94 Works

Innovation and Growth with Financial, and Other, Frictions

Jonathan Chiu, Cesaire Meh & Randall Wright
The generation and implementation of ideas, or knowledge, is crucial for economic performance. We study this process in a model of endogenous growth with frictions. Productivity increases with knowledge, which advances via innovation, and with the exchange of ideas from those who generate them to those best able to implement them (technology transfer). But frictions in this market, including search, bargaining, and commitment problems, impede exchange and thus slow growth. We characterize optimal policies to...

Data from: Effects of Bark Beetle Outbreaks on Forest Landscape Pattern in the Southern Rocky Mountains, U.S.A.

Kyle Rodman, Robert Andrus, Cori Butkiewicz, Teresa Chapman, Nathan Gill, Brian Harvey, Dominik Kulakowski, Niko Tutland, Thomas Veblen & Sarah Hart
Since the late 1990s, extensive outbreaks of native bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) have affected coniferous forests throughout Europe and North America, driving changes in carbon storage, wildlife habitat, nutrient cycling, and water resource provisioning. Remote sensing is a crucial tool for quantifying the effects of these disturbances across broad landscapes. In particular, Landsat time series (LTS) are increasingly used to characterize outbreak dynamics, including the presence and severity of bark beetle-caused tree mortality, though broad-scale...

Data from: Broad geographic sampling reveals predictable, pervasive, and strong seasonal adaptation in Drosophila

Heather E. Machado, Alan O. Bergland, Ryan Taylor, Susanne Tilk, Emily Behrman, Kelly Dyer, Daniel K. Fabian, Thomas Flatt, Josefa González, Talia L. Karasov, Iryna Kozeretska, Brian P. Lazzaro, Thomas JS Merritt, John E. Pool, Katherine O’Brien, Subhash Rajpurohit, Paula R. Roy, Stephen W. Schaeffer, Svitlana Serga, Paul Schmidt, Dmitri Petrov & Bernard Kim
To advance our understanding of adaptation to temporally varying selection pressures, we identified signatures of seasonal adaptation occurring in parallel among Drosophila melanogaster populations. Specifically, we estimated allele frequencies genome-wide from flies sampled early and late in the growing season from 20 widely dispersed populations. We identified parallel seasonal allele frequency shifts across North America and Europe, demonstrating that seasonal adaptation is a general phenomenon of temperate fly populations. Seasonally fluctuating polymorphisms are enriched at...

Plastic responses to hot temperatures homogenize riparian leaf litter, speed decomposition, and reduce detritivores

Joann Jeplawy, Hillary Cooper, Jane Marks, Richard Lindroth, Morgan Andrews, Zacchaeus Compson, Catherine Gehring, Kevin Hultine, Kevin Grady, Thomas Whitham, Gerard Allan & Rebecca Best
Efforts to maintain the function of critical ecosystems under climate change often begin with foundation species. In the southwestern US, cottonwood trees support diverse communities in riparian ecosystems that are threatened by rising temperatures. Genetic variation within cottonwoods shapes communities and ecosystems, but these effects may be modified by phenotypic plasticity, where genotype traits change in response to environmental conditions. Here, we investigated plasticity in Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) leaf litter traits as well as...

Data from: Intraspecific correlations between growth and defense vary with resource availability and differ within- and among-populations

Philip Hahn, Ken Keefover-Ring, Linh Nguyen & John Maron
A paradigm in the plant defense literature is that defending against herbivores comes at a cost to growth, resulting in a growth-defense tradeoff. However, while there is strong evidence for growth-defense tradeoffs across species, evidence is mixed within species. Several mechanisms can account for this equivocal support within species, but teasing them apart requires examining growth-defense relationships both within and among populations, an approach seldom employed. We examined correlations between plant biomass (growth) and terpene...

Two new sesquiterpenoid lactone derivatives from Lindera aggregata

Song-Song Wen, Yan Wang, Jia-Ping Xu, Qi Liu, Lei Zhang, Jing Zheng, Lin Li, Na Zhang, Xin Liu, Yu-Wen Xu & Zhen-Liang Sun
Two new sesquiterpenoid lactone derivatives, linderin A (1) and linderin B (2) comprising a sesquiterpenoid lactone and a methyl geranylhomogentisate moiety together with six known compounds were isolated from the roots of Lindera aggregata. Their chemical structures were elucidated using extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1 D, 2 D NMR, and HR-ESI-MS data and compared with previously reported data. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were assigned based on the electronic circular dichroism calculation. Compound...

