440 Works

Characterization of Salix nigra floral insect community and activity of three native Andrena bees

Stephen DiFazio, Sandra Simon, Ken Keefover-Ring, Yong-Lak Park, Gina Wimp & Julianne Grady
Salix nigra (black willow) is a widespread tree that hosts many species of polylectic hymenopterans and oligolectic bees of the genus Andrena. The early flowering of S. nigra makes it an important nutritive resource for insects emerging from hibernation. However, since S. nigra is dioecious, not all insect visits will lead to successful pollination. Using both visual observation and pan-trapping we characterized the community of insects that visited S. nigra flowers and assessed differences among...

Performance and refinement of nitrogen fertilization tools

Curtis Ransom, Jason Clark, Gregory Bean, Christopher Bandura, Matthew Shafer, Newell Kitchen, James Camberato, Paul Carter, Richard Ferguson, Fabián Fernández, David Franzen, Carrie Laboski, David Myers, Emerson Nafziger & John Sawyer
Improving corn (Zea mays L.) N management is pertinent to economic and environmental objectives. However, there are limited comprehensive data sources to develop and test N fertilizer decision aid tools across a wide geographic range of soil and weather scenarios. Therefore, a public-industry partnership was formed to conduct standardized corn N rate response field studies throughout the U.S. Midwest. This research was conducted using a standardized protocol at 49 site-years across eight states over the...

Evidence for ecological processes driving speciation among endemic lizards of Madagascar

Laura A. Nunes, Christopher J. Raxworthy & Richard G. Pearson
Although genetic patterns produced by population isolation during speciation are well documented, the biogeographic and ecological processes that trigger speciation remain poorly understood. Alternative hypotheses for the biogeography and ecology of speciation include geographic isolation combined with niche conservation (soft allopatry), or parapatric distribution on an environmental gradient with niche divergence (ecological speciation). Here we utilize species’ distributions, environmental data and two null models (Random Translation and Rotation, RTR, and the Background Similarity Test, BST)...

Data from: Ontogenetic responses of four plant species to additive and interactive effects of land-use history, canopy structure and herbivory

Philip G. Hahn & John L. Orrock
The strength of interactions among species is often highly variable in space and time, and a major challenge in understanding context-dependent effects of herbivores lies in disentangling habitat-mediated from herbivore-mediated effects on plant performance. We conducted a landscape-scale experiment that manipulated light availability in woodlands with either a history of agricultural use or no history of agricultural use and coupled this with performance measurements of three life stages on four perennial herbaceous species exposed to...

Data from: Defining the role of the MADS-box gene, Zea agamous like1, a target of selection during maize domestication

David M. Wills, Zhou Fang, Alessandra M. York, James B. Holland & John F. Doebley
Genomic scans for genes that show the signature of past selection have been widely applied to a number of species and have identified a large number of selection candidate genes. In cultivated maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) selection scans have identified several hundred candidate domestication genes by comparing nucleotide diversity and differentiation between maize and its progenitor, teosinte (Z. mays ssp. parviglumis). One of these is a gene called zea agamous-like1 (zagl1), a MADS-box transcription...

Data from: Statistical evidence for common ancestry: application to primates

David A. Baum, Cécile Ané, Bret Larget, Claudia Solís-Lemus, Lam Si Tung Ho, Peggy Boone, Chloe Drummond, Martin Bontrager, Steven Hunter, Bill Saucier, Chloe P. Drummond, Steven J. Hunter & William Saucier
Since Darwin, biologists have come to recognize that the theory of descent from common ancestry is very well supported by diverse lines of evidence. However, while the qualitative evidence is overwhelming, we also need formal methods for quantifying the evidential support for common ancestry (CA) over the alternative hypothesis of separate ancestry (SA). In this paper we explore a diversity of statistical methods, using data from the primates. We focus on two alternatives to CA,...

