221 Works

Data from: Senescence or selective disappearance? Age trajectories of body mass in wild and captive populations of a small-bodied primate

Anni Hämäläinen, Melanie Dammhahn, Fabienne Aujard, Manfred Eberle, Isabelle Hardy, Peter M. Kappeler, Martine Perret, Susanne Schliehe-Diecks, Cornelia Kraus & A. Hamalainen
Classic theories of ageing consider extrinsic mortality (EM) a major factor in shaping longevity and ageing, yet most studies of functional ageing focus on species with low EM. This bias may cause overestimation of the influence of senescent declines in performance over condition-dependent mortality on demographic processes across taxa. To simultaneously investigate the roles of functional senescence (FS) and intrinsic, extrinsic and condition-dependent mortality in a species with a high predation risk in nature, we...

Data from: Experimental test of plant defense evolution in four species using long-term rabbit exclosures

Teresa J. Didiano, Nash E. Turley, Georg Everwand, Hanno Schaefer, Michael J. Crawley & Marc T. J. Johnson
Plant defense traits have evolved over macro- and microevolutionary timescales in response to herbivores. Although a number of studies have investigated the evolutionary impacts of herbivores over short timescales, few studies have experimentally examined what defense traits most commonly evolve and whether multiple coexisting species exhibit similar evolutionary responses to herbivores. We addressed these questions using a long-term experiment at Silwood Park, England, United Kingdom, where we excluded rabbits from 38 grassland plots for <1...

Mycorrhizal phosphorus efficiencies and microbial competition drive root P uptake

Simon Clausing & Andrea Polle
Phosphorus (P) availability shows large differences among different soil types, affecting P nutrition of forest trees. Chemical binding of P to soil moieties affects partitioning of P between soil particles and solution, affecting soluble P concentrations upon which plants, their associated mycorrhizal symbionts, and microbes feed. The goal of this study was to characterize root P uptake by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal root tips in competition with microbes in situ in the organic and mineral layer...

Data from: Linking size spectrum, energy flux and trophic multifunctionality in soil food webs of tropical land-use systems

Anton M. Potapov, Bernhard Klarner, Dorothee Sandmann, Rahayu Widyastuti & Stefan Scheu
1. Many ecosystem functions depend on the structure of food webs, which heavily relies on the body size spectrum of the community. Despite that, little is known on how the size spectrum of soil animals responds to agricultural practices in tropical land-use systems and how these responses affect ecosystem functioning. 2. We studied land-use induced changes in belowground communities in tropical lowland ecosystems in Sumatra (Jambi province, Indonesia), a hotspot of tropical rainforest conversion to...

Data from: Patterns of modern pollen and plant richness across northern Europe

Triin Reitalu, Anne E. Bjune, Ansis Blaus, Thomas Giesecke, Aveliina Helm, Isabelle Matthias, Sylvia H. Peglar, J. Sakari Salonen, Heikki Seppa, Vivika Väli & H. John B. Birks
1. Sedimentary pollen offers excellent opportunities to reconstruct vegetation changes over past millennia. Number of different pollen taxa or pollen richness is used to characterise past plant richness. To improve the interpretation of sedimentary pollen richness, it is essential to understand the relationship between pollen and plant richness in contemporary landscapes. This study presents a regional-scale comparison of pollen and plant richness from northern Europe and evaluates the importance of environmental variables on pollen and...

Data from: The interplay of landscape composition and configuration: new pathways to manage functional biodiversity and agro-ecosystem services across Europe

Emily A. Martin, Matteo Dainese, Yann Clough, András Báldi, Riccardo Bommarco, Vesna Gagic, Michael Garratt, Andrea Holzschuh, David Kleijn, Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Lorenzo Marini, Simon G. Potts, Henrik G. Smith, Diab Al Hassan, Matthias Albrecht, Georg K. S. Andersson, Josep Asis, Stephanie Aviron, Mario Balzan, Laura Baños-Picón, Ignasi Bartomeus, Peter Batary, Françoise Burel, Berta Caballero-López, Elena D. Concepcion … & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key aim of a sustainable agriculture. However, how the spatial arrangement of crop fields and other habitats in landscapes impacts arthropods and their functions is poorly known. Synthesising data from 49 studies (1515 landscapes) across Europe, we examined effects of landscape composition (% habitats) and configuration (edge density) on arthropods in fields and their margins, pest control, pollination and yields. Configuration effects interacted with...

Data from: A barrier island perspective on species-area-relationships

Christoph Scherber, Hagen Andert, Rolf Niedringhaus & Teja Tscharntke
Predictions of species richness by island area are a classical cornerstone in ecology, while the specific features of barrier islands have been little appreciated. Many shorelines are occupied by barrier islands, which are shaped by offshore sedimentation processes and annual storm tide events. Hence, the appearance of these islands may vary between years if they are not protected by dykes. Here, we analyzed more than 2,990 species across 36 taxonomic groups (including vertebrates, invertebrates and...

