59 Works

Recovery of a cultivation grazer: A mechanism for compensatory growth of Thalassia testudinum in a Caribbean seagrass meadow grazed by green turtles

Alexandra Gulick, Robert Johnson, Clayton Pollock, Zandy Hillis-Starr, Alan Bolten & Karen Bjorndal
Recovery of green turtles (Chelonia mydas), mega-herbivores that consume seagrasses, is resulting in dramatic ecosystem-wide changes as meadows are returned to a natural grazed state. The green turtle grazing strategy, with long-term cultivation of meadows and high foraging site fidelity, is distinct from other terrestrial and aquatic mega-herbivores and may affect seagrass compensatory growth responses. Identifying mechanisms of compensatory growth responses to grazing is essential to understanding the functioning of plant systems under natural grazing...

Stresses affect inbreeding depression in complex ways: Disentangling stress-specific genetic effects from effects of initial size in plants

Tobias M. Sandner, Diethart Matthies & Donald M. Waller
The magnitude of inbreeding depression (ID) varies unpredictably among environments. ID often increases in stressful environments suggesting that these expose more deleterious alleles to selection or increase their effects. More simply, ID could increase under conditions that amplify phenotypic variation (CV²), e.g. by accentuating size hierarchies among plants. These mechanisms are difficult to distinguish when stress increases both ID and phenotypic variation. We grew in- and outbred progeny of Mimulus guttatus under six abiotic stress...

Comparison of serological and molecular assays for Bartonella species in dogs with hemangiosarcoma

Erin Lashnits
Currently, a gold standard diagnostic test for Bartonella infection in dogs is lacking. This represents a critical limitation for the development and evaluation of new diagnostic tests, as well as for the diagnosis of, and research on, bartonellosis in dogs. This retrospective observational study aims to compare the results of commonly performed and newly-reported Bartonella spp. diagnostic tests in banked clinical specimens from 90 dogs with hemangiosarcoma (HSA) using composite reference standard (CRS) and random...

Performance and refinement of nitrogen fertilization tools

Curtis Ransom, Jason Clark, Gregory Bean, Christopher Bandura, Matthew Shafer, Newell Kitchen, James Camberato, Paul Carter, Richard Ferguson, Fabián Fernández, David Franzen, Carrie Laboski, David Myers, Emerson Nafziger & John Sawyer
Improving corn (Zea mays L.) N management is pertinent to economic and environmental objectives. However, there are limited comprehensive data sources to develop and test N fertilizer decision aid tools across a wide geographic range of soil and weather scenarios. Therefore, a public-industry partnership was formed to conduct standardized corn N rate response field studies throughout the U.S. Midwest. This research was conducted using a standardized protocol at 49 site-years across eight states over the...

Data from: Trait plasticity and tradeoffs shape intraspecific variation in competitive response in a foundation tree species

Olivia Cope, Richard Lindroth, Andrew Helm, Ken Keefover-Ring & Eric Kruger
The ability to tolerate neighboring plants (i.e., degree of competitive response) is a key determinant of plant success in high-competition environments. Plant genotypes adjust their functional trait expression under high levels of competition, which may help explain intraspecific variation in competitive response. However, the relationships between traits and competitive response are not well understood, especially in trees. In this study, we investigated among-genotype associations between tree trait plasticity and competitive response. We manipulated competition intensity...

Assessing the effectiveness of a forest Habitat Conservation Plan for a threatened seabird, the marbled murrelet

Kristin Brunk, Sal Chinnici, Anna Pidgeon & M. Zachariah Peery
Habitat Conservation Plans (HCPs) commonly facilitate habitat conservation on private land in the United States, yet the effectiveness of individual HCPs is rarely evaluated. Here, we assess the effectiveness of a high-profile HCP created by a lumber company to protect old-growth forest used for breeding by Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) on private land. We used 17 years of HCP-monitoring data to compare trends in murrelet occupancy and inland counts between private HCP areas and public...