Data from: Landscape variation in tree regeneration and snag fall drive fuel loads in 25-yr old post-fire lodgepole pine forests

Kellen N. Nelson, Monica G. Turner, William H. Romme & Daniel B. Tinker
Escalating wildfire in subalpine forests with stand-replacing fire regimes is increasing the extent of early-seral forests throughout the western US. Post-fire succession generates the fuel for future fires, but little is known about fuel loads and their variability in young post-fire stands. We sampled fuel profiles in 24-year-old post-fire lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) stands (n=82) that regenerated from the 1988 Yellowstone Fires to answer three questions. (1) How do canopy and surface fuel...

Data from: The role of cis regulatory evolution in maize domestication

Zachary H. Lemmon, Robert Bukowski, Qi Sun & John F. Doebley
Gene expression differences between divergent lineages caused by modification of cis regulatory elements are thought to be important in evolution. We assayed genome-wide cis and trans regulatory differences between maize and its wild progenitor, teosinte, using deep RNA sequencing in F1 hybrid and parent inbred lines for three tissue types (ear, leaf and stem). Pervasive regulatory variation was observed with approximately 70% of ~17,000 genes showing evidence of regulatory divergence between maize and teosinte. However,...

Data from: Inference of adaptive shifts for multivariate correlated traits

Paul Bastide, Cecile Ane, Stéphane Robin & Mahendra Mariadassou
To study the evolution of several quantitative traits, the classical phylogenetic comparative framework consists of a multivariate random process running along the branches of a phylogenetic tree. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) process is sometimes preferred to the simple Brownian Motion (BM) as it models stabilizing selection toward an optimum. The optimum for each trait is likely to be changing over the long periods of time spanned by large modern phylogenies. Our goal is to automatically detect...

Data from: Social brain volume is associated with in-degree social network size among older adults

Seyul Kwak, Won-Tak Joo, Yoosik Youm & Jeanyung Chey
The social brain hypothesis proposes that large neocortex size evolved to support cognitively demanding social interactions. Accordingly, previous studies have observed that larger orbitofrontal and amygdala structures predict the size of an individual's social network. However, it remains uncertain how an individual's social connectedness reported by other people is associated with the social brain volume. In this study, we found that a greater in-degree network size, a measure of social ties identified by a subject's...

Data from: A Palaeozoic stem-group to mite harvestmen revealed through integration of phylogenetics and development

Russell J. Garwood, Prashant P. Sharma, Jason A. Dunlop & Gonzalo Giribet
Successfully placing fossils in phylogenies is integral to understanding the tree of life. Crown-group Paleozoic members of the arachnid order Opiliones are indicative of ancient origins and one of the earliest arthropod terrestrialization events. Opiliones epitomize morphological stasis, and all known fossils have been placed within the four extant suborders. Here we report a Carboniferous harvestman species, Hastocularis argusgen. nov., sp. nov., reconstructed with microtomography (microCT). Phylogenetic analysis recovers this species, and the Devonian Eophalangium...

Data from: Exploring tree-like and non-tree-like patterns using genome sequences: an example using the inbreeding plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

Noah Stenz, Bret Larget, David A. Baum & Cécile Ané
Genome sequence data contain abundant information about genealogical history, but methods for extracting and interpreting this information are not yet fully developed. We analyzed genome sequences for multiple accessions of the selfing plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, with the goal of better understanding its genealogical history. As expected from accessions of the same species, we found much discordance between nuclear gene trees. Nonetheless, we inferred the optimal population tree under the assumption that all discordance is due...

Data from: Whole genome duplication in coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and its implications for explaining the rarity of polyploidy in conifers

Alison Dawn Scott, Noah W. M. Stenz, Pär K. Ingvarsson & David A. Baum
Polyploidy is common and an important evolutionary factor in most land plant lineages, but it is rare in gymnosperms. Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) is one of just two polyploid conifer species and the only hexaploid. Evidence from fossil guard cell size suggests that polyploidy in Sequoia dates to the Eocene. Numerous hypotheses about the mechanism of polyploidy and parental genome donors have been proposed, based primarily on morphological and cytological data, but it remains unclear...

