Carly J. Stevens, Katharine N. Suding, Heather L. Throop & Donald M. Waller
Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has been shown to decrease plant species richness along regional deposition gradients in Europe and in experimental manipulations. However, the general response of species richness to N deposition across different vegetation types, soil conditions, and climates remains largely unknown even though responses may be contingent on these environmental factors. We assessed the effect of N deposition on herbaceous richness for 15,136 forest, woodland, shrubland, and grassland sites across the continental United...

Data from: Environmental predictors of woody plant encroachment in calcareous fens are modified by biotic and abiotic land-use legacies

David Bart, Tara Davenport & Austin Yantes
Woody plant encroachment in grasslands is a world-wide concern. Assertions that abiotic stress reduction facilitates encroachment are not universally supported. To devise restoration and management strategies, the ability of stress reduction, in the context of co-occurring biotic land-use legacies, needs to be assessed to predict shrub cover. We determined whether legacy-induced reduction in Carex stricta (a potential facilitator of shrub encroachment and attractor of animal dispersers) and an increase in herbaceous invaders (potential competitors) altered...

Data from: Genome-wide association analysis in dogs implicates 99 loci as risk variants for anterior cruciate ligament rupture

Lauren A. Baker, Brian Kirkpatrick, Guilherme J.M. Rosa, Daniel Gianola, Bruno Valente, Julia P. Sumner, Wendy Baltzer, Zhengling Hao, Emily E. Binversie, Nicola Volstad, Alexander Piazza, Susannah J. Sample, Peter Muir & Guilherme J. M. Rosa
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is common condition that can be devastating and life changing, particularly in young adults. A non-contact mechanism is typical. Second ACL ruptures through rupture of the contralateral ACL or rupture of a graft repair is also common. Risk of rupture is increased in females. ACL rupture is also common in dogs. Disease prevalence exceeds 5% in several dog breeds, ~100 fold higher than human beings. We provide insight into the...

Data from: Genetic effects of landscape, habitat preference, and demography on three co-occurring turtle species

Brendan N. Reid, David J. Mladenoff & M. Zachariah Peery
Expanding the scope of landscape genetics beyond the level of single species can help to reveal how species traits influence responses to environmental change. Multispecies studies are particularly valuable in highly threatened taxa, such as turtles, in which the impacts of anthropogenic change are strongly influenced by interspecific differences in life-history strategies, habitat preferences, and mobility. We sampled approximately 1500 individuals of three co-occurring turtle species across a gradient of habitat change (including varying loss...

Data from: Causes of ecological gradients in leaf margin entirety: Evaluating the roles of biomechanics, hydraulics, vein geometry, and bud packing

Thomas J. Givnish & Ricardo Kriebel
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: A recent commentary by Edwards et al. (Am. J. Bot. 103: 975–978) proposed that constraints imposed by the packing of young leaves in buds could explain the positive association between non-entire leaf margins and latitude but did not thoroughly consider alternative explanations. METHODS: We review the logic and evidence underlying six major hypotheses for the functional significance of marginal teeth, involving putative effects on (1) leaf cooling, (2) optimal support and...

Data from: Comparing herbaceous plant communities in active and passive riparian restoration

Elise S. Gornish, Michael S. Lennox, David Lewis, Kenneth W. Tate & Randall D. Jackson
Understanding the efficacy of passive (reduction or cessation of environmental stress) and active (typically involving planting or seeding) restoration strategies is important for the design of successful revegetation of degraded riparian habitat, but studies explicitly comparing restoration outcomes are uncommon. We sampled the understory herbaceous plant community of 103 riparian sites varying in age since restoration (0 to 39 years) and revegetation technique (active, passive, or none) to compare the utility of different approaches on...

Data from: Unifying concepts of biological function from molecules to ecosystems

Keith D. Farnsworth, Larissa Albantakis & Tancredi Caruso
The concept of function arises at all levels of biological study and is often loosely and variously defined, especially within ecology. This has led to ambiguity, obscuring the common structure that unites levels of biological organisation, from mol- ecules to ecosystems. Here we build on already successful ideas from molecular biology and complexity theory to create a precise definition of biological function which spans levels of biological organisation and can be quantified in the unifying...

Evaluating the Impact of a Mandatory Pre-Abortion Ultrasound Viewing Law: A Mixed Methods Study

Ushma Upadhyay, Katrina Kimport, Elise Belusa, Nicole Johns, Douglas Laube & Sarah Roberts
BackgroundSince mid-2013, Wisconsin abortion providers have been legally required to display and describe pre-abortion ultrasound images. We aimed to understand the impact of this law.MethodsWe used a mixed-methods study design at an abortion facility in Wisconsin. We abstracted data from medical charts one year before the law to one year after and used multivariable models, mediation/moderation analysis, and interrupted time series to assess the impact of the law, viewing, and decision certainty on likelihood of...