Discounting in Mortgage Markets

Jason Allen, Robert Clark & Jean-François Houde
This paper studies discounting in mortgage markets. Using transaction-level data on Canadian mortgages, we document that over time there's been an increase in the average discount, along with substantial dispersion. The standard explanation for dispersion in credit markets is that lenders engage in risk-based pricing. Our setting is unique since contracts are guaranteed by government-backed insurance, meaning risk cannot be the main driver of dispersion. We find that mortgage rates depend on individual, contractual, and...

Characterization of Salix nigra floral insect community and activity of three native Andrena bees

Stephen DiFazio, Sandra Simon, Ken Keefover-Ring, Yong-Lak Park, Gina Wimp & Julianne Grady
Salix nigra (black willow) is a widespread tree that hosts many species of polylectic hymenopterans and oligolectic bees of the genus Andrena. The early flowering of S. nigra makes it an important nutritive resource for insects emerging from hibernation. However, since S. nigra is dioecious, not all insect visits will lead to successful pollination. Using both visual observation and pan-trapping we characterized the community of insects that visited S. nigra flowers and assessed differences among...

Data from: Infection prevalence and density of a pathogenic trematode parasite decrease with stream order along a river continuum

Landon Falke & Daniel Preston
In lotic ecosystems, the River Continuum Concept (RCC) provides a framework for understanding changes in environmental factors and free-living communities, yet how parasite populations shift along river continua remains less clear. We quantified infections by a pathogenic trematode parasite (Nanophyetus salmincola) in >14,000 host snails across 130 stream reaches spanning 165 km in the Willamette River Basin in western Oregon, USA. Environmental factors – including flow volume, temperature, benthic algae, canopy cover, woody debris, and...

The genome of a daddy-long-legs (Opiliones) illuminates the evolution of arachnid appendages

Guilherme Gainett, Vanessa L. González, Jesús Ballesteros, Emily V. W. Setton, Caitlin M. Baker, Leonardo Barolo Gargiulo, Carlos E. Santibáñez-López, Jonathan A. Coddington & Prashant P. Sharma
Chelicerate arthropods exhibit dynamic genome evolution, with ancient whole genome duplication (WGD) events affecting several orders. Yet, genomes remain unavailable for a number of poorly studied orders, such as Opiliones (daddy-long-legs), which has hindered comparative study. We assembled the first opilionid draft genome for the species Phalangium opilio, which bears elongate, prehensile appendages, made possible by numerous distal articles called tarsomeres. Here, we show that the genome of P. opilio exhibits a single Hox cluster...

Data from: Early origin of sweet perception in the songbird radiation

Yasuka Toda, Meng-Ching Ko, Qiaoyi Liang, Eliot Miller, Alejandro Rico-Guevara, Tomoya Nakagita, Ayano Sakakibara, Kana Uemura, Timothy Sackton, Takashi Hayakawa, Simon Yung Wa Sin, Yoshiro Ishimaru, Takumi Misaka, Pablo Oteiza, James Crall, Scott Edwards, Shuichi Matsumura & Maude Baldwin
Early events in the evolutionary history of a clade can shape the sensory systems of descendant lineages. Although the avian ancestor may not have had a sweet receptor, the widespread incidence of nectar-feeding birds suggests multiple acquisitions of sugar detection. In this study, we identify a single early sensory shift of the umami receptor (the T1R1-T1R3 heterodimer) that conferred sweet-sensing abilities in songbirds, a large radiation containing nearly half of all living birds. We demonstrate...

Field evidence reveals conservative water use of poplars under high aerosol conditions in Beijing

Bin Wang, Zhenhua Wang, Chengzhang Wang, Xin Wang, Jing Li, Zhou Jia, Ping Li, Jin Wu, Min Chen & Lingli Liu
Anthropogenic aerosols could alter multiple meteorological processes such as radiation regime and air temperature, thereby modifying plant transpiration. However, the lack of field observations at the leaf- and plant-level hinders our ability to understand how aerosols could affect plant water use. Aerosol concentrations in northern China fluctuates periodically over a wide range. Taking advantage of this unique natural experiment opportunity, we conducted a full series of supporting physiological and environmental measurements to explore aerosols' effect...

