256 Works

Magnetotelluric data for the Halloween 2003 magnetic storm in the vicinity of Uppsala and Eskdalemuir geomagnetic observatories (synthesized using geomagnetic observatory data from INTERMAGNET)

Fiona Simpson & Karsten Bahr
Magnetotelluric data for the Halloween 2003 magnetic storm in the vicinity of Uppsala (UPS), Sweden and Eskdalemuir (ESK), Scotland geomagnetic observatories synthesized from geomagnetic observatory data from INTERMAGNET. The data were generated to facilitate comparison of the ground effects of the Halloween 2003 magnetic storm in Sweden and Scotland. The data demonstrate the greater risk of hazardous storm-time electric fields being generated in southern Sweden compared to central Scotland and are further described in the...

Manfred Josuttis (1936—2018)

Jan Hermelink & Tobias Braune-Krickau
Dieser Band dokumentiert die Beiträge zur akademischen Gedenkfeier für Prof. Dr. Manfred Josuttis, die am 26. April 2019 in der Göttinger Universitätskirche St. Nikolai stattfand. Die Feier wurde ausgerichtet vom Lehrstuhl für Praktische Theologie / Pastoraltheologie, von der Theologischen Fakultät sowie vom Präsidium der Georg-August-Universität Göttingen. Manfred Josuttis, 1936 in Insterburg geboren, lehrte von 1968 bis 2001 Praktische Theologie an der Georg-August-Universität Göttingen. Seine innovative Forschung, die sich über das gesamte Gebiet der Praktischen Theologie...

Taxonomic and functional homogenization of farmland birds along an urbanization gradient in a tropical megacity

Gabriel Marcacci, Catrin Westphal, Arne Wenzel, Varsha Raj, Nils Nölke, Teja Tscharntke & Ingo Graß
Urbanization is a major driver of land use change and biodiversity decline. While most of the ongoing and future urbanization hot spots are located in the Global South, the impact of urban expansion on agricultural biodiversity and associated functions and services in these regions has widely been neglected. Additionally, most studies assess biodiversity responses at local scale (α-diversity), however, ecosystem functioning is strongly determined by compositional and functional turnover of communities (β-diversity) at regional scales....

Vegetations- und Landnutzungsgeschichte des Reinhardswaldes (Hessen)

Svea Lina Jahnk, Hermann Behling, Philipp Küchler & Marcus Schmidt

Data from: Land-use intensification increases richness of native and exotic herbaceous plants, but not endemics, in Malagasy vanilla landscapes

Estelle Raveloaritiana, Annemarie Wurz, Ingo Grass, Kristina Osen, Marie Rolande Soazafy, Dominic A. Martin, Lucien Faliniaina, Nantenaina H. Rakotomalala, Maria S. Vorontsova, Teja Tscharntke & Bakolimalala Rakouth
Aim: North-eastern Madagascar is a hotspot of plant diversity, but vanilla and rice farming are driving land-use change, including slash-and-burn management. It still remains unknown how land-use change and land-use history affect richness and composition of endemic, native and exotic herbaceous plant species. Location: North-eastern Madagascar. Methods: We assessed herbaceous plants along a land-use intensification gradient ranging from unburned land-use types (i.e. old-growth forest, forest fragment and forest-derived vanilla agroforest) to burned land-use types (i.e....

Data from: Experimental evidence that even minor livestock trampling has severe effects on land snail communities in forest remnants

Lisa H. Denmead, Gary M. Barker, Rachel J. Standish & Raphael K. Didham
1. Land-use intensification is increasing dramatically in production systems world-wide. Livestock production is an important component of production land use, and increases in livestock densities have had a wide range of negative consequences. The off-site effects of livestock grazing and trampling on native vegetation adjacent to pastoral land have received less attention than on-farm effects. Moreover, where significant ecological effects of livestock spillover have been identified, the mechanistic determinants of these effects have not typically...

Data from: Biogeographic, climatic and spatial drivers differentially affect α-, β- and γ-diversities on oceanic archipelagos

Juliano Sarmento Cabral, Patrick Weigelt, Walter Daniel Kissling & Holger Kreft
Island biogeographic studies traditionally treat single islands as units of analysis. This ignores the fact that most islands are spatially nested within archipelagos. Here, we took a fundamentally different approach and focused on entire archipelagos using species richness of vascular plants on 23 archipelagos worldwide and their 174 constituent islands. We assessed differential effects of biogeographic factors (area, isolation, age, elevation), current and past climate (temperature, precipitation, seasonality, climate change velocity) and intra-archipelagic spatial structure...

Data from: Spatial variability in soil organic carbon in a tropical montane landscape: associations between soil organic carbon and land use, soil properties, vegetation, and topography vary across plot to landscape scales

Marleen De Blécourt, Marife D. Corre, Ekananda Paudel, Rhett D. Harrison, Rainer Brumme & Edzo Veldkamp
Presently, the lack of data on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in relation to land-use types and biophysical characteristics prevents reliable estimates of ecosystem carbon stocks in montane landscapes of mainland SE Asia. Our study, conducted in a 10 000 ha landscape in Xishuangbanna, SW China, aimed at assessing the spatial variability in SOC concentrations and stocks, as well as the relationships of SOC with land-use types, soil properties, vegetation characteristics and topographical attributes at...

Data from: Population genetic structure and reproductive strategy of the introduced grass Centotheca lappacea in tropical land-use systems in Sumatra

Ladislav Hodač, Fuad Bahrul Ulum, Nicole Opfermann, Natalie Breidenbach, Diego Hojsgaard, Sri Sudarmiyati Tjitrosoedirdjo, Barbara Vornam, Reiner Finkeldey & Elvira Hörandl
Intensive transformation of lowland rainforest into oil palm and rubber monocultures is the most common land-use practice in Sumatra (Indonesia), accompanied by invasion of weeds. In the Jambi province, Centotheca lappacea is one of the most abundant alien grass species in plantations and in jungle rubber (an extensively used agroforest), but largely missing in natural rainforests. Here, we investigated putative genetic differentiation and signatures for adaptation in the introduced area. We studied reproductive mode and...

