83 Works

Past agricultural land use affects multiple facets of ungulate antipredator behavior

Savannah Bartel & John Orrock
Antipredator behavior affects prey fitness, prey demography, and the strength of ecological interactions. Although predator-prey interactions increasingly occur in habitats that experience multiple forms of human-generated disturbance, it is unclear how different forms of disturbance might affect antipredator behavior. Fire is a contemporary disturbance that has dramatic effects on terrestrial habitats. Such habitats may have also experienced past disturbances, like agricultural land use, that leave lasting legacies on habitat structure (e.g., overstory and understory composition)....

Buffering lidocaine heightens aversion to cornual nerve injections in dairy calves

Cassandra Tucker & Sarah Adcock
It is best practice to numb the horn buds before disbudding dairy calves, which can be achieved by injecting lidocaine, a local anesthetic, around the cornual nerve. In humans, the acute pain that occurs upon injection of lidocaine can be reduced by neutralizing the pH of the solution with an alkalizing agent, such as sodium bicarbonate. We evaluated whether buffering lidocaine would reduce calves’ behavioral and physiological responses to cornual nerve blocks on the left...

Corticothalamic gating of population auditory thalamocortical transmission in mouse

Baher Ibrahim, Caitlin Murphy, Georgiy Yudintsev, Matthew I. Banks, Daniel A. Llano & Yoshitaka Shinagawa
The mechanisms that govern thalamocortical transmission are poorly understood. Recent data have shown that sensory stimuli elicit activity in ensembles of cortical neurons that recapitulate stereotyped spontaneous activity patterns. Here, we elucidate a possible mechanism by which gating of patterned population cortical activity occurs. In this study, sensory-evoked all-or-none cortical population responses were observed in the mouse auditory cortex in vivo and similar stochastic cortical responses were observed in a colliculo-thalamocortical brain slice preparation. Cortical...

GABAA presynaptic inhibition regulates the gain and kinetics of retinal output neurons

Jenna Nagy, Briana Ebbinghaus, Mrinalini Hoon & Raunak Sinha
Output signals of neural circuits, including the retina, are shaped by a combination of excitatory and inhibitory signals. Inhibitory signals can act presynaptically on axon terminals to control neurotransmitter release and regulate circuit function. However, it has been difficult to study the role of presynaptic inhibition in most neural circuits due to lack of cell-type specific and receptor-type specific perturbations. In this study, we used a transgenic approach to selectively eliminate GABAA inhibitory receptors from...

Complex interactions underlie the correlated evolution of floral traits and their association with pollinators in a clade with diverse pollination systems.

Jeffrey Rose & Kenneth Sytsma
Natural selection by pollinators is an important factor in the morphological diversity and adaptive radiation of flowering plants. Selection by similar pollinators in unrelated plants leads to convergence in floral morphology, or “floral syndromes.” Previous investigations into floral syndromes have mostly studied relatively small and/or simple systems; emphasizing vertebrate-pollination. Despite the importance of multiple floral traits in plant-pollinator interactions, these studies have examined few quantitative traits, so their co-variation and phenotypic integration have been underexplored....

The Paris Climate Agreement and future sea level rise from Antartica

Robert M. DeConto, David Pollard, Richard B. Alley, Isabella Velicogna, Edward Gasson, Natalya Gomez, Shaina Sadai, Alan Condron, Daniel M. Gilford, Erica L. Ashe, Robert E. Kopp, Dawei Li & Andrea Dutton

Evaluating how lethal management affects poaching of Mexican wolves

Francisco Santiago-Ávila, Naomi Louchouarn, David Parsons & Adrian Treves
Despite illegal killing (poaching) being the major cause of death among large carnivores globally, little is known about the effect of implementing lethal management policies on poaching. Two opposing hypotheses have been proposed in the literature: implementing lethal management may decrease poaching incidence (‘killing for tolerance’) or increase it (‘facilitated killing’). Here, we propose a test of two opposed hypotheses that poaching (reported and unreported) of Mexican grey wolves (Canis lupus baileyi) in Arizona and...

