5,421 Works

Data from: Assessing impact of exogenous features on biotic phenomena in the presence of strong spatial dependence: a lake sturgeon case study in natural stream settings

Andrew O. Finley, Patrick S. Forsythe, James A. Crossman, Edward A. Baker & Kim T. Scribner
Modeling spatially explicit data provides a powerful approach to identify the effects of exogenous features associated with biological processes, including recruitment of stream fishes. However, the complex spatial and temporal dynamics of the stream and the species' reproductive and early life stage behaviors present challenges to drawing valid inference using traditional regression models. In these settings it is often difficult to ensure the spatial independence among model residuals---a key assumption that must be met to...

Data from: Spatial phylogenetics reveals evolutionary constraints on the assembly of a large regional flora

Daniel Spalink, Ricardo Kriebel, Pan Li, Matthew C. Pace, Bryan T. Drew, John G. Zaborsky, Jeffrey R. Rose, Chloe P. Drummond, Mary Ann Feist, William S. Alverson, Donald M. Waller, Kenneth M. Cameron, Thomas J. Givnish & Kenneth J. Sytsma
Premise of the study: We use spatial phylogenetics to analyze the assembly of the Wisconsin flora, linking processes of dispersal and niche evolution to spatial patterns in floristic and phylogenetic diversity, and testing whether phylogenetic niche conservatism can account for these patterns. Methods: We use digitized records and a new molecular phylogeny for all vascular plants in Wisconsin to estimate spatial variation in species richness and phylogenetic  and  diversity in a native flora...

Maternal and neonatal outcomes of repeated antepartum bleeding in 493 placenta previa cases: a retrospective study

Shiyun Huang, Qing Zuo, Tianjun Wang, Xiaotong Tang, Zhiping Ge, Hongmei Lu, Xin Zhou & Ziyan Jiang
To explore the effect of antepartum bleeding caused by PP on pregnancy outcomes. We retrospectively analyzed 493 pregnant women complicated with PP. Patients were divided into antepartum repeated bleeding and non-bleeding groups. Maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes were compared. The risk of antepartum hemorrhage was 2.038 times higher when gravidity was 5 (95% CI 1.104–3.760, p = .023). Pregnant women with a history of more than three intrauterine procedures had a 1.968 times higher risk...

Past agricultural land use affects multiple facets of ungulate antipredator behavior

Savannah Bartel & John Orrock
Antipredator behavior affects prey fitness, prey demography, and the strength of ecological interactions. Although predator-prey interactions increasingly occur in habitats that experience multiple forms of human-generated disturbance, it is unclear how different forms of disturbance might affect antipredator behavior. Fire is a contemporary disturbance that has dramatic effects on terrestrial habitats. Such habitats may have also experienced past disturbances, like agricultural land use, that leave lasting legacies on habitat structure (e.g., overstory and understory composition)....

GABAA presynaptic inhibition regulates the gain and kinetics of retinal output neurons

Jenna Nagy, Briana Ebbinghaus, Mrinalini Hoon & Raunak Sinha
Output signals of neural circuits, including the retina, are shaped by a combination of excitatory and inhibitory signals. Inhibitory signals can act presynaptically on axon terminals to control neurotransmitter release and regulate circuit function. However, it has been difficult to study the role of presynaptic inhibition in most neural circuits due to lack of cell-type specific and receptor-type specific perturbations. In this study, we used a transgenic approach to selectively eliminate GABAA inhibitory receptors from...

Data from: Patterns of genetic differentiation in Colorado potato beetle correlate with contemporary, not historic, potato land cover

Michael S. Crossley, Silvia I. Rondon & Sean D. Schoville
Changing landscape heterogeneity can influence connectivity and alter genetic variation in local populations, but there can be a lag between ecological change and evolutionary responses. Temporal lag effects might be acute in agroecosystems, where land cover has changed substantially in the last two centuries. Here, we evaluate how patterns of an insect pest's genetic differentiation are related to past and present agricultural land cover change over a 150-year period. We quantified change in the amount...

