102 Works

Distinguishing Impatiens capensis from Impatiens pallida (Balsaminaceae) using leaf traits

Heather Whitfield & Rachel Toczydlowski
Impatiens capensis (orange jewelweed) and Impatiens pallida (yellow jewelweed) are annual species with similar phenotypes that grow in similar environments throughout the eastern United States. This makes them extremely difficult to distinguish when (chasmogamous) flowers are absent. We use morphometric analyses to identify leaf characters that distinguish these species. After collecting and scanning 342 leaves from plants of each species growing in co-occurring populations in Madison, WI, we quantified: leaf size, shape (using elliptical Fourier...

Human walking in the real world: interactions between terrain type, gait parameters, and energy expenditure

Daniel Kowalsky, John Rebula, Lauro Ojeda, Peter Adamczyk & Art Kuo
Humans often traverse real-world environments with a variety of surface irregularities and inconsistencies, which can disrupt steady gait and require additional effort. Such effects have, however, scarcely been demonstrated quantitatively, because few laboratory biomechanical measures apply outdoors. Walking can nevertheless be quantified by other means. In particular, the foot’s trajectory in space can be reconstructed from foot-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs), to yield measures of stride and associated variabilities. But it remains unknown whether such...

Data from: Cooling cows efficiently with sprinklers: physiological responses to water spray

Cassandra B. Tucker, Karin E. Schütz &
Dairies in the United States commonly cool cattle with sprinklers mounted over the feed bunk that intermittently spray the cows’ backs. These systems use potable water—an increasingly scarce resource—but there is little experimental evidence about how much is needed to cool cows or about droplet size, which is thought to affect hair coat penetration. Our objectives were to determine how sprinkler flow rate and droplet size affect physiological measures of heat load in a hot,...

National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH), Wave 2 (1992-1994)

Larry L. Bumpass & James A. Sweet

National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH), Wave 1 (1987-1988)

Larry L. Bumpass, Vaughn Call & James A. Sweet

National Health Measurement Study (NHMS), 2005-2006

Dennis G. Fryback

Slave Movement During the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

B0 and B1 inhomogeneities in the liver at 1.5T and 3.0T

Scott B. Reeder, Nathan T. Roberts, Diego Hernando, Louis A. Hinshaw, Timothy J. Colgan & Takanori Ii

Wisconsin consumer attitudes regarding acceptance of food-related biotechnology, 1990

Robin Douthitt

Study of American Families, 1994

Robert M. Hauser & Robert D. Mare

Data from: Habitat loss and thermal tolerances influence the sensitivity of resident bird populations to winter weather at regional scales

Christopher Latimer & Benjamin Zuckerberg
1. Climate change and habitat loss pose the greatest contemporary threats to biodiversity, but their impacts on populations largely vary across species. These differential responses could be caused by complex interactions between landscape and climate change and species-specific sensitivities. 2. Understanding the factors that determine which species are most vulnerable to the synergistic effects of climate change and habitat loss is a high conservation priority. Here, we ask (a) whether and to what extent land...

Adequate vitamin A liver stores estimated by the Modified-Relative Dose Response test are positively associated with breastfeeding but not vitamin A supplementation in Senegalese urban children 9-23 months old: a comparative cross-sectional study

Mane Hélène FAYE, Marie-Madeleine A Diémé, Nicole Idohou-Dossou, Abdou Badiane, Adama Diouf, Ndeye Magatte Ndiaye Ndome & Sherry A Tanumihardjo
Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) in 6-59 month old children is recommended but its sustainability is currently questioned. In Senegal, data suggest that VAS should be maintained, but geographic and age-related specificities need to be addressed by gathering more evidence on the impact of this program. The objective of this comparative cross-sectional study, conducted in urban settings of Dakar, was to evaluate the effectiveness of VAS on vitamin A liver stores (VALS) among 9-23 month old...

Chemical-genetic interrogation of RNA polymerase mutants reveals structure-function relationships and physiological tradeoffs

Anthony Shiver, Hendrik Osadnik, Jason Peters, Rachel Mooney, Peter Wu, Kemardo Henry, Hannes Braberg, Carol Gross, Kerwyn Huang, Robert Landick, Nevan Krogan & James Hu
The multi-subunit bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) and its associated regulators carry out transcription and integrate myriad regulatory signals. Numerous studies have interrogated the inner workings of RNAP, and mutations in genes encoding RNAP drive adaptation of Escherichia coli to many health- and industry-relevant environments, yet a paucity of systematic analyses has hampered our understanding of the fitness benefits and trade-offs from altering RNAP function. Here, we conduct a chemical-genetic analysis of a library of RNAP...

Political Elites in Mexico, 1900-1971

Peter H. Smith

Governmental Units Analysis Data, 1960: Urban Racial Disorders, 1961-1968

Seymour Spilerman

Medicaid Waiver Dataset: Coverage for Childless Adults 1996 – 2014

Marguerite Burns & Laura Dague

Analysis of copy number variation in dogs implicates genomic structural variation in the development of anterior cruciate ligament rupture

Emily Binversie, Lauren Baker, Corinne Engelman, Zhengling Hao, John Moran, Alexander Piazza, Susannah Sample & Peter Muir
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is an important condition of the human knee. Second ruptures are common and societal costs are substantial. Canine cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture closely models the human disease. CCL rupture is common in the Labrador Retriever (5.79% prevalence), ~100-fold more prevalent than in humans. Labrador Retriever CCL rupture is a polygenic complex disease, based on genome-wide association study (GWAS) of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Dissection of genetic variation in...

