5,253 Works

Data from: Risk factors for respiratory illness in a community of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

Melissa Emery Thompson, Zarin P. Machanda, Erik J. Scully, Drew K. Enigk, Emily Otali, Martin N. Muller, Tony L. Goldberg, Colin A. Chapman & Richard W. Wrangham
Respiratory disease has caused significant mortality in African great ape populations. While much effort has been given to identifying the responsible pathogens, little is known about the factors that influence disease transmission or individual susceptibility. In the Kanyawara community of wild chimpanzees, respiratory illness has been the leading cause of mortality over 30 years, contributing to 27% of deaths. Deaths were common in all age groups except juveniles. Over 22 years of health observations, respiratory...

Data from: Legume abundance along successional and rainfall gradients in neotropical forests

Maga Gei, Danaë M. A. Rozendaal, Lourens Poorter, Frans Bongers, Janet I. Sprent, Mira D. Garner, T. Mitchell Aide, José Luis Andrade, Patricia Balvanera, Justin M. Becknell, Pedro H.S. Brancalion, George A. L. Cabral, Ricardo Gomes César, Robin L. Chazdon, Rebecca J. Cole, Gabriel Dalla Colletta, Ben De Jong, Julie S. Denslow, Daisy H. Dent, Saara J. DeWalt, Juan Manuel Dupuy, Sandra M. Durán, Mário Marcos Do Espírito Santo, G. Wilson Fernandes, Yule Roberta Ferreira Nunes … & Jennifer S. Powers
The nutrient demands of regrowing tropical forests are partly satisfied by nitrogen (N)-fixing legume trees, but our understanding of the abundance of those species is biased towards wet tropical regions. Here we show how the abundance of Leguminosae is affected by both recovery from disturbance and large-scale rainfall gradients through a synthesis of forest-inventory plots from a network of 42 Neotropical forest chronosequences. During the first three decades of natural forest regeneration, legume basal area...

Data from: Patterns of genetic differentiation in Colorado potato beetle correlate with contemporary, not historic, potato land cover

Michael S. Crossley, Silvia I. Rondon & Sean D. Schoville
Changing landscape heterogeneity can influence connectivity and alter genetic variation in local populations, but there can be a lag between ecological change and evolutionary responses. Temporal lag effects might be acute in agroecosystems, where land cover has changed substantially in the last two centuries. Here, we evaluate how patterns of an insect pest's genetic differentiation are related to past and present agricultural land cover change over a 150-year period. We quantified change in the amount...

Fluorescent biomarkers demonstrate prospects for spreadable vaccines to control disease transmission in wild bats

Kevin Bakker, Tonie Rocke, Rachel Abbott, Carlos Tello, Jorge Carrera, William Valderrama, Carlos Shiva, Nestor Falcon, Jorge Osorio & Daniel Streicker
Vaccines that autonomously transfer among individuals have been proposed as a strategy to control infectious diseases within wildlife populations. However, understanding rates of spread and epidemiological efficacy in real world systems remain elusive. Here, we investigated whether topical vaccines that transfer among bats through social contacts can control vampire bat rabies, a medically and economically important zoonosis in Latin America. Field experiments in 3 Peruvian bat colonies which used fluorescent biomarkers as a proxy for...

Data from: A critical appraisal of the placement of Xiphosura (Chelicerata) with account of known sources of phylogenetic error

Jesus A. Ballesteros & Prashant P. Sharma
Horseshoe crabs (Xiphosura) are traditionally regarded as sister to the clade of terrestrial chelicerates (Arachnida). This hypothesis has been challenged by recent phylogenomic analyses, but the non-monophyly of Arachnida has consistently been disregarded as artifactual. We reevaluated the placement of Xiphosura among chelicerates using the most complete phylogenetic dataset to date, expanding outgroup sampling and including data from whole genome sequencing projects. In spite of uncertainty in theplacement of some arachnid clades, all analyses show...

Estimating correlations among demographic parameters in population models

Thomas Riecke, Alan Leach, James Sedinger, Benjamin Sedinger & Perry Williams
Estimating correlations among demographic parameters is critical to understanding population dynamics and life-history evolution, where correlations among parameters can inform our understanding of life-history trade-offs, result in effective applied conservation actions, and shed light on evolutionary ecology. The most common approaches rely on the multivariate normal distribution, and its conjugate inverse Wishart prior distribtion. However, the inverse Wishart prior for the covariance matrix of multivariate normal distributions has a strong influence on posterior distributions. As...

National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH), Wave 1 (1987-1988)

Larry L. Bumpass, Vaughn Call & James A. Sweet

National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH), Wave 2 (1992-1994)

Larry L. Bumpass & James A. Sweet

B0 and B1 inhomogeneities in the liver at 1.5T and 3.0T

Scott B. Reeder, Nathan T. Roberts, Diego Hernando, Louis A. Hinshaw, Timothy J. Colgan & Takanori Ii

Data from: Cooling cows efficiently with sprinklers: physiological responses to water spray

Cassandra B. Tucker, Karin E. Schütz &
Dairies in the United States commonly cool cattle with sprinklers mounted over the feed bunk that intermittently spray the cows’ backs. These systems use potable water—an increasingly scarce resource—but there is little experimental evidence about how much is needed to cool cows or about droplet size, which is thought to affect hair coat penetration. Our objectives were to determine how sprinkler flow rate and droplet size affect physiological measures of heat load in a hot,...