Data from: The demography of a resource specialist in the tropics: Cecropia trees and the fitness of three-toed sloths

Mario F. Garces-Restrepo, M. Zachariah Peery & Jonathan N. Pauli
Resource specialists persist on a narrow range of resources. Consequently, the abundance of key resources should drive vital rates, individual fitness and population viability. While Neotropical forests feature both high levels of biodiversity and numbers of specialist species, no studies have directly evaluated how the variation of key resources affects the fitness of a tropical specialist. Here, we quantified the effect of key tree species density and forest cover on the fitness of three-toed sloths...

Data from: Monitoring vultures in the 21st century: the need for standardized protocols

Paula L. Perrig, Sergio A. Lambertucci, Emiliano Donadio, Julian Padro & Jonathan N. Pauli
This article calls on scientists, managers and organizations focused on vulture conservation to promote and use standardized monitoring programs based on sampling of molted feathers.

Data from: A critical appraisal of the placement of Xiphosura (Chelicerata) with account of known sources of phylogenetic error

Jesus A. Ballesteros & Prashant P. Sharma
Horseshoe crabs (Xiphosura) are traditionally regarded as sister to the clade of terrestrial chelicerates (Arachnida). This hypothesis has been challenged by recent phylogenomic analyses, but the non-monophyly of Arachnida has consistently been disregarded as artifactual. We reevaluated the placement of Xiphosura among chelicerates using the most complete phylogenetic dataset to date, expanding outgroup sampling and including data from whole genome sequencing projects. In spite of uncertainty in theplacement of some arachnid clades, all analyses show...

Two new sesquiterpenoid lactone derivatives from Lindera aggregata

Song-Song Wen, Yan Wang, Jia-Ping Xu, Qi Liu, Lei Zhang, Jing Zheng, Lin Li, Na Zhang, Xin Liu, Yu-Wen Xu & Zhen-Liang Sun
Two new sesquiterpenoid lactone derivatives, linderin A (1) and linderin B (2) comprising a sesquiterpenoid lactone and a methyl geranylhomogentisate moiety together with six known compounds were isolated from the roots of Lindera aggregata. Their chemical structures were elucidated using extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1 D, 2 D NMR, and HR-ESI-MS data and compared with previously reported data. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were assigned based on the electronic circular dichroism calculation. Compound...

A semi-parametric Bayesian approach for detection of gene expression heterosis with RNA-seq data

Ran Bi & Peng Liu
Heterosis refers to the superior performance of a hybrid offspring over its two inbred parents. Although heterosis has been widely observed in agriculture, its molecular mechanism is not well studied. Recent advances in high-throughput genomic technologies such as RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) facilitate the investigation of heterosis at the gene expression level. However, it is challenging to identify genes exhibiting heterosis using RNA-seq data because high-dimension of hypotheses tests are conducted with limited sample size. Furthermore,...

A semi-parametric Bayesian approach for detection of gene expression heterosis with RNA-seq data

Ran Bi & Peng Liu
Heterosis refers to the superior performance of a hybrid offspring over its two inbred parents. Although heterosis has been widely observed in agriculture, its molecular mechanism is not well studied. Recent advances in high-throughput genomic technologies such as RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) facilitate the investigation of heterosis at the gene expression level. However, it is challenging to identify genes exhibiting heterosis using RNA-seq data because high-dimension of hypotheses tests are conducted with limited sample size. Furthermore,...

Forest phenoclusters for Argentina based on vegetation phenology and climate

Eduarda Silveira, Volker Radeloff, Guillermo Martínez Pastur, Sebastián Martinuzzi, Natalia Politi, Leonidas Lizarraga, Luis Rivera, Gregorio Gavier-Pizarro, He Yin, Yamina Rosas, Noelia Calamari, María Navarro, Yanina Sica, Ashley Olah, Julieta Bono & Anna Pidgeon
Forest biodiversity conservation and species distribution modeling greatly benefit from broad-scale forest maps depicting tree species or forest types rather than just presence and absence of forest, or coarse classifications. Ideally, such maps would stem from satellite image classification based on abundant field data for both model training and accuracy assessments, but such field-data does not exist in many parts of the globe. However, different forest types and tree species differ in their vegetation phenology,...