Forest phenoclusters for Argentina based on vegetation phenology and climate

Eduarda Silveira, Volker Radeloff, Guillermo Martínez Pastur, Sebastián Martinuzzi, Natalia Politi, Leonidas Lizarraga, Luis Rivera, Gregorio Gavier-Pizarro, He Yin, Yamina Rosas, Noelia Calamari, María Navarro, Yanina Sica, Ashley Olah, Julieta Bono & Anna Pidgeon
Forest biodiversity conservation and species distribution modeling greatly benefit from broad-scale forest maps depicting tree species or forest types rather than just presence and absence of forest, or coarse classifications. Ideally, such maps would stem from satellite image classification based on abundant field data for both model training and accuracy assessments, but such field-data does not exist in many parts of the globe. However, different forest types and tree species differ in their vegetation phenology,...

BAF155 Methylation Drives Metastasis By Hijacking Super-enhancers and Subverting Anti-tumor Immunity

Eui-Jun Kim, Peng Liu, Shengjie Zhang, Kristine Donahue, Yidan Wang, Jennifer Schehr, Serena Wolfe, Amber Dickerson, Li Lu, Lixin Rui, Xuehua Zhong, Kari Wisinski, Min Yu, Aussie Suzuki, Joshua Lang, Irene Ong & Wei Xu
Subunits of the chromatin remodeler SWI/SNF are the most frequently disrupted genes in cancer. However, how post-translational modifications (PTM) of SWI/SNF subunits elicit epigenetic dysfunction remains unknown. Arginine-methylation of BAF155 by coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) promotes triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) metastasis. Herein, we discovered the dual roles of methylated-BAF155 (me-BAF155) in promoting tumor metastasis: activation of super-enhanceraddicted oncogenes by recruiting BRD4, and repression of interferon / pathway genes to suppress host immune response....

Numerical simulation of supercell thunderstorms (at 50 meter resolution) associated with above anvil cirrus plumes

Leigh Orf
Four-dimensional data from high-resolution simulations (50 meter grid spacing) of supercell thunderstorms conducted on the Frontera supercomputer are contained in this archive. Output from two simulations is included, named "Strong" and "Weak". In the Strong simulation, data from parcel trajectories is also included. The four-dimensional (time, and three dimensions of space) data and parcel data is saved in Network Common Data Format (NetCDF), version 4, an open-source self-describing scientific data format commonly used in the...

Understanding degraded speech leads to perceptual gating of a brainstem reflex in human listeners

Heivet Hernandez Perez, Jason Mikiel-Hunter, David McAlpine, Sumitrajit Dhar, Sriram Boothalingam, Jessica J.M. Monaghan & Catherine M. McMahon
The ability to navigate “cocktail-party” situations by focussing on sounds of interest over irrelevant, background sounds is often considered in terms of cortical mechanisms. However, subcortical circuits such as the pathway underlying the medial olivocochlear (MOC) reflex modulate the activity of the inner ear itself, supporting the extraction of salient features from auditory scene prior to any cortical processing. To understand the contribution of auditory subcortical nuclei and the cochlea in complex listening tasks, we...

Complex trait‒environment relationships underlie the structure of forest plant communities

Andres Rolhauser, Donald Waller & Caroline Tucker
Traits differentially adapt plant species to particular conditions generating compositional shifts along environmental gradients. As a result, community-scale trait values show concomitant shifts, termed trait‒environment relationships. Trait‒environment relationships are often assessed by evaluating community-weighted mean (CWM) traits observed along environmental gradients. Regression-based approaches (CWMr) assume that local communities exhibit traits centered at a single optimum value and that traits do not covary meaningfully. Evidence suggests that the shape of trait‒abundance relationships can vary widely along...

Demographic History and Genomic Targets of Positive Selection in Giant Gough Mice

Peicheng Jing & Bret Payseur
A key challenge in understanding how natural selection operates is to identify the mutations and genes that make it possible. Positive selection on beneficial mutations distorts linked variation by altering the site frequency spectrum, the configuration of haplotypes, and population differentiation. By comparing patterns of sequence variation to neutral predictions across genomes, the targets of positive selection can be located. We applied this logic to an unusual population of house mice that shows phenotypic and...