Data from: Expanding the toolbox of nutrient limitation studies: novel method of soil microbial in-growth bags to evaluate nutrient demands in tropical forests

Tessa Camenzind, Stefan Scheu & Matthias C. Rillig
1.Ecosystem processes and the organisms involved are generally limited by the availability of one or more element in soil, an important phenomenon to consider for our understanding of ecosystem functioning and future changes. Especially in tropical forests, typically growing on nutrient depleted soils, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) or other limitations are assumed. However, large‐scale nutrient manipulation experiments revealed complex site‐specific patterns and several authors raised the need for novel approaches to reveal deeper mechanistic insights...

Data from: Forest defoliator pests alter carbon and nitrogen cycles

Anne L-M-Arnold, Maren Grüning, Judy Simon, Annett-Barbara Reinhardt, Norbert Lamersdorf & Carsten Thies
Climate change may foster pest epidemics in forests, and thereby the fluxes of elements that are indicators of ecosystem functioning. We examined compounds of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in insect faeces, leaf litter, throughfall and analysed the soils of deciduous oak forests (Quercus petraea L.) that were heavily infested by the leaf herbivores winter moth (Operophtera brumata L.) and mottled umber (Erannis defoliaria L.). In infested forests, total net canopy-to-soil fluxes of C and...

Data from: Prenatal stress effects in a wild, long-lived primate: predictive adaptive responses in an unpredictable environment

Andreas Berghänel, Michael Heistermann, Oliver Schülke & Julia Ostner
Prenatal maternal stress affects offspring phenotype in numerous species including humans, but it is debated whether these effects are evolutionarily adaptive. Relating stress to adverse conditions, current explanations invoke either short-term developmental constraints on offspring phenotype resulting in decelerated growth to avoid starvation, or long-term predictive adaptive responses (PARs) resulting in accelerated growth and reproduction in response to reduced life expectancies. Two PAR subtypes were proposed, acting either on predicted internal somatic states or predicted...

Data from: Bird diversity and endemism along a land-use gradient in Madagascar: the conservation value of vanilla agroforests

Dominic Andreas Martin, Rouvah Andriafanomezantsoa, Saskia Dröge, Kristina Osen, Eric Rakotomalala, Annemarie Wurz, Aristide Andrianarimisa & Holger Kreft
Land-use change is the most important driver of biodiversity loss worldwide and particularly so in the tropics, where natural habitats are transformed into large-scale monocultures or heterogeneous landscape mosaics of largely unknown conservation value. Using birds as an indicator taxon, we evaluated the conservation value of a landscape mosaic in north-eastern Madagascar, a biodiversity hotspot and the center of global vanilla production. We assessed bird species richness and composition by conducting point counts across seven...

Data from: Controlled feeding experiments with diets of different abrasiveness reveal slow development of mesowear signal in goats (Capra aegagrus hircus)

Nicole L. Ackermans, Daniela E. Winkler, Ellen Schulz-Kornas, Thomas M. Kaiser, Dennis W.H. Mueller, Patrick R. Kircher, Jurgen Hummel, Marcus Clauss & Jean-Michel Hatt
Dental mesowear is applied as a proxy to determine the general diet of mammalian herbivores based on tooth-cusp shape and occlusal relief. Low, blunt cusps are considered typical for grazers and high, sharp cusps typical for browsers. However, how internal or external abrasives impact mesowear, and the time frame the wear signature takes to develop, still need to be explored. Four different pelleted diets of increasing abrasiveness (lucerne, grass, grass and rice husks, grass, rice...

Data from: Effects of prey quality and predator body size on prey DNA detection success in a centipede predator

Bernhard Eitzinger, Einar Michael Unger, Michael Traugott & Stefan Scheu
Predator body size and prey quality are important factors driving prey choice and consumption rates. Both factors might affect prey detection success in PCR-based gut content analysis, potentially resulting in over- or underestimation of feeding rates. Experimental evidence, however, is scarce. We examined how body size and prey quality affect prey DNA detection success in centipede predators. Due to metabolic rates increasing with body size, we hypothesized that prey DNA detection intervals will be significantly...