Nucleo-cytoplasmic RNA distribution responsible for maintaining neuroinflammatory microenvironment

Yuyan Liao, Chenghao Kuang, Zheng Bao, Yijing He, Long Gu, Qianke Tao, Xiancheng Qiu, Ghosh Dipritu, Xi Kong, Lifang Zhang, Jianhua Peng, Yong Jiang & Shigang Yin
Subcellular localization of transcripts is highly associated with regulation of gene expression, synthesis of protein, and also the development of the human brain cortex. Although many mechanisms are prevalent in the occurrence of neuroinflammation, the mechanisms based on differences in subcellular localization of transcripts have not been explored. To characterize the dynamic profile of nuclear and cytoplasmic transcripts during the progress of haemorrhage-induced neuroinflammation, we isolated nucleo-cytoplasmic RNA fractions of oxyhaemoglobin (oxy-Hb) treated microglia cells...

Demographic History and Genomic Targets of Positive Selection in Giant Gough Mice

Peicheng Jing & Bret Payseur
A key challenge in understanding how natural selection operates is to identify the mutations and genes that make it possible. Positive selection on beneficial mutations distorts linked variation by altering the site frequency spectrum, the configuration of haplotypes, and population differentiation. By comparing patterns of sequence variation to neutral predictions across genomes, the targets of positive selection can be located. We applied this logic to an unusual population of house mice that shows phenotypic and...

Complex trait‒environment relationships underlie the structure of forest plant communities

Andres Rolhauser, Donald Waller & Caroline Tucker
Traits differentially adapt plant species to particular conditions generating compositional shifts along environmental gradients. As a result, community-scale trait values show concomitant shifts, termed trait‒environment relationships. Trait‒environment relationships are often assessed by evaluating community-weighted mean (CWM) traits observed along environmental gradients. Regression-based approaches (CWMr) assume that local communities exhibit traits centered at a single optimum value and that traits do not covary meaningfully. Evidence suggests that the shape of trait‒abundance relationships can vary widely along...

Buffering lidocaine heightens aversion to cornual nerve injections in dairy calves

Cassandra Tucker & Sarah Adcock
It is best practice to numb the horn buds before disbudding dairy calves, which can be achieved by injecting lidocaine, a local anesthetic, around the cornual nerve. In humans, the acute pain that occurs upon injection of lidocaine can be reduced by neutralizing the pH of the solution with an alkalizing agent, such as sodium bicarbonate. We evaluated whether buffering lidocaine would reduce calves’ behavioral and physiological responses to cornual nerve blocks on the left...

Corticothalamic gating of population auditory thalamocortical transmission in mouse

Baher Ibrahim, Caitlin Murphy, Georgiy Yudintsev, Matthew I. Banks, Daniel A. Llano & Yoshitaka Shinagawa
The mechanisms that govern thalamocortical transmission are poorly understood. Recent data have shown that sensory stimuli elicit activity in ensembles of cortical neurons that recapitulate stereotyped spontaneous activity patterns. Here, we elucidate a possible mechanism by which gating of patterned population cortical activity occurs. In this study, sensory-evoked all-or-none cortical population responses were observed in the mouse auditory cortex in vivo and similar stochastic cortical responses were observed in a colliculo-thalamocortical brain slice preparation. Cortical...

Understanding degraded speech leads to perceptual gating of a brainstem reflex in human listeners

Heivet Hernandez Perez, Jason Mikiel-Hunter, David McAlpine, Sumitrajit Dhar, Sriram Boothalingam, Jessica J.M. Monaghan & Catherine M. McMahon
The ability to navigate “cocktail-party” situations by focussing on sounds of interest over irrelevant, background sounds is often considered in terms of cortical mechanisms. However, subcortical circuits such as the pathway underlying the medial olivocochlear (MOC) reflex modulate the activity of the inner ear itself, supporting the extraction of salient features from auditory scene prior to any cortical processing. To understand the contribution of auditory subcortical nuclei and the cochlea in complex listening tasks, we...

