49 Works

Data from: Landscape variation in tree regeneration and snag fall drive fuel loads in 25-yr old post-fire lodgepole pine forests

Kellen N. Nelson, Monica G. Turner, William H. Romme & Daniel B. Tinker
Escalating wildfire in subalpine forests with stand-replacing fire regimes is increasing the extent of early-seral forests throughout the western US. Post-fire succession generates the fuel for future fires, but little is known about fuel loads and their variability in young post-fire stands. We sampled fuel profiles in 24-year-old post-fire lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) stands (n=82) that regenerated from the 1988 Yellowstone Fires to answer three questions. (1) How do canopy and surface fuel...

Data from: Nematode-bacteria nutualism: selection within the mutualism supersedes selection outside of the mutualism

Levi T. Morran, McKenna J. Penley, Victoria S. Byrd, Andrew J. Meyer, Timothy S. O'Sullivan, Farrah Bashey-Visser, Heidi Goodrich-Blair, Curtis M. Lively & Farrah Bashey
The coevolution of interacting species can lead to codependent mutualists. Little is known about the effect of selection on partners within verses apart from the association. Here, we determined the effect of selection on bacteria (Xenorhabdus nematophila) both within and apart from its mutualistic partner (a nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae). In nature, the two species cooperatively infect and kill arthropods. We passaged the bacteria either together with (M+), or isolated from (M−), nematodes under two different...

Data from: Phytochemical traits underlie genotypic variation in susceptibility of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) to browsing by a keystone forest ungulate

Liza Holeski, Sean McKenzie, Eric Kruger, John J. Couture, Kennedy Rubert-Nason, Richard L. Lindroth, Liza M. Holeski, Sean C. McKenzie & Eric L. Kruger
1.Overbrowsing by ungulates is a major cause of poor aspen stand regeneration across North America and Eurasia. In general, factors driving ungulate browser preferences include concentrations of plant secondary compounds and the nutritional composition (non-structural carbohydrates, protein, and minerals) of foliage. While each of these phytochemical factors has been shown to independently influence ungulate preference, the relative impact of each factor is unknown, as no study to date has examined them simultaneously. 2.Plant fitness depends...

Data from: Whole genome duplication in coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and its implications for explaining the rarity of polyploidy in conifers

Alison Dawn Scott, Noah W. M. Stenz, Pär K. Ingvarsson & David A. Baum
Polyploidy is common and an important evolutionary factor in most land plant lineages, but it is rare in gymnosperms. Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) is one of just two polyploid conifer species and the only hexaploid. Evidence from fossil guard cell size suggests that polyploidy in Sequoia dates to the Eocene. Numerous hypotheses about the mechanism of polyploidy and parental genome donors have been proposed, based primarily on morphological and cytological data, but it remains unclear...

Data from: A gene for genetic background in Zea mays: fine-mapping enhancer of teosinte branched1.2 to a YABBY class transcription factor

Chin Jian Yang, Lisa E. Kursel, Anthony J. Studer, Madelaine E. Bartlett, Clinton J. Whipple & John F. Doebley
The effects of an allelic substitution at a gene often depend critically on genetic background, i.e., the genotypes at other genes in the genome. During the domestication of maize from its wild ancestor (teosinte), an allelic substitution at teosinte branched (tb1) caused changes in both plant and ear architecture. The effects of tb1 on phenotype were shown to depend on multiple background loci, including one called enhancer of tb1.2 (etb1.2). We mapped etb1.2 to a...

Data from: Habitat, predators, and hosts regulate disease in Daphnia through direct and indirect pathways

Alexander T. Strauss, Marta S. Shocket, David J. Civitello, Jessica L. Hite, Rachel M. Penczykowski, Meghan A. Duffy, Carla E. Cáceres & Spencer R. Hall
Community ecology can link habitat to disease via interactions among habitat, focal hosts, other hosts, their parasites, and predators. However, complicated food web interactions (i.e., trophic interactions among predators, and their impacts on host density and diversity) often obscure the important pathways regulating disease. Here, we disentangle community drivers in a case study of planktonic disease, using a two-step approach. In step one, we tested univariate field patterns linking community interactions to two disease metrics....