Data from: Energy conserving thermoregulatory patterns and lower disease severity in a bat resistant to the impacts of white-nose syndrome

Marianne S. Moore, Kenneth A. Field, Melissa J. Behr, Gregory G. Turner, Morgan E. Furze, Daniel W. F. Stern, Paul R. Allegra, Sarah A. Bouboulis, Chelsey D. Musante, Megan E. Vodzak, Matthew E. Biron, Melissa B. Meierhofer, Winifred F. Frick, Jeffrey T. Foster, Daryl Howell, Joseph A. Kath, Allen Kurta, Gerda Nordquist, Joseph S. Johnson, Thomas M. Lilley, Benjamin W. Barrett & DeeAnn M. Reeder
The devastating bat fungal disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS), does not appear to affect all species equally. To experimentally determine susceptibility differences between species, we exposed hibernating naïve little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to the fungus that causes WNS, Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). After hibernating under identical conditions, Pd lesions were significantly more prevalent and more severe in little brown myotis. This species difference in pathology correlates with susceptibility to WNS...

Data from: Investment in territorial defence relates to recent reproductive success in common loons Gavia immer

Jeremy A. Spool, Lauren V. Riters & Walter H. Piper
As the value of a limited resource such as a territory increases, animals should invest more in the defence of that resource. Because reproductive success often depends on the quality of a breeding territory, reproductive success or failure may alter the perceived value of territory and affect an animal's investment in territorial defence. We used common loons (Gavia immer) to test the hypothesis that animals with recent breeding success would show stronger territorial defence than...

Data from: Leaf hydraulic parameters are more plastic in species that experience a wider range of leaf water potentials

Daniel M. Johnson, Z. Carter Berry, Kathyrn V. Baker, Duncan D. Smith, Katherine A. McCulloh, Jean-Christophe Domec & Kathryn V. Baker
1. Many plant species experience large differences in soil moisture availability within a season, potentially leading to a wide range of leaf water potentials (ΨLEAF). In order to decrease the risk of leaf dehydration, among species, there is a continuum ranging from strict control (isohydry) to little control (anisohydry) of minimum ΨLEAF. 2. In central Texas USA, species are exposed to a range of soil moisture from wet springs to hot, dry summers. There are...

Data from: Candidate variants for additive and interactive effects on bioenergy traits in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) identified by genome-wide association analyses

Guillaume P. Ramstein, Joseph Evans, Aruna Nandety, Malay C. Saha, E. Charles Brummer, Shawn M. Kaeppler, C. Robin Buell & Michael D. Casler
Switchgrass is a promising herbaceous energy crop, but further gains in biomass yield and quality must be achieved to enable a viable bioenergy industry. Developing DNA markers can contribute to such progress, but depiction of genetic bases should be reliable, involving not only simple additive marker effects but also interactions with genetic backgrounds, e.g., ecotypes, or synergies with other markers. We analyzed plant height, carbon content, nitrogen content, and mineral concentration in a diverse panel...

Data from: Ion microprobe measured stable isotope evidence for ammonite habitat and life mode during early ontogeny

Benjamin J. Linzmeier, Neil H. Landman, Shanan E. Peters, Reinhard Kozdon, Kouki Kitajima & John W. Valley
Ammonites have disparate adult morphologies indicative of diverse ecological niches, but ammonite hatchlings are small (~1 mm diameter), which raises questions about the similarity of egg incubation and hatchling life mode in ammonites. Modern Nautilus is sometimes used as a model organism for understanding ammonites, but despite their outward similarities, the groups are only distantly related. Trends in ammonite diversity and extinction vulnerability in the fossil record contrast starkly with those of nautilids, and embryonic...

Data from: The influence of topography and soil phosphorus on the vegetation of Korup Forest Reserve, Cameroun

Duncan W. Thomas, David M. Newbery, P. G. Waterman & J. S. Gartlan
All living trees (≥ 30 cm gbh) were enumerated in 135 80×80 m plots, each subdivided into four 40×40 m subplots, and arranged along four 5 km transect lines in the Korup Forest Reserve, Cameroun. For each plot altitude, slope and the extent of permanent and seasonal swamps were recorded. Four hundred and eleven taxa were recognized of which 66% were identified to species. Mean tree density was 471 ha−1, basal area 27.6 m2 ha−1...

Data from: Signatures of hybridization and speciation in genomic patterns of ancestry

John A. Hvala, Megan E. Frayer & Bret A. Payseur
Genomes sampled from hybrid zones between nascent species provide important clues into the speciation process. With advances in genome sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping, it is now feasible to measure variation in gene flow with high genomic resolution. This progress motivates the development of conceptual and analytical frameworks for hybrid zones that complement well-established cline approaches. We extend the perspective that genomic distributions of ancestry are sensitive indicators of hybridization history. We use...