Data from: Species interactions increase the temporal stability of community productivity in Pinus sylvestris-Fagus sylvatica mixtures across Europe

Miren Del Río, Hans Pretzsch, Ricardo Ruiz-Peinado, Evy Ampoorter, Peter Annighöfer, Ignacio Barbeito, Kamil Bielak, Gediminas Brazaitis, Lluis Coll, Lars össler, Marek Fabrika, David I. Forrester, Michael Heym, Václav Hurt, Viktor Kurylyak, Magnus Löf, Fabio Lombardi, Ekaterina Makrickiene, Bratislav Matovic, Frits Mohren, Renzo Motta, Jan Den Ouden, Maciej Pach, Quentin Ponette, Gerhard Schütze … & Lars Drössler
1.There is increasing evidence that species diversity enhances the temporal stability of community productivity in different ecosystems, although its effect at population and tree levels seems to be negative or neutral. Asynchrony in species responses to environmental conditions was found to be one of the main drivers of this stabilizing process. However, the effect of species mixing on the stability of productivity, and the relative importance of the associated mechanisms, remain poorly understood in forest...

Data from: Application of genomic estimation methods of inbreeding and population structure in an Arabian horse herd

Mohammed A. Al Abri, Uta Koenig Von Borstel, Veronique Strecker & Samantha A. Brooks
Horse breeders rely heavily on pedigrees for identification of ancestry in breeding stock. Inaccurate pedigrees may erroneously assign individuals to false lineages or breed memberships resulting in wrong estimates of inbreeding and coancestry. Moreover, discrepancies in pedigree records can lead breeders seeking to limit inbreeding into making misguided breeding decisions. Genome-wide SNPs provide a quantitative tool to aid in the resolution of lineage assignments and the calculation of genomic measures of relatedness. The aim of...

Data from: Resource stoichiometry and availability modulate species richness and biomass of tropical litter macro-invertebrates

Malte Jochum, Andrew D. Barnes, Patrick Weigelt, David Ott, Katja Rembold, Achmad Farajallah & Ulrich Brose
1. The high biodiversity and biomass of soil communities is crucial for litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as tropical forests. However, the leaf litter that these communities consume is of particularly poor quality as indicated by elemental stoichiometry. The impact of resource quantity, quality, and other habitat parameters on species richness and biomass of consumer communities is often studied in isolation, although much can be learned from simultaneously studying both community characteristics. 2. Using...

Data from: EuMIXFOR empirical forest mensuration and ring width data from pure and mixed stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) through Europe

Michael Heym, Ricardo Ruíz-Peinado, Miren Del Río, Kamil Bielak, David I. Forrester, Gerald Dirnberger, Ignacio Barbeito, Gediminas Brazaitis, Indrė Ruškytė, Lluís Coll, Marek Fabrika, Lars Drössler, Magnus Löf, Hubert Sterba, Václav Hurt, Viktor Kurylak, Fabio Lombardi, Dejan Stojanović, Jan Den Ouden, Renzo Motta, Maciej Pach, Jerzy Skrzyszewski, Quentin Ponette, Géraud De Streel, Vit Sramek … & Hans Pretzsch
This data set provides unique empirical data from triplets of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) across Europe. Dendrometric variables are provided for 32 triplets, 96 plots, 7555 trees and 4695 core samples. These data contribute to our understanding of mixed stand dynamics.

Data from: Population structure of a microparasite infecting Daphnia: spatio-temporal dynamics

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Background: Detailed knowledge of spatial and temporal variation in the genetic population structure of hosts and parasites is required for understanding of hostparasite coevolution. As hot-spots of contemporary coevolution in natural systems are difficult to detect and long-term studies are restricted to few systems additional population genetic data from various hostparasite systems may provide important insights into the topic. This is particularly true for parasites as these players have been under-investigated so far due to...

Data from: Functional identity and diversity of animals predict ecosystem functioning better than species-based indices

Vesna Gagic, Ignasi Bartomeus, Astrid Taylor, Camilla Winqvist, Christina Fischer, Eleanor M. Slade, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Mark Emmerson, Simon G. Potts, Teja Tscharntke, Wolfgang Weisser, Riccardo Bommarco & T. Jonsson
Drastic biodiversity declines have raised concerns about the deterioration of ecosystem functions and have motivated much recent research on the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem functioning. A functional trait framework has been proposed to improve the mechanistic understanding of this relationship, but this has rarely been tested for organisms other than plants. We analysed eight datasets, including five animal groups, to examine how well a trait-based approach, compared with a more traditional taxonomic approach,...

Data from: The global distribution of diet breadth in insect herbivores

Matthew L. Forister, Vojtech Novotny, Anna K. Panorska, Leontine Baje, Yves Basset, Philip T. Butterill, Lukas Cizek, Phyllis D. Coley, Francesca Dem, Ivone R. Diniz, Pavel Drozd, Mark Fox, Andrea E. Glassmire, Rebecca Hazen, Jan Hrcek, Joshua P. Jahner, Ondrej Kaman, Tomasz J. Kozubowski, Thomas Kursar, Owen T. Lewis, John Lill, Robert J. Marquis, Scott E. Miller, Helena C. Morais, Masashi Murakami … & Lee A. Dyer
Understanding variation in resource specialization is important for progress on issues that include coevolution, community assembly, ecosystem processes, and the latitudinal gradient of species richness. Herbivorous insects are useful models for studying resource specialization, and the interaction between plants and herbivorous insects is one of the most common and consequential ecological associations on the planet. However, uncertainty persists regarding fundamental features of herbivore diet breadth, including its relationship to latitude and plant species richness. Here...