Data from: Blood does not buy goodwill: allowing culling increases poaching of a large carnivore

Guillaume Chapron & Adrian Treves
Quantifying environmental crime and the effectiveness of policy interventions is difficult because perpetrators typically conceal evidence. To prevent illegal uses of natural resources, such as poaching endangered species, governments have advocated granting policy flexibility to local authorities by liberalizing culling or hunting of large carnivores. We present the first quantitative evaluation of the hypothesis that liberalizing culling will reduce poaching and improve population status of an endangered carnivore. We show that allowing wolf (Canis lupus)...

Data from: Ontogenetic responses of four plant species to additive and interactive effects of land-use history, canopy structure and herbivory

Philip G. Hahn & John L. Orrock
The strength of interactions among species is often highly variable in space and time, and a major challenge in understanding context-dependent effects of herbivores lies in disentangling habitat-mediated from herbivore-mediated effects on plant performance. We conducted a landscape-scale experiment that manipulated light availability in woodlands with either a history of agricultural use or no history of agricultural use and coupled this with performance measurements of three life stages on four perennial herbaceous species exposed to...

Data from: Statistical evidence for common ancestry: application to primates

David A. Baum, Cécile Ané, Bret Larget, Claudia Solís-Lemus, Lam Si Tung Ho, Peggy Boone, Chloe Drummond, Martin Bontrager, Steven Hunter, Bill Saucier, Chloe P. Drummond, Steven J. Hunter & William Saucier
Since Darwin, biologists have come to recognize that the theory of descent from common ancestry is very well supported by diverse lines of evidence. However, while the qualitative evidence is overwhelming, we also need formal methods for quantifying the evidential support for common ancestry (CA) over the alternative hypothesis of separate ancestry (SA). In this paper we explore a diversity of statistical methods, using data from the primates. We focus on two alternatives to CA,...

Data from: Spatial variability in tree regeneration after wildfire delays and dampens future bark beetle outbreaks

Rupert Seidl, Daniel C. Donato, Kenneth F. Raffa & Monica G. Turner
Climate change is altering the frequency and severity of forest disturbances such as wildfires and bark beetle outbreaks, thereby increasing the potential for sequential disturbances to interact. Interactions can amplify or dampen disturbances, yet the direction and magnitude of future disturbance interactions are difficult to anticipate because underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We tested how variability in postfire forest development affects future susceptibility to bark beetle outbreaks, focusing on mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and...

Data from: Assessing faculty professional development in STEM higher education: sustainability of outcomes

Terry L. Derting, Heather A. Passmore, Timothy P. Henkel, Bryan Arnold, Jessica Middlemis Maher & Diane Ebert-May
We tested the effectiveness of Faculty Institutes for Reforming Science Teaching IV (FIRST), a professional development program for postdoctoral scholars, by conducting a study of program alumni. Faculty professional development programs are critical components of efforts to improve teaching and learning in the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) disciplines, but reliable evidence of the sustained impacts of these programs is lacking. We used a paired design in which we matched a FIRST alumnus employed...

Data from: Climate change surpasses land use change in the contracting range boundary of a winter-adapted mammal

Sean M. Sultaire, Jonathan N. Pauli, Karl J. Martin, Michael W. Meyer, Michael Notaro & Benjamin Zuckerberg
The effects of climate change on biodiversity has emerged as a dominant theme in conservation biology, possibly eclipsing concern over habitat loss in recent years. The extent to which this shifting focus has tracked the most eminent threats to biodiversity is not well documented. We investigated the mechanisms driving shifts in the southern range boundary of a forest and snow cover specialist, the snowshoe hare, to explore how its range boundary has responded to shifting...

Data from: Akt-mTORC1 signaling regulates Acly to integrate metabolic input to control of macrophage activation

Anthony J. Covarrubias, Halil Ibrahim Aksoylar, Jiujiu Yu, Nathaniel W. Snyder, Andrew J. Worth, Shankar S. Iyer, Jiawei Wang, Issam Ben-Sahra, Vanessa Byles, Tiffany Polynne-Stapornkul, Erika C. Espinosa, Dudley Lamming, Brendan D. Manning, Yijing Zhang, Ian A. Blair & Tiffany Horng
Macrophage activation/polarization to distinct functional states is critically supported by metabolic shifts. How polarizing signals coordinate metabolic and functional reprogramming, and the potential implications for control of macrophage activation, remains poorly understood. Here we show that IL-4 signaling co-opts the Akt-mTORC1 pathway to regulate Acly, a key enzyme in Ac-CoA synthesis, leading to increased histone acetylation and M2 gene induction. Only a subset of M2 genes is controlled in this way, including those regulating cellular...