Two new sesquiterpenoid lactone derivatives from Lindera aggregata

Song-Song Wen, Yan Wang, Jia-Ping Xu, Qi Liu, Lei Zhang, Jing Zheng, Lin Li, Na Zhang, Xin Liu, Yu-Wen Xu & Zhen-Liang Sun
Two new sesquiterpenoid lactone derivatives, linderin A (1) and linderin B (2) comprising a sesquiterpenoid lactone and a methyl geranylhomogentisate moiety together with six known compounds were isolated from the roots of Lindera aggregata. Their chemical structures were elucidated using extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1 D, 2 D NMR, and HR-ESI-MS data and compared with previously reported data. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were assigned based on the electronic circular dichroism calculation. Compound...

Maternal and neonatal outcomes of repeated antepartum bleeding in 493 placenta previa cases: a retrospective study

Shiyun Huang, Qing Zuo, Tianjun Wang, Xiaotong Tang, Zhiping Ge, Hongmei Lu, Xin Zhou & Ziyan Jiang
To explore the effect of antepartum bleeding caused by PP on pregnancy outcomes. We retrospectively analyzed 493 pregnant women complicated with PP. Patients were divided into antepartum repeated bleeding and non-bleeding groups. Maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes were compared. The risk of antepartum hemorrhage was 2.038 times higher when gravidity was 5 (95% CI 1.104–3.760, p = .023). Pregnant women with a history of more than three intrauterine procedures had a 1.968 times higher risk...

Data from: Gobbling across landscapes: Eastern wild turkey distribution and occupancy-habitat associations

Christopher Pollentier, Michael Hardy, R. Scott Lutz, Scott Hull & Benjamin Zuckerberg
Extensive restoration and translocation efforts beginning in the mid-20th century helped to reestablish eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) throughout their ancestral range. The adaptability of wild turkeys resulted in further population expansion in regions that were considered unfavorable during initial reintroductions across the northern United States. Identification and understanding of species distributions and contemporary habitat associations are important for guiding effective conservation and management strategies across different ecological landscapes. To investigate differences in wild...

Data from: Trait plasticity and tradeoffs shape intraspecific variation in competitive response in a foundation tree species

Olivia Cope, Richard Lindroth, Andrew Helm, Ken Keefover-Ring & Eric Kruger
The ability to tolerate neighboring plants (i.e., degree of competitive response) is a key determinant of plant success in high-competition environments. Plant genotypes adjust their functional trait expression under high levels of competition, which may help explain intraspecific variation in competitive response. However, the relationships between traits and competitive response are not well understood, especially in trees. In this study, we investigated among-genotype associations between tree trait plasticity and competitive response. We manipulated competition intensity...

Characterization of Salix nigra floral insect community and activity of three native Andrena bees

Stephen DiFazio, Sandra Simon, Ken Keefover-Ring, Yong-Lak Park, Gina Wimp & Julianne Grady
Salix nigra (black willow) is a widespread tree that hosts many species of polylectic hymenopterans and oligolectic bees of the genus Andrena. The early flowering of S. nigra makes it an important nutritive resource for insects emerging from hibernation. However, since S. nigra is dioecious, not all insect visits will lead to successful pollination. Using both visual observation and pan-trapping we characterized the community of insects that visited S. nigra flowers and assessed differences among...

Discounting in Mortgage Markets

Jason Allen, Robert Clark & Jean-François Houde
This paper studies discounting in mortgage markets. Using transaction-level data on Canadian mortgages, we document that over time there's been an increase in the average discount, along with substantial dispersion. The standard explanation for dispersion in credit markets is that lenders engage in risk-based pricing. Our setting is unique since contracts are guaranteed by government-backed insurance, meaning risk cannot be the main driver of dispersion. We find that mortgage rates depend on individual, contractual, and...

Assessing the effectiveness of a forest Habitat Conservation Plan for a threatened seabird, the marbled murrelet

Kristin Brunk, Sal Chinnici, Anna Pidgeon & M. Zachariah Peery
Habitat Conservation Plans (HCPs) commonly facilitate habitat conservation on private land in the United States, yet the effectiveness of individual HCPs is rarely evaluated. Here, we assess the effectiveness of a high-profile HCP created by a lumber company to protect old-growth forest used for breeding by Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) on private land. We used 17 years of HCP-monitoring data to compare trends in murrelet occupancy and inland counts between private HCP areas and public...