Data from: Genetic analysis of sugarcane mosaic virus resistance in the Wisconsin Diversity Panel of maize

Timothy J. Gustafson, Natalia De Leon, Shawn M. Kaeppler & William F. Tracy
Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and Maize dwarf mosaic virus can cause yield loss in maize (Zea mays L.). Previous studies identified two key genomic regions controlling host resistance: Scmv1 on chromosome 6 and Scmv2 on chromosome 3. In this study a diverse set of 578 inbreds adapted to a northern US Corn Belt environment, was inoculated at the three-leaf stage with SCMV and rated for presence of virus symptoms at 7, 10, 14, 21, 28,...

Data from: Multiresponse algorithms for community-level modeling: review of theory, applications, and comparison to species distribution models

Diego Nieto-Lugilde, Katlin C. Maguire, Jessica L. Blois, John W. Williams, Matthew C. Fitzpatrick & Kaitlin C. Maguire
1.Community-level models (CLMs) consider multiple, co-occurring species in model fitting and are lesser known alternatives to species distribution models (SDMs) for analyzing and predicting biodiversity patterns. CLMs simultaneously model multiple species, including rare species, while reducing overfitting and implicitly considering drivers of co-occurrence. Many CLMs are direct extensions of well-known SDMs and therefore should be familiar to ecologists. However, CLMs remain underutilized, and there have been few tests of their potential benefits and no systematic...

Data from: Harvesting biofuel grasslands has mixed effects on natural enemy communities and no effects on biocontrol services

Tania N. Kim, Aaron F. Fox, Bill D. Wills, Timothy D. Meehan, Douglas A. Landis & Claudio Gratton
1.Perennial bioenergy systems, such as switchgrass and restored prairies, are alternatives to commonly used annual monocultures such as maize. Perennial systems require lower chemical input, provide greater ecosystem services such as carbon storage, greenhouse gas mitigation, and support greater biodiversity of beneficial insects. However, biomass harvest will be necessary in managing these perennial systems for bioenergy production, and it is unclear how repeated harvesting might affect ecosystem services. 2.In this study, we examined how repeated...

Data from: Habitat, predators, and hosts regulate disease in Daphnia through direct and indirect pathways

Alexander T. Strauss, Marta S. Shocket, David J. Civitello, Jessica L. Hite, Rachel M. Penczykowski, Meghan A. Duffy, Carla E. Cáceres & Spencer R. Hall
Community ecology can link habitat to disease via interactions among habitat, focal hosts, other hosts, their parasites, and predators. However, complicated food web interactions (i.e., trophic interactions among predators, and their impacts on host density and diversity) often obscure the important pathways regulating disease. Here, we disentangle community drivers in a case study of planktonic disease, using a two-step approach. In step one, we tested univariate field patterns linking community interactions to two disease metrics....

Data from: Harvesting effects on wild bee communities in bioenergy grasslands depend on nesting guild

Brian J. Spiesman, Ashley Bennett, Rufus Isaacs & Claudio Gratton
Conversion of annual crops to native perennial grasslands for bioenergy production may help conserve wild bees by enhancing nest and food resources. However, bee response to the disturbance of biomass harvesting may depend on their nesting location, thus their vulnerability to nest destruction, and the response of the forb community on which they forage. Moreover, because bees have long foraging ranges, effects of local harvesting may depend on the amount of natural habitat in the...

Data from: Crop rotational diversity enhances belowground communities and functions in an agroecosystem

L. K. Tiemann, A. S. Grandy, E. E. Atkinson, E. Marin-Spiotta & M. D. McDaniel
Biodiversity loss, an important consequence of agricultural intensification, can lead to reductions in agroecosystem functions and services. Increasing crop diversity through rotation may alleviate these negative consequences by restoring positive aboveground–belowground interactions. Positive impacts of aboveground biodiversity on belowground communities and processes have primarily been observed in natural systems. Here, we test for the effects of increased diversity in an agroecosystem, where plant diversity is increased over time through crop rotation. As crop diversity increased...