Human walking in the real world: interactions between terrain type, gait parameters, and energy expenditure

Daniel Kowalsky, John Rebula, Lauro Ojeda, Peter Adamczyk & Art Kuo
Humans often traverse real-world environments with a variety of surface irregularities and inconsistencies, which can disrupt steady gait and require additional effort. Such effects have, however, scarcely been demonstrated quantitatively, because few laboratory biomechanical measures apply outdoors. Walking can nevertheless be quantified by other means. In particular, the foot’s trajectory in space can be reconstructed from foot-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs), to yield measures of stride and associated variabilities. But it remains unknown whether such...

Distinguishing Impatiens capensis from Impatiens pallida (Balsaminaceae) using leaf traits

Heather Whitfield & Rachel Toczydlowski
Impatiens capensis (orange jewelweed) and Impatiens pallida (yellow jewelweed) are annual species with similar phenotypes that grow in similar environments throughout the eastern United States. This makes them extremely difficult to distinguish when (chasmogamous) flowers are absent. We use morphometric analyses to identify leaf characters that distinguish these species. After collecting and scanning 342 leaves from plants of each species growing in co-occurring populations in Madison, WI, we quantified: leaf size, shape (using elliptical Fourier...

Chemical-genetic interrogation of RNA polymerase mutants reveals structure-function relationships and physiological tradeoffs

Anthony Shiver, Hendrik Osadnik, Jason Peters, Rachel Mooney, Peter Wu, Kemardo Henry, Hannes Braberg, Carol Gross, Kerwyn Huang, Robert Landick, Nevan Krogan & James Hu
The multi-subunit bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) and its associated regulators carry out transcription and integrate myriad regulatory signals. Numerous studies have interrogated the inner workings of RNAP, and mutations in genes encoding RNAP drive adaptation of Escherichia coli to many health- and industry-relevant environments, yet a paucity of systematic analyses has hampered our understanding of the fitness benefits and trade-offs from altering RNAP function. Here, we conduct a chemical-genetic analysis of a library of RNAP...

Adequate vitamin A liver stores estimated by the Modified-Relative Dose Response test are positively associated with breastfeeding but not vitamin A supplementation in Senegalese urban children 9-23 months old: a comparative cross-sectional study

Mane Hélène FAYE, Marie-Madeleine A Diémé, Nicole Idohou-Dossou, Abdou Badiane, Adama Diouf, Ndeye Magatte Ndiaye Ndome & Sherry A Tanumihardjo
Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) in 6-59 month old children is recommended but its sustainability is currently questioned. In Senegal, data suggest that VAS should be maintained, but geographic and age-related specificities need to be addressed by gathering more evidence on the impact of this program. The objective of this comparative cross-sectional study, conducted in urban settings of Dakar, was to evaluate the effectiveness of VAS on vitamin A liver stores (VALS) among 9-23 month old...

Wisconsin consumer attitudes regarding acceptance of food-related biotechnology, 1990

Robin Douthitt

Study of American Families, 1994

Robert M. Hauser & Robert D. Mare

Data from: Habitat loss and thermal tolerances influence the sensitivity of resident bird populations to winter weather at regional scales

Christopher Latimer & Benjamin Zuckerberg
1. Climate change and habitat loss pose the greatest contemporary threats to biodiversity, but their impacts on populations largely vary across species. These differential responses could be caused by complex interactions between landscape and climate change and species-specific sensitivities. 2. Understanding the factors that determine which species are most vulnerable to the synergistic effects of climate change and habitat loss is a high conservation priority. Here, we ask (a) whether and to what extent land...

Governmental Units Analysis Data, 1960: Urban Racial Disorders, 1961-1968

Seymour Spilerman

Political Elites in Mexico, 1900-1971

Peter H. Smith

Slave Movement During the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

Complex interactions underlie the correlated evolution of floral traits and their association with pollinators in a clade with diverse pollination systems.

Jeffrey Rose & Kenneth Sytsma
Natural selection by pollinators is an important factor in the morphological diversity and adaptive radiation of flowering plants. Selection by similar pollinators in unrelated plants leads to convergence in floral morphology, or “floral syndromes.” Previous investigations into floral syndromes have mostly studied relatively small and/or simple systems; emphasizing vertebrate-pollination. Despite the importance of multiple floral traits in plant-pollinator interactions, these studies have examined few quantitative traits, so their co-variation and phenotypic integration have been underexplored....

The Paris Climate Agreement and future sea level rise from Antartica

Robert M. DeConto, David Pollard, Richard B. Alley, Isabella Velicogna, Edward Gasson, Natalya Gomez, Shaina Sadai, Alan Condron, Daniel M. Gilford, Erica L. Ashe, Robert E. Kopp, Dawei Li & Andrea Dutton

Evaluating how lethal management affects poaching of Mexican wolves

Francisco Santiago-Ávila, Naomi Louchouarn, David Parsons & Adrian Treves
Despite illegal killing (poaching) being the major cause of death among large carnivores globally, little is known about the effect of implementing lethal management policies on poaching. Two opposing hypotheses have been proposed in the literature: implementing lethal management may decrease poaching incidence (‘killing for tolerance’) or increase it (‘facilitated killing’). Here, we propose a test of two opposed hypotheses that poaching (reported and unreported) of Mexican grey wolves (Canis lupus baileyi) in Arizona and...

Medicaid Waiver Dataset: Coverage for Childless Adults 1996 – 2014

Marguerite Burns & Laura Dague

National Health Measurement Study (NHMS), 2005-2006

Dennis G. Fryback

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