Using photos of captive Andean bears of known age and pedigree, and photos of wild Andean bear cubs <6 months old, we evaluated the degree to which visual information may be used to estimate bears’ ages and assess their kinship. We demonstrate that the ages of Andean bear cubs ≤6 months old may be estimated from their size relative to their mothers with an average error of <0.01 ± 13.2 days (SD; n = 14),...
Bushmeat hunting threatens biodiversity and increases the risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission. Nevertheless, limited information exists on patterns of contact with wildlife in communities that practice bushmeat hunting, especially with respect to social drivers of hunting behavior. We used interview responses from hunters and non-hunters in rural hunting communities in Nigeria to: 1) quantify contact rates with wildlife, 2) identify specific hunting behaviors that increase frequency of contact, 3) identify socioeconomic factors that predispose individuals...
Data from: Prioritizing land management efforts at a landscape scale: a case study using prescribed fire in WisconsinTracy L. Hmielowski, Sarah K. Carter, Hannah Spaul, David P. Helmers, Volker C. Radeloff, Paul H. Zedler & David Helmers
One challenge in the effort to conserve biodiversity is identifying where to prioritize resources for active land management. Cost-benefit analyses have been used successfully as a conservation tool to identify sites that provide the greatest conservation benefit per unit cost. Our goal was to apply cost-benefit analysis to the question of how to prioritize land management efforts, in our case the application of prescribed fire to natural landscapes in Wisconsin, USA. We quantified and mapped...
Data from: Severity of mitral valve degeneration is associated with chromosome 15 loci in Whippet dogsJoshua A. Stern, Weihow Hsue, Kun-Ho Song, Eric S. Ontiveros, Virginia Luis Fuentes & Rebecca L. Stepien
Mitral valve degeneration (MVD) is the most common form of heart disease in dogs, frequently leading to left-sided congestive heart failure and cardiac mortality. Although breed-specific disease characteristics and overrepresentation point towards a genetic origin for MVD, a causative mutation and complete molecular pathogenesis are unknown. Whippet dogs are overrepresented in incidence of MVD, suggesting an inherited component in this breed. Expressivity of this condition is variable with some dogs showing evidence of more severe...
Data from: Spatially varying selection shapes life history clines among populations of Drosophila melanogaster from sub-Saharan AfricaDaniel K. Fabian, Justin B. Lack, Vinayak Mathur, Christian Schlötterer, Paul S. Schmidt, John E. Pool & Thomas Flatt
Clines in life history traits, presumably driven by spatially varying selection, are widespread. Major latitudinal clines have been observed, for example, in Drosophila melanogaster, an ancestrally tropical insect from Africa that has colonized temperate habitats on multiple continents. Yet, how geographic factors other than latitude, such as altitude or longitude, affect life history in this species remains poorly understood. Moreover, most previous work has been performed on derived European, American and Australian populations, but whether...
Data from: Development of sound localization strategies in children with bilateral cochlear implantsYi Zheng, Shelly P. Godar & Ruth Y. Litovsky
Localizing sounds in our environment is one of the fundamental perceptual abilities that enable humans to communicate, and to remain safe. Because the acoustic cues necessary for computing source locations consist of differences between the two ears in signal intensity and arrival time, sound localization is fairly poor when a single ear is available. In adults who become deaf and are fitted with cochlear implants (CIs) sound localization is known to improve when bilateral CIs...
Data from: Auxotrophy and intra-population complementary in the 'interactome' of a cultivated freshwater model communitySarahi L. Garcia, Moritz Buck, Katherine D. McMahon, Hans-Peter Grossart, Alexander Eiler & Falk Warnecke
Microorganisms are usually studied either in highly complex natural communities or in isolation as monoclonal model populations that we manage to grow in the laboratory. Here, we uncover the biology of some of the most common and yet-uncultured bacteria in freshwater environments using a mixed culture from Lake Grosse Fuchskuhle. From a single shotgun metagenome of a freshwater mixed culture of low complexity, we recovered four high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) for metabolic reconstruction. This analysis...
