Calochortus (Liliaceae) displays high species richness, restriction of many individual taxa to narrow ranges, geographic coherence of individual clades, and parallel adaptive radiations in different regions. Here we test the first part of a hypothesis that all of these patterns may reflect gene flow at small geographic scales. We use amplified fragment length polymorphism variation to quantify the geographic scales of spatial genetic structure and apparent gene flow in Calochortus albus, a widespread member of...
Data from: Contemporary genetic structure of an endemic freshwater turtle reflects Miocene orogenesis of New Guinea.Arthur Georges, Xiuwen Zhang, Peter Unmack, Brendan N. Reid, Minh Le, William P. McCord & Brenden N. Reid
The island of New Guinea lies in one of the most tectonically active regions in the world and has long provided outstanding opportunity for studies of biogeography. Several chelid turtles, of clear Gondwanal origin, occur in New Guinea; all species except one, the endemic Elseya novaeguineae, are restricted to the lowlands south of the Central Ranges. Elseya novaeguineae is found throughout New Guinea. We use mitochondrial and nuclear gene variation among populations of E. novaeguineae...
Data from: Behavior and nutritional condition buffer a large-bodied endotherm against direct and indirect effects of climateRyan A. Long, R. Terry Bowyer, Warren P. Porter, Paul Mathewson, Kevin Lee Monteith & John G. Kie
Temporal changes in net energy balance of animals strongly influence fitness; consequently, natural selection should favor behaviors that increase net energy balance by buffering individuals against negative effects of environmental variation. The relative importance of behavioral responses to climate-induced variation in costs versus supplies of energy, however, is uncertain, as is the degree to which such responses are mediated by current stores of energy. We evaluated relationships among behavior, nutritional condition (i.e., energetic state), and...
Data from: Daily foraging patterns in free-living birds: exploring the predation-starvation trade-offDavid N. Bonter, Benjamin Zuckerberg, Carolyn W. Sedgwick & Wesley M. Hochachka
Daily patterns in the foraging behaviour of birds are assumed to balance the counteracting risks of predation and starvation. Predation risks are a function of the influence of weight on flight performance and foraging behaviours that may expose individuals to predators. Although recent research sheds light on daily patterns in weight gain, little data exist on daily foraging routines in free-living birds. In order to test the predictions of various hypotheses about daily patterns of...
“Space-for-time” substitution is widely used in biodiversity modeling to infer past or future trajectories of ecological systems from contemporary spatial patterns. However, the foundational assumption—that drivers of spatial gradients of species composition also drive temporal changes in diversity—rarely is tested. Here, we empirically test the space-for-time assumption by constructing orthogonal datasets of compositional turnover of plant taxa and climatic dissimilarity through time and across space from Late Quaternary pollen records in eastern North America, then...
Data from: Feasting in fresh water: impacts of food concentration on freshwater tolerance and the evolution of food x salinity response during the expansion from saline into fresh water habitatsCarol Eunmi Lee, Wynne E. Moss, Nora Olson, Kevin Fongching Chau, Yu-Mei Chang & Kelsey E. Johnson
Saline to freshwater invasions have become increasingly common in recent years. A key hypothesis is that rates of freshwater invasions have been amplified in recent years by increased food concentration, yet this hypothesis has remained unexplored. We examined whether elevated food concentration could enhance freshwater tolerance, and whether this effect evolves following saline to freshwater invasions. We examined physiological response to salinity and food concentration in a 2 × 2 factorial design, using ancestral brackish...
Data from: Non-genomic transmission of paternal behavior between fathers and sons in the monogamous and biparental California mouseErin D. Gleason & Catherine A. Marler
Maternal behaviour has profound, long-lasting implications for the health and well-being of developing offspring. In the monogamous California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), care by both parents is critical for offspring survival. We tested the hypothesis that similar to maternal care in rodents, paternal huddling and grooming (HG) behaviour can be transmitted to future generations via behavioural mechanisms. In California mice, testosterone maintains paternal HG behaviour. In the present study, we randomly assigned a group of male...
Data from: Leaf form and photosynthetic physiology of Dryopteris species distributed along light gradients in eastern North AmericaEmily B. Sessa & Thomas J. Givnish
1.Despite the ubiquity of ferns and at least tacit recognition by botanists that their physiology is unique among land plants, most studies on fern physiology have focused on only a few, locally distributed, usually distantly related species. No previous study has attempted to examine physiological adaptations in a group of widespread taxa that are closely related and whose relationships are well understood. Here we report leaf form and physiological measures for such a group, the...
The analysis of systems involving many loci is important in population and quantitative genetics. An important problem is the study of linkage disequilibrium (LD), a concept relevant in genome-enabled prediction of quantitative traits and in exploration of marker-phenotype associations. This article introduces a new estimator of a LD parameter (ρ^2) that is much easier to compute than a maximum likelihood (or Bayesian) estimate of a tetra-choric correlation. We examined the conjecture that the sampling distribution...
Women rarely give birth after approximately 45 years of age, and they experience the cessation of reproductive cycles – menopause – at approximately 50 years of age, after a fertility decline lasting almost two decades. Such reproductive senescence in mid-lifespan is an evolutionary puzzle of enduring interest because it should be inherently disadvantageous. Further, comparative data on reproductive senescence from other primates, or indeed other mammals, remains relatively rare. Here we carried out the first...
University of Wisconsin-Madison10
University of North Carolina1
University of Wyoming1
Idaho State University1
Institute of Primate Research1
Royal Veterinary College1
University of Göttingen1
VNU Central Institute for Natural Resources and Environmental Studies1