Data from: Trematode parasites exceed aquatic insect biomass in Oregon stream food webs

Daniel Preston, Tamara Layden, Leah Segui, Landon Falke, Sara Brant & Mark Novak
1) Although parasites are increasingly recognized for their ecosystem roles, it is often assumed that free-living organisms dominate animal biomass in most ecosystems and therefore provide the primary pathways for energy transfer. 2) To examine the contributions of parasites to ecosystem energetics in freshwater streams, we quantified the standing biomass of trematodes and free-living organisms at nine sites in three streams in western Oregon, USA. We then compared rates of biomass flow from snails (Juga...

Puerto Rican Elderly: Health Conditions (PREHCO) Wave 2, 2006-2007

Alberto Palloni

BNIP3L/NIX degradation leads to mitophagy deficiency in ischemic brains

Xiaoli Wu, Yanrong Zheng, Mengru Liu, Yue Li, Shijia Ma, Weidong Tang, Wenping Yan, Ming Cao, Wanqing Zheng, Lei Jiang, Jiaying Wu, Feng Han, Zhenghong Qin, Liang Fang, Weiwei Hu, Zhong Chen & Xiangnan Zhang
Mitophagy, the elimination of damaged mitochondria through autophagy, promotes neuronal survival in cerebral ischemia. Previous studies found deficient mitophagy in ischemic neurons, but the mechanisms are still largely unknown. We determined that BNIP3L/NIX, a mitophagy receptor, was degraded by proteasomes, which led to mitophagy deficiency in both ischemic neurons and brains. BNIP3L exists as a monomer and homodimer in mammalian cells, but the effects of homodimer and monomer on mitophagy are unclear. Site-specific mutations in...

Assessing the effects of elephant foraging on the structure and diversity of an Afrotropical forest

Cooper Rosin, Kendall Beals, Michael Belovitch, Ruby Harrison, Megan Pendred, Megan Sullivan, Nicolas Yao & John Poulsen
African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) are ecosystem engineers that browse and damage large quantities of vegetation during their foraging and movement. Though elephant trail networks and clearings are conspicuous features of many African forests, the consequences of elephant foraging for forest structure and diversity are poorly documented. In this study in northeastern Gabon, we compare stem size, stem density, proportional damage, species diversity, and species relative abundance of seedlings and saplings in the vicinity of...

Bridging the flux gap: sap flow measurements reveal species-specific patterns of water-use in a tallgrass prairie

Kimberly O'Keefe, David Bell, Katherine McCulloh & Jesse Nippert
Predicting the hydrological consequences following changes in grassland vegetation type (i.e., woody encroachment) requires an understanding of water flux dynamics at high spatiotemporal resolution for predominant species within grassland communities. However, grassland fluxes are typically measured at the leaf or landscape scale, which inhibits our ability to predict how individual species contribute to changing ecosystem fluxes. We used external heat balance sap flow sensors and a hierarchical Bayesian state-space modeling approach to bridge this “flux-gap”...

Slave Movement -- Records of Slave Ship Movement Between Africa and the Americas, 1817-1843

Philip D. Curtin & Herbert S. Klein

Empirical evidence for the potential climate benefits of decarbonizing light vehicle transport in the U.S. with bioenergy from purpose-grown biomass with and without BECCS

Ilya Gelfand, Stephen Hamilton, Alexandra Kravchenko, Randall Jackson, Kurt Thelen & G. Philip Robertson
Climate mitigation scenarios limiting global temperature increases to 1.5 °C rely on decarbonizing vehicle transport with bioenergy production plus carbon capture and storage (BECCS), but climate impacts for producing different bioenergy feedstocks have not been directly compared experimentally nor for ethanol vs. electric light-duty vehicles. A field experiment at two Midwest U.S. sites on contrasting soils revealed that feedstock yields of seven potential bioenergy cropping systems varied substantially within sites but little between. Bioenergy produced...

Spatial variation in diet-microbe associations across populations of a generalist North American carnivore

A. Shawn Colborn, Corbin C. Kuntze, Gabriel I. Gadsden & Nyeema C. Harris
1. Generalist species, by definition, exhibit variation in niche attributes that promote survival in changing environments. Increasingly, phenotypes previously associated with a species, particularly those with wide or expanding ranges, are dissolving and compelling greater emphasis on population-level characteristics. 2. In the present study, we assessed spatial variation in diet characteristics, gut microbiome, and the association between these two ecological traits across populations of coyotes (Canis latrans). We highlight the influence of the carnivore community...

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  • 2020

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  • University of Wisconsin–Madison
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • United States Geological Survey
  • Tianjin Medical University General Hospital
  • Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University
  • Sun Yat-sen University
  • University of Montana
  • Duke University
  • The Ohio State University
  • University of Georgia