Data from: Female discrimination thresholds frequently exceed local male display variation: implications for mate choice dynamics and sexual selection

Gerlinde Höbel
Among the factors that can influence female mate choice decisions is the degree to which females differentiate among similar displays: as differences decrease, females are expected to eventually stop discriminating. This discrimination threshold, in conjunction with the magnitude of male trait variation females regularly encounter while making mate choice decisions, may have important consequences for sexual selection. If local display variation is above the discrimination threshold, female preferences should translate into higher mating success for...

Data from: Identification of X-linked quantitative trait loci affecting cold tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster and fine-mapping by selective sweep analysis

Nicolas Svetec, Annegret Werzner, Ricardo Wilches, Pavlos Pavlidis, José M. Álvarez-Castro, Karl W. Broman, Dirk Metzler & Wolfgang Stephan
Drosophila melanogaster is a cosmopolitan species that colonizes a great variety of environments. One trait that shows abundant evidence for naturally segregating genetic variance in different populations of D. melanogaster is cold tolerance. Previous work has found quantitative trait loci (QTL) exclusively on the second and the third chromosomes. To gain insight into the genetic architecture of cold tolerance on the X chromosome and to compare the results with our analyses of selective sweeps, a...

Data from: Invasion of the Hawaiian Islands by a parasite infecting imperiled stream fishes

Roderick B. Gagne, C. Grace Sprehn, Fernando Alda, Peter B. McIntyre, James F. Gilliam & Michael J. Blum
Points of origin and pathways of spread are often poorly understood for introduced parasites that drive disease emergence in imperiled native species. Co-introduction of parasites with non-native hosts is of particular concern in remote areas like the Hawaiian Islands, where the introduced nematode Camallanus cotti has become the most prevalent parasite of at-risk native stream fishes. In this study, we evaluated the prevailing hypothesis that C. cotti entered the Hawaiian Islands with poeciliid fishes from...

Data from: Spatial variability in tree regeneration after wildfire delays and dampens future bark beetle outbreaks

Rupert Seidl, Daniel C. Donato, Kenneth F. Raffa & Monica G. Turner
Climate change is altering the frequency and severity of forest disturbances such as wildfires and bark beetle outbreaks, thereby increasing the potential for sequential disturbances to interact. Interactions can amplify or dampen disturbances, yet the direction and magnitude of future disturbance interactions are difficult to anticipate because underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We tested how variability in postfire forest development affects future susceptibility to bark beetle outbreaks, focusing on mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and...

Data from: Phytochemical traits underlie genotypic variation in susceptibility of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) to browsing by a keystone forest ungulate

Liza Holeski, Sean McKenzie, Eric Kruger, John J. Couture, Kennedy Rubert-Nason, Richard L. Lindroth, Liza M. Holeski, Sean C. McKenzie & Eric L. Kruger
1.Overbrowsing by ungulates is a major cause of poor aspen stand regeneration across North America and Eurasia. In general, factors driving ungulate browser preferences include concentrations of plant secondary compounds and the nutritional composition (non-structural carbohydrates, protein, and minerals) of foliage. While each of these phytochemical factors has been shown to independently influence ungulate preference, the relative impact of each factor is unknown, as no study to date has examined them simultaneously. 2.Plant fitness depends...

Data from: Nematode-bacteria nutualism: selection within the mutualism supersedes selection outside of the mutualism

Levi T. Morran, McKenna J. Penley, Victoria S. Byrd, Andrew J. Meyer, Timothy S. O'Sullivan, Farrah Bashey-Visser, Heidi Goodrich-Blair, Curtis M. Lively & Farrah Bashey
The coevolution of interacting species can lead to codependent mutualists. Little is known about the effect of selection on partners within verses apart from the association. Here, we determined the effect of selection on bacteria (Xenorhabdus nematophila) both within and apart from its mutualistic partner (a nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae). In nature, the two species cooperatively infect and kill arthropods. We passaged the bacteria either together with (M+), or isolated from (M−), nematodes under two different...

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