Data from: Female discrimination thresholds frequently exceed local male display variation: implications for mate choice dynamics and sexual selectionGerlinde Höbel
Among the factors that can influence female mate choice decisions is the degree to which females differentiate among similar displays: as differences decrease, females are expected to eventually stop discriminating. This discrimination threshold, in conjunction with the magnitude of male trait variation females regularly encounter while making mate choice decisions, may have important consequences for sexual selection. If local display variation is above the discrimination threshold, female preferences should translate into higher mating success for...
Data from: Fire severity unaffected by spruce beetle outbreak in spruce-fir forests in southwestern ColoradoRobert A. Andrus, Thomas T. Veblen, Brian J. Harvey & Sarah J. Hart
Recent large and severe outbreaks of native bark beetles have raised concern among the general public and land managers about potential for amplified fire activity in western North America. To date, the majority of studies examining bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fire severity in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have focused on outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests, but few studies, particularly field studies, have addressed the effects...
Data from: Phylogenomics and historical biogeography of the monocot order Liliales: out of Australia and through AntarcticaThomas J. Givnish, Alejandro Zuluaga, Isabel Marques, Vivienne K. Y. Lam, Marybel Soto Gomez, William J. D. Iles, Mercedes Ames, Daniel Spalink, Jackson R. Moeller, Barbara G. Briggs, Stephanie P. Lyon, Dennis W. Stevenson, Wendy Zomlefer & Sean W. Graham
We present the first phylogenomic analysis of relationships among all ten families of Liliales, based on 75 plastid genes from 35 species in 29 genera, and 97 additional plastomes stratified across angiosperm lineages. We used a supermatrix approach to extend our analysis to 58 of 64 genera of Liliales, and calibrated the resulting phylogeny against 17 fossil dates to produce a new timeline for monocot evolution. Liliales diverged from other monocots 124 Mya and began...
Data from: Fire may mediate effects of landscape connectivity on plant community richness in prairie remnantsAmy O. Alstad & Ellen I. Damschen
Following the predictions of island biogeography and metapopulation theory, efforts to understand and maintain plant communities have focused on spatial attributes such as patch size and connectivity. However, despite a large body of literature, the effects of these spatial attributes remain uncertain, and accumulating evidence suggests that they may interact with local patch characteristics. Here, we assess the role of spatial attributes (patch size and connectivity at two time periods) and of patch quality (indicated...
Data from: Selection of Pairings Reaching Evenly Across the Data (SPREAD): a simple algorithm to design maximally informative fully crossed mating experimentsKolea Zimmerman, Daniel Levitis, Ethan Addicott & Anne Pringle
We present a novel algorithm for the design of crossing experiments. The algorithm identifies a set of individuals (a "crossing-set") from a larger pool of potential crossing-sets by maximizing the diversity of traits of interest, for example, maximizing the range of genetic and geographic distances between individuals included in the crossing-set. To calculate diversity, we use the mean nearest neighbor distance of crosses plotted in trait space. We implement our algorithm on a real dataset...
Quantifying global patterns of terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycling is central to predicting future patterns of primary productivity, carbon sequestration, nutrient fluxes to aquatic systems, and climate forcing. With limited direct measures of soil N cycling at the global scale, syntheses of the 15N:14N ratio of soil organic matter across climate gradients provide key insights into understanding global patterns of N cycling. In synthesizing data from over 6000 soil samples, we show strong global relationships among...
Data from: Exploring tree-like and non-tree-like patterns using genome sequences: an example using the inbreeding plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.Noah Stenz, Bret Larget, David A. Baum & Cécile Ané
Genome sequence data contain abundant information about genealogical history, but methods for extracting and interpreting this information are not yet fully developed. We analyzed genome sequences for multiple accessions of the selfing plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, with the goal of better understanding its genealogical history. As expected from accessions of the same species, we found much discordance between nuclear gene trees. Nonetheless, we inferred the optimal population tree under the assumption that all discordance is due...
University of Wisconsin-Madison39
Michigan State University6
University of Georgia2
University of Minnesota2
University of California, Berkeley2
University of Florida2
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences2
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute2
University of British Columbia2