Data from: The pace of plant community change is accelerating in remnant prairies

Amy O. Alstad, Ellen I. Damschen, Thomas J. Givnish, John A. Harrington, Mark L. Leach, David A. Rogers & Donald M. Waller
Patterns of biodiversity are changing rapidly. “Legacy studies” use historical data to document changes between past and present communities, revealing long-term trends that can often be linked to particular drivers of ecological change. However, a single pair of historical samples cannot ascertain whether rates of change are consistent or whether the impact and identity of drivers have shifted. Using data from a second resurvey of 47 Wisconsin prairie remnants, we show that the pace of...

Data from: Female and male life tables for seven wild primate species

Anne M. Bronikowski, Marina Cords, Susan C. Alberts, Jeanne Altmann, Diane K. Brockman, Linda M. Fedigan, Anne Pusey, Tara Stoinski, Karen B. Strier & William F. Morris
We provide male and female census count data, age-specific survivorship, and female age-specific fertility estimates for populations of seven wild primates that have been continuously monitored for at least 29 years: sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) in Madagascar; muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) in Brazil; capuchin (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica; baboon (Papio cynocephalus) and blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya; chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Tanzania; and gorilla (Gorilla beringei) in Rwanda. Using one-year age-class intervals, we computed point...

Data from: Controlled comparison of species- and community-level models across novel climates and communities

Kaitlin Clare Maguire, Diego Nieto-Lugilde, Jessica Blois, Matthew Fitzpatrick, John Williams, Simon Ferrier & David Lorenz
Species distribution models (SDMs) assume species exist in isolation and do not influence one another's distributions, thus potentially limiting their ability to predict biodiversity patterns. Community-level models (CLMs) capitalize on species co-occurrences to fit shared environmental responses of species and communities, and therefore may result in more robust and transferable models. Here, we conduct a controlled comparison of five paired SDMs and CLMs across changing climates, using palaeoclimatic simulations and fossil-pollen records of eastern North...

Data from: Conditional vulnerability of plant diversity to atmospheric nitrogen deposition across the United States

Samuel M. Simkin, Edith B. Allen, William D. Bowman, Christopher M. Clark, Jayne Belnap, Matthew L. Brooks, Brian S. Cade, Scott L. Collins, Linda H. Geiser, Frank S. Gilliam, Sarah E. Jovan, Linda H. Pardo, Bethany K. Schulz, Carly J. Stevens, Katharine N. Suding, Heather L. Throop & Donald M. Waller
Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has been shown to decrease plant species richness along regional deposition gradients in Europe and in experimental manipulations. However, the general response of species richness to N deposition across different vegetation types, soil conditions, and climates remains largely unknown even though responses may be contingent on these environmental factors. We assessed the effect of N deposition on herbaceous richness for 15,136 forest, woodland, shrubland, and grassland sites across the continental United...

Data from: Shape analysis of moss (Bryophyta) sporophytes: insights into land plant evolution

Jeffrey P. Rose, Ricardo Kriebel & Kenneth J. Sytsma
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The alternation of generations life cycle represents a key feature of land-plant evolution and has resulted in a diverse array of sporophyte forms and modifications in all groups of land plants. We test the hypothesis that evolution of sporangium (capsule) shape of the mosses—the second most diverse land-plant lineage—has been driven by differing physiological demands of life in diverse habitats. This study provides an important conceptual framework for analyzing the evolution...

Data from: Genetic effects of landscape, habitat preference, and demography on three co-occurring turtle species

Brendan N. Reid, David J. Mladenoff & M. Zachariah Peery
Expanding the scope of landscape genetics beyond the level of single species can help to reveal how species traits influence responses to environmental change. Multispecies studies are particularly valuable in highly threatened taxa, such as turtles, in which the impacts of anthropogenic change are strongly influenced by interspecific differences in life-history strategies, habitat preferences, and mobility. We sampled approximately 1500 individuals of three co-occurring turtle species across a gradient of habitat change (including varying loss...