Performance and refinement of nitrogen fertilization tools

Curtis Ransom, Jason Clark, Gregory Bean, Christopher Bandura, Matthew Shafer, Newell Kitchen, James Camberato, Paul Carter, Richard Ferguson, Fabián Fernández, David Franzen, Carrie Laboski, David Myers, Emerson Nafziger & John Sawyer
Improving corn (Zea mays L.) N management is pertinent to economic and environmental objectives. However, there are limited comprehensive data sources to develop and test N fertilizer decision aid tools across a wide geographic range of soil and weather scenarios. Therefore, a public-industry partnership was formed to conduct standardized corn N rate response field studies throughout the U.S. Midwest. This research was conducted using a standardized protocol at 49 site-years across eight states over the...

Data from: Early origin of sweet perception in the songbird radiation

Yasuka Toda, Meng-Ching Ko, Qiaoyi Liang, Eliot Miller, Alejandro Rico-Guevara, Tomoya Nakagita, Ayano Sakakibara, Kana Uemura, Timothy Sackton, Takashi Hayakawa, Simon Yung Wa Sin, Yoshiro Ishimaru, Takumi Misaka, Pablo Oteiza, James Crall, Scott Edwards, Shuichi Matsumura & Maude Baldwin
Early events in the evolutionary history of a clade can shape the sensory systems of descendant lineages. Although the avian ancestor may not have had a sweet receptor, the widespread incidence of nectar-feeding birds suggests multiple acquisitions of sugar detection. In this study, we identify a single early sensory shift of the umami receptor (the T1R1-T1R3 heterodimer) that conferred sweet-sensing abilities in songbirds, a large radiation containing nearly half of all living birds. We demonstrate...

Recovery of a cultivation grazer: A mechanism for compensatory growth of Thalassia testudinum in a Caribbean seagrass meadow grazed by green turtles

Alexandra Gulick, Robert Johnson, Clayton Pollock, Zandy Hillis-Starr, Alan Bolten & Karen Bjorndal
Recovery of green turtles (Chelonia mydas), mega-herbivores that consume seagrasses, is resulting in dramatic ecosystem-wide changes as meadows are returned to a natural grazed state. The green turtle grazing strategy, with long-term cultivation of meadows and high foraging site fidelity, is distinct from other terrestrial and aquatic mega-herbivores and may affect seagrass compensatory growth responses. Identifying mechanisms of compensatory growth responses to grazing is essential to understanding the functioning of plant systems under natural grazing...

Data from: Infection prevalence and density of a pathogenic trematode parasite decrease with stream order along a river continuum

Landon Falke & Daniel Preston
In lotic ecosystems, the River Continuum Concept (RCC) provides a framework for understanding changes in environmental factors and free-living communities, yet how parasite populations shift along river continua remains less clear. We quantified infections by a pathogenic trematode parasite (Nanophyetus salmincola) in >14,000 host snails across 130 stream reaches spanning 165 km in the Willamette River Basin in western Oregon, USA. Environmental factors – including flow volume, temperature, benthic algae, canopy cover, woody debris, and...

The genome of a daddy-long-legs (Opiliones) illuminates the evolution of arachnid appendages

Guilherme Gainett, Vanessa L. González, Jesús Ballesteros, Emily V. W. Setton, Caitlin M. Baker, Leonardo Barolo Gargiulo, Carlos E. Santibáñez-López, Jonathan A. Coddington & Prashant P. Sharma
Chelicerate arthropods exhibit dynamic genome evolution, with ancient whole genome duplication (WGD) events affecting several orders. Yet, genomes remain unavailable for a number of poorly studied orders, such as Opiliones (daddy-long-legs), which has hindered comparative study. We assembled the first opilionid draft genome for the species Phalangium opilio, which bears elongate, prehensile appendages, made possible by numerous distal articles called tarsomeres. Here, we show that the genome of P. opilio exhibits a single Hox cluster...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Text


  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • University of Wisconsin–Madison
  • Sun Yat-sen University
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences
  • Hangzhou Normal University
  • University of Minnesota
  • University of Florida
  • United States Geological Survey
  • Donald Danforth Plant Science Center
  • Hong Kong Polytechnic University