Illumination of cell cycle progression by multi-fluorescent sensing system

Shuo Liu, Jun Li, Teng Wang, Jiawen Xu, Zhipei Liu, Haobin Wang, Gong-Hong Wei, Alessandro Ianni, Thomas Braun & Shijing Yue
Multi-fluorescent imaging of cell cycle progression is essential for the study of cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. However, there remain challenges, particularly to image cell cycle progression in living cell with available imaging techniques due to lacking the suitable probe. Here, we design a triple fluorescent sensors system making the cell cycle progression visible. Multi-fluorescent sensor shows the proliferating or proliferated cells with different colors. We thus generate the construct and adenovirus to...

Illumination of cell cycle progression by multi-fluorescent sensing system

Shuo Liu, Jun Li, Teng Wang, Jiawen Xu, Zhipei Liu, Haobin Wang, Gong-Hong Wei, Alessandro Ianni, Thomas Braun & Shijing Yue
Multi-fluorescent imaging of cell cycle progression is essential for the study of cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. However, there remain challenges, particularly to image cell cycle progression in living cell with available imaging techniques due to lacking the suitable probe. Here, we design a triple fluorescent sensors system making the cell cycle progression visible. Multi-fluorescent sensor shows the proliferating or proliferated cells with different colors. We thus generate the construct and adenovirus to...

Numerical simulation of supercell thunderstorms (at 50 meter resolution) associated with above anvil cirrus plumes

Leigh Orf
Four-dimensional data from high-resolution simulations (50 meter grid spacing) of supercell thunderstorms conducted on the Frontera supercomputer are contained in this archive. Output from two simulations is included, named "Strong" and "Weak". In the Strong simulation, data from parcel trajectories is also included. The four-dimensional (time, and three dimensions of space) data and parcel data is saved in Network Common Data Format (NetCDF), version 4, an open-source self-describing scientific data format commonly used in the...

Functional redundancy changes along a drought stress gradient for the shift of selection effect to complementarity effect in experimental plant communities

Song Gao, Xiaoyan Wang, Tong Chen, Qiaodi Yan, Mengchun Shen, Jiang Wang & Feihai Yu
Species interactions alter with environmental change, which influences the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF). How BEF relationships change with environments requires knowledge of the changes of functional attributes in individual species in response to environmental change. Here, we assembled experimental plant communities with different species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16) and exposed them to a drought stress gradient (control, moderate and intensive drought stress). Functional redundancy decreased with increasing drought stress...

Mammals adjust diel activity across gradients of urbanization

Travis Gallo, Mason Fidino, Brian Gerber, Adam Ahlers, Julia Angstmann, Max Amaya, Amy Concilio, David Drake, Danielle Gray, Elizabeth Lehrer, Maureen Murray, Travis Ryan, Colleen St. Clair, Carmen Salsbury, Heather Sander, Theodore Stankowich, Jaque Williamson, Amy Belaire, Kelly Simone & Seth Magle
Time is a fundamental component of ecological processes. How animal behavior changes over time has been explored through well-known ecological theories like niche partitioning and predator-prey dynamics. Yet, changes in animal behavior within the shorter 24-hour light-dark cycle have largely gone unstudied. Understanding if an animal can adjust their temporal activity to mitigate or adapt to environmental change has become a recent topic of discussion and is important for effective wildlife management and conservation. While...

Experimental repatriation of snowshoe hares along a southern range boundary reveals historical community interactions

Evan Wilson, Benjamin Zuckerberg, Zach Peery & Jonathan Pauli
Climate change is altering interspecific interactions globally, yet community-level responses are difficult to predict due to both the direct and indirect effects of changing abiotic and biotic conditions. Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) are particularly vulnerable to decreasing snow cover and resultant camouflage mismatch. This species shares a suite of predators with alternative prey species including porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) and ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), and all three species historically exhibited synchronized population dynamics. Recently, the community...

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