Data from: Factors related to building loss due to wildfires in the conterminous United States

Patricia M. Alexandre, Susan I. Stewart, Nicholas S. Keuler, Murray K. Clayton, Miranda H. Mockrin, Avi Bar-Massada, Alexandra D. Syphard & Volker C. Radeloff
Wildfire is globally an important ecological disturbance affecting biochemical cycles, and vegetation composition, but also puts people and their homes at risk. Suppressing wildfires has detrimental ecological effects and can promote larger and more intense wildfires when fuels accumulate, which increases the threat to buildings in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI). Yet, when wildfires occur, typically only a small proportion of the buildings within the fire perimeter are lost, and the question is what determines...

Data from: Colour change on different body regions provides thermal and signalling advantages in bearded dragon lizards

Kathleeen R. Smith, Viviana Cadena, John A. Endler, Warren P. Porter, Michael R. Kearney, Devi Stuart-Fox & Kathleen R. Smith
Many terrestrial ectotherms are capable of rapid colour change, yet it is unclear how these animals accommodate the multiple functions of colour, particularly camouflage, communication and thermoregulation, especially when functions require very different colours. Thermal benefits of colour change depend on an animal's absorptance of solar energy in both UV–visible (300–700 nm) and near-infrared (NIR; 700–2600 nm) wavelengths, yet colour research has focused almost exclusively on the former. Here, we show that wild-caught bearded dragon...

Data from: Experimental evidence does not support the Habitat Amount Hypothesis

Nick M. Haddad, Andrew Gonzalez, Lars A. Brudvig, Melissa A. Burt, Douglas J. Levey & Ellen I. Damschen
For a half century, habitat configuration – the arrangement of habitat patches within a landscape – has been central to theories of landscape ecology, population dynamics, and community assembly, in addition to conservation strategies. A recent hypothesis advanced by Fahrig (2013) would, if supported, greatly diminish the relevance of habitat configuration as a predictor of diversity. The Habitat Amount Hypothesis posits that the sample area effect overrides patch size and patch isolation effects of habitat...

Data from: Beyond animals and plants: dynamic maternal effects in the fungus Neurospora crassa

Kolea C. K. Zimmerman, Daniel A. Levitis & Anne Pringle
Maternal effects are widely documented in animals and plants, but not in fungi or other eukaryotes. A principal cause of maternal effects is asymmetrical parental investment in a zygote, creating greater maternal versus paternal influence on offspring phenotypes. Asymmetrical investments are not limited to animals and plants, but are also prevalent in fungi and groups including apicomplexans, dinoflagellates, and red algae. Evidence suggesting maternal effects among fungi is sparse and anecdotal. In an experiment designed...

Data from: Linking genetic kinship and demographic analyses to characterize dispersal: methods and application to Blanding’s turtle

Brendan N. Reid, Richard P. Thiel, Per J. Palsbøll & Marcus Z. Peery
Characterizing how frequently, and at what life stages and spatial scales, dispersal occurs can be difficult, especially for species with cryptic juvenile periods and long reproductive life spans. Using a combination of mark–recapture information, microsatellite genetic data, and demographic simulations, we characterize natal and breeding dispersal patterns in the long-lived, slow-maturing, and endangered Blanding’s turtle (Emydoidea blandingii), focusing on nesting females. We captured and genotyped 310 individual Blanding’s turtles (including 220 nesting females) in a...

Data from: Twenty-four years after the Yellowstone fires: are postfire lodgepole pine stands converging in structure and function?

Monica G. Turner, Timothy G. Whitby, Daniel B. Tinker & William H. Romme
Disturbance and succession have long been of interest in ecology, but how landscape patterns of ecosystem structure and function evolve following large disturbances is poorly understood. After nearly 25 years, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests that regenerated after the 1988 Yellowstone Fires (Wyoming, USA) offer a prime opportunity to track the fate of disturbance-created heterogeneity in stand structure and function in a wilderness setting. In 2012, we resampled 72 permanent plots to ask...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    49

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    49

Affiliations

  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
    49
  • University of Wyoming
    3
  • University of California, Merced
    2
  • Columbia University
    2
  • Duke University
    2
  • University of Groningen
    2
  • University of North Carolina
    2
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • McGill University
    2
  • Indiana University Bloomington
    2