Data from: Legume abundance along successional and rainfall gradients in neotropical forests

Maga Gei, Danaë M. A. Rozendaal, Lourens Poorter, Frans Bongers, Janet I. Sprent, Mira D. Garner, T. Mitchell Aide, José Luis Andrade, Patricia Balvanera, Justin M. Becknell, Pedro H.S. Brancalion, George A. L. Cabral, Ricardo Gomes César, Robin L. Chazdon, Rebecca J. Cole, Gabriel Dalla Colletta, Ben De Jong, Julie S. Denslow, Daisy H. Dent, Saara J. DeWalt, Juan Manuel Dupuy, Sandra M. Durán, Mário Marcos Do Espírito Santo, G. Wilson Fernandes, Yule Roberta Ferreira Nunes … & Jennifer S. Powers
The nutrient demands of regrowing tropical forests are partly satisfied by nitrogen (N)-fixing legume trees, but our understanding of the abundance of those species is biased towards wet tropical regions. Here we show how the abundance of Leguminosae is affected by both recovery from disturbance and large-scale rainfall gradients through a synthesis of forest-inventory plots from a network of 42 Neotropical forest chronosequences. During the first three decades of natural forest regeneration, legume basal area...

Data from: Associative nitrogen fixation (ANF) in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) across a nitrogen input gradient

Sarah S. Roley, David S. Duncan, Di Liang, Aaron Garoutte, Randall D. Jackson, James M. Tiedje & G. Philip Robertson
Associative N fixation (ANF), the process by which dinitrogen gas is converted to ammonia by bacteria in casual association with plants, has not been well-studied in temperate ecosystems. We examined the ANF potential of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a North American prairie grass whose productivity is often unresponsive to N fertilizer addition, via separate short-term 15N2 incubations of rhizosphere soils and excised roots four times during the growing season. Measurements occurred along N fertilization gradients...

Data from: The epidemiology of avian pox and interaction with avian malaria in Hawaiian forest birds

Michael D. Samuel, Bethany L. Woodworth, Carter T. Atkinson, Patrick J. Hart & Dennis A. LaPointe
Despite the purported role of avian pox (Avipoxvirus spp.) in the decline of endemic Hawaiian birds, few studies have been conducted on the dynamics of this disease, its impact on free-living avian populations, or its interactions with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum). We conducted four longitudinal studies of 3-7 years in length and used generalized linear models to evaluate cross–sectional prevalence of active pox infection and individuals with healed deformities that had recovered from pox. Our...

Data from: A continuous morphological approach to study the evolution of pollen in a phylogenetic context: an example with the order Myrtales

Ricardo Kriebel, Mohammad Khabbazian & Kenneth J. Sytsma
The study of pollen morphology has historically allowed evolutionary biologists to assess phylogenetic relationships among Angiosperms, as well as to better understand the fossil record. During this process, pollen has mainly been studied by discretizing some of its main characteristics such as size, shape, and exine ornamentation. One large plant clade in which pollen has been used this way for phylogenetic inference and character mapping is the order Myrtales, composed by the small families Alzateaceae,...

Data from: Managing individual nests promotes population recovery of a top predator

Jennyffer Cruz, Steve K. Windels, Wayne E. Thogmartin, Shawn M. Crimmins, Leeland H. Grim & Benjamin Zuckerberg
Threatened species are managed using diverse conservation tactics implemented at multiple scales ranging from protecting individuals, to populations, to entire species. Individual protection strives to promote recovery at the population- or species-level, although this is seldom evaluated. After decades of widespread declines, bald eagles, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, are recovering throughout their range due to legal protection and pesticide bans. However, like other raptors, their recovery remains threatened by human activities. Bald eagle nests are commonly managed...

Data from: The demography of a resource specialist in the tropics: Cecropia trees and the fitness of three-toed sloths

Mario F. Garces-Restrepo, M. Zachariah Peery & Jonathan N. Pauli
Resource specialists persist on a narrow range of resources. Consequently, the abundance of key resources should drive vital rates, individual fitness and population viability. While Neotropical forests feature both high levels of biodiversity and numbers of specialist species, no studies have directly evaluated how the variation of key resources affects the fitness of a tropical specialist. Here, we quantified the effect of key tree species density and forest cover on the fitness of three-toed sloths...

Data from: Patterns of genetic differentiation in Colorado potato beetle correlate with contemporary, not historic, potato land cover

Michael S. Crossley, Silvia I. Rondon & Sean D. Schoville
Changing landscape heterogeneity can influence connectivity and alter genetic variation in local populations, but there can be a lag between ecological change and evolutionary responses. Temporal lag effects might be acute in agroecosystems, where land cover has changed substantially in the last two centuries. Here, we evaluate how patterns of an insect pest's genetic differentiation are related to past and present agricultural land cover change over a 150-year period. We quantified change in the amount...

Data from: Monitoring vultures in the 21st century: the need for standardized protocols

Paula L. Perrig, Sergio A. Lambertucci, Emiliano Donadio, Julian Padro & Jonathan N. Pauli
This article calls on scientists, managers and organizations focused on vulture conservation to promote and use standardized monitoring programs based on sampling of molted feathers.

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