Data from: Land-use type and intensity differentially filter traits in above- and belowground arthropod communities

Klaus Birkhofer, Martin M. Gossner, Tim Diekötter, Claudia Drees, Olga Ferlian, Mark Maraun, Stefan Scheu, Wolfgang W. Weisser, Volkmar Wolters, Susanne Wurst, Andrey S. Zaitsev & Henrik G. Smith
1. Along with the global decline of species richness goes a loss of ecological traits. Associated biotic homogenization of animal communities and narrowing of trait diversity threaten ecosystem functioning and human well-being. High management intensity is regarded as an important ecological filter, eliminating species that lack suitable adaptations. Belowground arthropods are assumed to be less sensitive to such effects than aboveground arthropods. 2. Here, we compared the impact of management intensity between (grassland vs. forest)...

Data from: Dissecting nutrient-related co-expression networks in phosphate starved poplars

Mareike Kavka & Andrea Polle
Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient, but its availability is often limited in soil. Here, we studied changes in the transcriptome and in nutrient element concentrations in leaves and roots of poplars (Populus × canescens) in response to P deficiency. P starvation resulted in decreased concentrations of S and major cations (K, Mg, Ca), in increased concentrations of N, Zn and Al, while C, Fe and Mn were only little affected. In roots and...

Data from: Crossing the (Wallace) line: local abundance and distribution of mammals across biogeographic barriers

Jedediah F. Brodie, Olga Helmy, Margaretha Pangau-Adam, Giyarto Ugiek, Graden Froese, Alys Granados, Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan, Henry Bernard, Anthony J. Giordano, Muhammad Agil & Abdul Haris Mustari
Past and ongoing vertebrate introductions threaten to rearrange ecological communities in the Indo-Malay Archipelago, one of Earth's most biodiverse regions. But the consequences of these translocations are difficult to predict. We compared local abundance and distributions in four tropical mammal lineages that have crossed from Asia to Wallacea or New Guinea. The local abundance of macaques (Macaca spp.), which naturally crossed Wallace's Line, was higher in Sulawesi (east of the line; mean = 3.7 individuals...

Data from: The impact of even-aged and uneven-aged forest management on regional biodiversity of multiple taxa in European beech forests

Peter Schall, Martin M. Gossner, Steffi Heinrichs, Markus Fischer, Steffen Boch, Daniel Prati, Kirsten Jung, Vanessa Baumgartner, Stefan Blaser, Stefan Böhm, Francois Buscot, Rolf Daniel, Kezia Goldmann, Kirstin Kaiser, Tiemo Kahl, Markus Lange, Jörg Müller, Jörg Overmann, Swen C. Renner, Ernst-Detlef Schulze, Johannes Sikorski, Marco Tschapka, Manfred Türke, Wolfgang W. Weisser, Bernd Wemheuer … & Kristin Kaiser
For managed temperate forests, conservationists and policymakers favour fine-grained uneven-aged management over more traditional coarse-grained even-aged management, based on the assumption that within-stand habitat heterogeneity enhances biodiversity. There is, however, little empirical evidence to support this assumption. We investigated for the first time how differently grained forest management systems affect the biodiversity of multiple above- and below-ground taxa across spatial scales. We sampled 15 taxa of animals, plants, fungi and bacteria within the largest contiguous...

Data from: Mechanisms of reciprocity and diversity in social networks: a modelling and comparative approach

Ivan Puga-Gonzalez, Julia Ostner, Oliver Schülke, Sebastian Sosa, Bernard Thierry & Cedric Sueur
Three mechanisms have been proposed to underlie reciprocation of social behaviors in gregarious animals: ‘calculated reciprocity’, ‘emotional bookkeeping’ and ‘symmetry-based reciprocity’. Among these explanations, emotional book-keeping has received the broadest support from experimental and observational studies. On the other hand, three individual-based models have shown that reciprocation may emerge via ‘symmetry-based reciprocity’, ‘emotional bookkeeping’, or a combination of both mechanisms. Here we use these three models to assess their relative fit with empirical data on...

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  • University of Göttingen
  • German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research
  • Technical University Munich
  • University of Freiburg
  • University of Würzburg
  • German Primate Center
  • University of Vienna
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • Leipzig University
  • University of Bern