Demographic history shapes genomic ancestry in hybrid zones

Megan Frayer & Bret Payseur
Demographic factors such as migration rate and population size can impede or facilitate speciation. In hybrid zones, reproductive boundaries between species are tested and demography mediates the opportunity for admixture between lineages that are partially isolated. Genomic ancestry is a powerful tool for revealing the history of admixed populations, but models and methods based on local ancestry are rarely applied to structured hybrid zones. To understand the effects of demography on ancestry in hybrids zones,...

Data and code for: Plastic and quantitative genetic divergence mirror environmental gradients among wild, fragmented populations of Impatiens capensis

Rachel Toczydlowski & Donald Waller
This repository contains all of the raw data and code for the paper: Toczydlowski, R. H., and Waller, D. M. 2021. Plastic and quantitative genetic divergence mirror environmental gradients among wild, fragmented populations of Impatiens capensis. American Journal of Botany, ja. Premise of the study: Habitat fragmentation generates molecular genetic divergence among isolated populations but few studies have assessed phenotypic divergence and fitness in populations where the genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation are known. Phenotypic...

Data for: Perceived risk structures the space use of competing carnivores

Mauriel Rodriguez Curras, Emiliano Donadio, Arthur Middleton & Jonathan Pauli
Competition structures ecological communities. In carnivorans, competitive interactions are disproportionately costly to subordinate carnivores who must account for risk of interspecific killing when foraging. Accordingly, missed opportunity costs for meso-carnivores imposed by risk can benefit the smallest-bodied competitors. However, the extent to which the risk perpetuates into spatial partitioning in hierarchically structured communities remains unknown. To determine how risk-avoidance behaviors shape the space-use of carnivore communities, we studied a simple community of carnivores in northern...

Dataset for the study of Ultrafast energy transfer between lipid-linked chromophores and plant Light-Harvesting Complex II

Ashley Hancock, Minjung Son, Muath Nairat, Tiejun Wei, Lars Jeuken, Christopher Duffy, Gabriela Schlau-Cohen & Peter Adams
This dataset shows the raw data, analysed data and documentation related to figures and tables from the study “Ultrafast energy transfer between lipid-linked chromophores and plant Light-Harvesting Complex II". This includes: absorbance and fluorescence spectra; molecular dynamics images and associated files; calculations of excitation energy transfer; other graphical analyses; tabulated numerical data.

Long noncoding RNA#45 exerts broad inhibitory effect on influenza a virus replication via its stem ring arms

Lei Zhang, Xinxin Zheng, Jun Li, Guoqing Wang, Zenglei Hu, Yu Chen, Xiaoquan Wang, Min Gu, Ruyi Gao, Shunlin Hu, Xiaowen Liu, Xinan Jiao, Daxin Peng, Jiao Hu & Xiufan Liu
A growing body of evidence suggests the pivotal role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in influenza virus infection. Based on next-generation sequencing, we previously demonstrated that Lnc45 was distinctively stimulated by H5N1 influenza virus in mice. In this study, we systematically investigated the specific role of Lnc45 during influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Through qRT-PCR, we first demonstrated that Lnc45 is highly up-regulated by different subtypes of IAV strains, including H5N1, H7N9, and H1N1 viruses....

Data to support publication figures and animation scripts at GitHub: Modeling weather-driven long-distance dispersal of spruce budworm moths (Choristoneura fumiferana)

Matthew Garcia, Brian R. Sturtevant, Remi Saint-Amant, Joseph J. Charney, Johanne Delisle, Yan Boulanger, Philip A. Townsend & Jacques Régnière
Long-term studies of insect populations in the North American boreal forest have shown the vital importance of long-distance dispersal to the maintenance and expansion of insect outbreaks. In this work, we extend several concepts established previously in an empirically-based dispersal flight model with recent work on the physiology and behavior of the adult eastern spruce budworm (SBW) moth, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.). An outbreak of defoliating SBW in Quebec, ongoing since the mid-2000s, already covers millions...