Data related to: Open-system evolution of a crustal-scale magma column, Klamath Mountains, California

Calvin Barnes, Nolwenn Coint, Melanie Barnes, Ariel Strickland, John Cottle, O. Ramo, Kevin Chamberlain & John Valley
Granitic magmas commonly display evidence for some level of interaction with and/or origins from crustal rocks. There is fundamental debate in the community as to the processes that control the origins of these magmas and the potential for their contamination as they pass through the crust. One approach to addressing these issues involves a combination of detailed field mapping combined with geochemical analysis of bulk-rock samples and their constituent minerals. In particular, resolution of debates...

Genomic variation within the maize Stiff Stalk heterotic germplasm pool

Nolan Bornowski, Kathryn J. Michel, John P. Hamilton, Shujun Ou, Arun S. Seetharam, Jerry Jenkins, Jane Grimwood, Chris Plott, Shengqiang Shu, Jayson Talag, Megan Kennedy, Hope Hundley, Vasanth R. Singan, Kerrie Barry, Chris Daum, Yuko Yoshinaga, Jeremy Schmutz, Candice N. Hirsch, Matthew B. Hufford, Natalia De Leon, Shawn M. Kaeppler & C. Robin Buell
The Stiff Stalk heterotic group is an important source of inbreds used in U.S. commercial hybrid production. Founder inbreds B14, B37, B73, and to a lesser extent B84, are found in the pedigrees of a majority of commercial seed parent inbred lines. We created high-quality genome assemblies of B84 and four ex-Plant Variety Protection lines LH145 representing B14, NKH8431 of mixed descent, PHB47 representing B37, and PHJ40 which is a Pioneer Hi-Bred early Stiff Stalk...

Drainage basins serve as multiple glacial refugia for alpine habitats in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California

Yi-Ming Weng, Sean Schoville & David Kavanaugh
The evolutionary histories of alpine species are often directly associated with responses to glaciation. Deep divergence among populations and complex patterns of genetic variation have been inferred as consequences of persistence within glacier boundaries (i.e. on nunataks), while shallow divergence and limited genetic variation is assumed to result from expansion from large refugia at the edge of ice shields (i.e. massifs de refuge). However, for some species, dependence on specific microhabitats could profoundly influence their...

Redox controls RecA protein activity via reversible oxidation of its methionine residues

Benjamin Ezraty, Camille Henry, Frederic Barras, Laurent Loiseau, Alexandra Vergnes, Didier Vertommen, Angela Mérida-Floriano, Sindhu Chitteni-Pattu, Elizabeth Anne Wood, Josep Casadesús & Michael M. Cox
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause damage to DNA and proteins. The RecA protein plays a central role in the bacterial response to DNA damage. Here we report that RecA itself is also targeted by ROS. In vivo consequences of RecA oxidation include defects in SOS induction, DNA repair efficiency, and P1 transduction. In vitro, oxidized RecA fails to display ATPase activity, DNA strand exchange capacity and formation of nucleofilaments. Consistently, mass spectrometry analysis of oxidized...

A recovery network leads to the natural recolonization of an archipelago and a potential trailing edge refuge

Matthew Smith, Jonathan Gilbert, Erik Olson, Kim Scribner, Timothy Van Deelen, Julie Van Stappen, Bronwyn Williams, James Woodford & Jonathan Pauli
Rapid environmental change is reshaping ecosystems and driving species loss globally. Carnivore populations have declined and retracted rapidly and have been the target of numerous translocation projects. Success, however, is complicated when these efforts occur in novel ecosystems. Identifying refuges, locations that are resistant to environmental change, within a translocation framework should improve population recovery and persistence. American martens (Martes americana) are the most frequently translocated carnivore in North America. As elsewhere, martens were extirpated...

Will it Unblend?

Yuval Pinter, Cassandra L. Jacobs & Jacob Eisenstein

Chemosensory genes in Leptinotarsa decemlineata

Sean Schoville, Yolanda Chen, Zach Cohen, Michael Crossley, Patamarerk Engsontia & Robert Mitchell
Plants and plant-feeding insects comprise the majority of global species diversity, and their coevolutionary dynamics provide an important window into the mechanisms that mediate niche evolution. In particular, there is considerable interest in understanding the nature of genetic changes that allow host-plant shifts to occur and to determine whether functional genomic diversity varies predictably in relation to host-plant breadth. Insect chemosensory proteins play a central role in mediating insect-plant interactions, as they directly influence plant...