Long non-coding RNA RP11-283G6.5 confines breast cancer development through modulating miR-188-3p/TMED3/Wnt/β-catenin signalling

Jing Pei, Shengquan Zhang, Xiaowei Yang, Chunguang Han, Yubo Pan, Jun Li, Zhaorui Wang, Chenyu Sun & Jing Zhang
The contributions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) to breast cancer are critical areas of investigation. In this study, we identified a novel lncRNA RP11-283G6.5 which was lowly expressed in breast cancer and whose low expression was correlated with poor overall survival and disease-free survival of breast cancer patients. Functional experiments revealed that ectopic expression of RP11-283G6.5 confined breast cancer cellular growth, migration, and invasion, and promoted cellular apoptosis. Conversely, RP11-283G6.5 silencing facilitated...

Body size, trophic position, and the coupling of different energy pathways across a saltmarsh landscape

Friedrich Keppeler, Jill Olin, Paola López-Duarte, Michael Polito, Linda Hooper-Bùi, Sabrina Taylor, Nancy Rabalais, F Joel Fodrie, Brian Roberts, R Eugene Turner, Charles Martin & Olaf Jensen
Here, we listed the bulk stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N) and body size measurements of organisms that were analyzed in the manuscript "Body size, trophic position, and the coupling of different energy pathways across a saltmarsh landscape", published in Limnology and Oceanography Letters. Our dataset is a compilation of samplings obtained by the Southern Louisiana marsh food webs project within the Coastal Waters Consortium (CWC) II (Lopez-Duarte et al. 2017a [https://doi.org/10.7266/N7XS5SGD], Lopez-Duarte et al....

Evidence for hawkmoth pollination in the chiropterophilous African baobab (Adansonia digitata)

Nisa Karimi
Chiropterophily, or bat pollination, is typically considered a highly specialized pollination system that has evolved independently numerous times across the angiosperm phylogeny, with distinct lineages often converging on a similar suite of floral traits. The African baobab, Adansonia digitata, occurs widespread across continental Africa and introduced throughout much of the tropics, possesses floral traits classically associated with bat pollination, namely nocturnal anthesis, pendulous white flowers, and a “musky” fragrance. Despite this, our observations and pollination...

Evidence for niche conservatism in alpine beetles under a climate-driven species pump model

Jillian Schat, Yi-Ming Weng, Roman Dudko, David Kavanaugh, Lan Luo & Sean Schoville
Aim Past glacial climate cycles have generated lineage diversity in alpine habitats, acting as a climate-driven species pump. It is not clear how much this process contributes to ecological diversification of alpine species. To examine this problem, we test patterns of genetic and phenotypic divergence in two co-distributed species complexes of flightless alpine ground beetles. Greater differentiation in ecologically-important functional traits would indicate that ecological selection is an outcome of oscillating climate change, whereas greater...

Non-human primate white matter development during the first year of life as assessed by diffusion tensor imaging and quantitative relaxometry

Nakul Aggarwal, Jason Moody, Douglas Dean, Do Tromp, Steve Kecskemeti, Jonathan Oler, Andrew Alexander & Ned Kalin
In this project, we use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and quantitative relaxometry (QR) metrics to assess longitudinal changes in white matter (WM) throughout the postnatal rhesus macaque brain across the first year of life. DTI and QR metrics are measured at 3, 7, 13, 25, and 53 weeks of age in each of 35 non-human primates (NHPs) in this sample, for a total 175 datapoints (i.e., scans). Leveraging a previously published NHP WM atlas (Adluru...

Value Function Guided Subgroup Identification via Gradient Tree Boosting: A Framework to Handle Multiple Outcomes for Optimal Treatment Recommendation

Pingye Zhang, Peng Liu, Junshui Ma & Yue Shentu
In randomized clinical trials, there has been an increasing interest in identifying subgroups with heterogeneous responses to study treatment based on baseline patient characteristics. Even though the benefit risk assessment of any patient population or subgroups is almost always a multi-facet consideration, the statistical literature of subgroup identification has largely been limited to a single clinical outcome. In the article, we propose a nonparametric method that searches for subgroup membership scores by maximizing a value...

Chemosensory genes in Leptinotarsa decemlineata

Sean Schoville, Yolanda Chen, Zach Cohen, Michael Crossley, Patamarerk Engsontia & Robert Mitchell
Plants and plant-feeding insects comprise the majority of global species diversity, and their coevolutionary dynamics provide an important window into the mechanisms that mediate niche evolution. In particular, there is considerable interest in understanding the nature of genetic changes that allow host-plant shifts to occur and to determine whether functional genomic diversity varies predictably in relation to host-plant breadth. Insect chemosensory proteins play a central role in mediating insect-plant interactions, as they directly influence plant...

A recovery network leads to the natural recolonization of an archipelago and a potential trailing edge refuge

Matthew Smith, Jonathan Gilbert, Erik Olson, Kim Scribner, Timothy Van Deelen, Julie Van Stappen, Bronwyn Williams, James Woodford & Jonathan Pauli
Rapid environmental change is reshaping ecosystems and driving species loss globally. Carnivore populations have declined and retracted rapidly and have been the target of numerous translocation projects. Success, however, is complicated when these efforts occur in novel ecosystems. Identifying refuges, locations that are resistant to environmental change, within a translocation framework should improve population recovery and persistence. American martens (Martes americana) are the most frequently translocated carnivore in North America. As elsewhere, martens were extirpated...

Redox controls RecA protein activity via reversible oxidation of its methionine residues

Benjamin Ezraty, Camille Henry, Frederic Barras, Laurent Loiseau, Alexandra Vergnes, Didier Vertommen, Angela Mérida-Floriano, Sindhu Chitteni-Pattu, Elizabeth Anne Wood, Josep Casadesús & Michael M. Cox
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause damage to DNA and proteins. The RecA protein plays a central role in the bacterial response to DNA damage. Here we report that RecA itself is also targeted by ROS. In vivo consequences of RecA oxidation include defects in SOS induction, DNA repair efficiency, and P1 transduction. In vitro, oxidized RecA fails to display ATPase activity, DNA strand exchange capacity and formation of nucleofilaments. Consistently, mass spectrometry analysis of oxidized...

Will it Unblend?

Yuval Pinter, Cassandra L. Jacobs & Jacob Eisenstein

Field evidence reveals conservative water use of poplars under high aerosol conditions in Beijing

Bin Wang, Zhenhua Wang, Chengzhang Wang, Xin Wang, Jing Li, Zhou Jia, Ping Li, Jin Wu, Min Chen & Lingli Liu
Anthropogenic aerosols could alter multiple meteorological processes such as radiation regime and air temperature, thereby modifying plant transpiration. However, the lack of field observations at the leaf- and plant-level hinders our ability to understand how aerosols could affect plant water use. Aerosol concentrations in northern China fluctuates periodically over a wide range. Taking advantage of this unique natural experiment opportunity, we conducted a full series of supporting physiological and environmental measurements to explore aerosols' effect...

Price Competition and Concentration in Search and Negotiation Markets: Evidence from Mortgage Lending

Jason Allen, Robert Clark & Jean-François Houde
This paper examines the impact of bank consolidation on mortgage rates in order to evaluate the extent to which mortgage markets are competitive. Mortgage markets are decentralized and so rates are determined through a search and negotiation process. The primary effect of a merger therefore is to reduce the number of partners available with whom to negotiate, although it can also change the characteristics of the product, and impact the search effort of consumers. Using...

Drainage basins serve as multiple glacial refugia for alpine habitats in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California

Yi-Ming Weng, Sean Schoville & David Kavanaugh
The evolutionary histories of alpine species are often directly associated with responses to glaciation. Deep divergence among populations and complex patterns of genetic variation have been inferred as consequences of persistence within glacier boundaries (i.e. on nunataks), while shallow divergence and limited genetic variation is assumed to result from expansion from large refugia at the edge of ice shields (i.e. massifs de refuge). However, for some species, dependence on specific microhabitats could profoundly influence their...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Text


  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • University of Wisconsin–Madison
  • Southern Medical University
  • Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College
  • Sun Yat-sen University
  • Capital Medical University
  • First Affiliated Hospital of Hebei Medical University
  • West China Hospital of Sichuan University
  • Zhejiang University
  • Sichuan University