Price Competition and Concentration in Search and Negotiation Markets: Evidence from Mortgage Lending

Jason Allen, Robert Clark & Jean-François Houde
This paper examines the impact of bank consolidation on mortgage rates in order to evaluate the extent to which mortgage markets are competitive. Mortgage markets are decentralized and so rates are determined through a search and negotiation process. The primary effect of a merger therefore is to reduce the number of partners available with whom to negotiate, although it can also change the characteristics of the product, and impact the search effort of consumers. Using...

A high-quality carabid genome provides insights into beetle genome evolution and cold adaptation

Yi-Ming Weng, Charlotte Francoeur, Cameron Currie, David Kavanaugh & Sean Schoville
The hyper-diverse order Coleoptera comprises a staggering ~25% of known species on Earth. Despite recent breakthroughs in next generation sequencing, there remains a limited representation of beetle diversity in assembled genomes. Most notably, the ground beetle family Carabidae, comprising more than 40,000 described species, has not been studied in a comparative genomics framework using whole genome data. Here we generate a high-quality genome assembly for Nebria riversi, to examine sources of novelty in the genome...

Resource selection functions based on hierarchical generalized additive models provide new insights into individual animal variation and species distributions

Jennifer McCabe, John Clare, Tricia Miller, Todd Katzner, Jeff Cooper, Scott Somershoe, David Hanni, Christine Kelly, Robert Sargent, Eric Soehren, Carrie Threadgill, Mercedes Maddox, Jonathan Stober, Mark Martell, Thomas Salo, Andrew Berry, Michael Lanzone, Melissa Braham & Christopher McClure
Habitat selection studies are designed to generate predictions of species distributions or inference regarding general habitat associations and individual variation in habitat use. Such studies frequently involve either individually indexed locations gathered across limited spatial extents and analyzed using resource selection functions (RSF), or spatially extensive locational data without individual resolution typically analyzed using species distribution models. Both analytical methodologies have certain desirable features, but analyses that combine individual- and population-level inference with flexible non-linear...

GABAA presynaptic inhibition regulates the gain and kinetics of retinal output neurons

Jenna Nagy, Briana Ebbinghaus, Mrinalini Hoon & Raunak Sinha
Output signals of neural circuits, including the retina, are shaped by a combination of excitatory and inhibitory signals. Inhibitory signals can act presynaptically on axon terminals to control neurotransmitter release and regulate circuit function. However, it has been difficult to study the role of presynaptic inhibition in most neural circuits due to lack of cell-type specific and receptor-type specific perturbations. In this study, we used a transgenic approach to selectively eliminate GABAA inhibitory receptors from...

Complex interactions underlie the correlated evolution of floral traits and their association with pollinators in a clade with diverse pollination systems.

Jeffrey Rose & Kenneth Sytsma
Natural selection by pollinators is an important factor in the morphological diversity and adaptive radiation of flowering plants. Selection by similar pollinators in unrelated plants leads to convergence in floral morphology, or “floral syndromes.” Previous investigations into floral syndromes have mostly studied relatively small and/or simple systems; emphasizing vertebrate-pollination. Despite the importance of multiple floral traits in plant-pollinator interactions, these studies have examined few quantitative traits, so their co-variation and phenotypic integration have been underexplored....

Evaluating how lethal management affects poaching of Mexican wolves

Francisco Santiago-Ávila, Naomi Louchouarn, David Parsons & Adrian Treves
Despite illegal killing (poaching) being the major cause of death among large carnivores globally, little is known about the effect of implementing lethal management policies on poaching. Two opposing hypotheses have been proposed in the literature: implementing lethal management may decrease poaching incidence (‘killing for tolerance’) or increase it (‘facilitated killing’). Here, we propose a test of two opposed hypotheses that poaching (reported and unreported) of Mexican grey wolves (Canis lupus baileyi) in Arizona and...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Text


  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • University of Wisconsin–Madison
  • University of Minnesota
  • University of Florida
  • University of Washington
  • West Virginia University
  • University of North Carolina
  • Western Connecticut State University
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • University of Nevada Reno