Data from: Biodiversity conservation in agriculture requires a multi-scale approach

David J. Gonthier, Katherine K. Ennis, Serge Farinas, Hsun-Yi Hsieh, Aaron L. Iverson, Péter Batáry, Jörgen Rudolphi, Teja Tscharntke, Bradley J. Cardinale, Ivette Perfecto, H.-Y. Hsieh & P. Batary
Biodiversity loss—one of the most prominent forms of modern environmental change—has been heavily driven by terrestrial habitat loss and, in particular, the spread and intensification of agriculture. Expanding agricultural land-use has led to the search for strong conservation strategies, with some suggesting that biodiversity conservation in agriculture is best maximized by reducing local management intensity, such as fertilizer and pesticide application. Others highlight the importance of landscape-level approaches that incorporate natural or semi-natural areas in...

Data from: Trap nests for bees and wasps to analyse trophic interactions in changing environments - a systematic overview and user guide

Michael Staab, Gesine Pufal, Teja Tscharntke & Alexandra-Maria Klein
1. Trap nests are artificially made nesting resources for solitary cavity-nesting bees and wasps and allow easy quantification of multiple trophic interactions between bees, wasps, their food objects and natural enemies. 2. We synthesized all trap nest studies available in the ISI Web of Science™ to provide a comprehensive overview of trap nest research and identify common practical challenges and promising future research directions. 3. Trap nests have been used on all continents and across...

Data from: Predator-prey interactions between shell-boring beetle larvae and rock-dwelling land snails

Els Baalbergen, Renate Helwerda, Rense Schelfhorst, Ruth F. Castillo Cajas, Coline H. M. Van Moorsel, Robin Kundrata, Francisco W. Welter-Schultes, Sinos Giokas & Menno Schilthuizen
Drilus beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are specialized predators of land snails. Here, we describe various aspects of the predator-prey interactions between multiple Drilus species attacking multiple Albinaria (Gastropoda: Clausiliidae) species in Greece. We observe that Drilus species may be facultative or obligate Albinaria-specialists. We map geographically varying predation rates in Crete, where on average 24% of empty shells carry fatal Drilus bore holes. We also provide first-hand observations and video-footage of prey entry and exit...

Challenging the concept that eumelanin is the polymorphic brown banded pigment in Cepaea nemoralis

Daniel Jackson, Susanne Affenzeller, Klaus Wolkenstein & Holm Frauendorf
The common grove snail Cepaea nemoralis displays a stable pigmentation polymorphism in its shell that has held the attention of scientists for decades. While the details of the molecular mechanisms that generate and maintain this diversity remain elusive, it has long been employed as a model system to address questions related to ecology, population genetics and evolution. In order to contribute to the ongoing efforts to identify the genes that generate this polymorphism we have...

Source pools and disharmony of the world’s island floras

Christian König, Patrick Weigelt, Amanda Taylor, Anke Stein, Wayne Dawson, Franz Essl, Jan Pergl, Petr Pysek, Mark Van Kleunen, Marten Winter, Cyrille Chatelain, Jan Wieringa, Pavel Krestov & Holger Kreft
Island disharmony refers to the biased representation of higher taxa on islands compared to their mainland source regions and represents a central concept in island biology. Here, we develop a generalizable framework for approximating these source regions and conduct the first global assessment of island disharmony and its underlying drivers. We compiled vascular plant species lists for 178 oceanic islands and 735 mainland regions. Using mainland data only, we modelled species turnover as a function...

Data from: Decreasing predation rates and shifting predator compositions along a land-use gradient in Madagascar’s vanilla landscapes

Dominik Schwab, Annemarie Wurz, Ingo Grass, Anjaharnony A.N.A. Rakotomalala, Kristina Osen, Marie Rolande Soazafy, Dominic A. Martin & Teja Tscharntke
1. Land-use change is the main driver of deforestation and land degradation resulting in the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in north-eastern Madagascar. Vanilla, the region’s main cash crop, is grown in agroforestry systems and may provide an opportunity for the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. 2. We used dummy caterpillars to assess predation rates and predator communities along a land-use gradient including unburned old-growth and forest fragments, herbaceous and woody fallows after...

Isotope analyses of amino acids in fungi and fungal feeding Diptera larvae allow differentiating ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi-based food chains

Melanie Mira Pollierer, Stefan Scheu & Alexei V. Tiunov
1- Both ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and saprotrophic fungi are fundamental to carbon and nutrient dynamics in forest ecosystems; however, the relative importance of these different fungal functional groups for higher trophic levels of the soil food web is virtually unknown. 2- To explore differences between fungal functional groups and their importance for higher trophic levels, we analysed isotopic composition of nitrogen and carbon in amino acids (AAs) and bulk tissue of leaf litter, fungi, and fungal-feeding...

Carbohydrate depletion in roots impedes phosphorus nutrition of forest trees

Simon Clausing, Rodica Pena, Bin Song, Karolin Müller, Paula Mayer-Gruner, Sven Marhan, Martin Grafe, Stefanie Schulz, Jaane Krüger, Friederike Lang, Michael Schloter, Ellen Kandeler & Andrea Polle
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of belowground plant-derived carbohydrates on P uptake, P concentrations and enzymes activities related to P mobilization in roots, ectomycorrhizas and soil and on the abundances of P-related genes in soil bacteria. We report data from a girdling experiment in two temperate beech forest with contrasting soil phosphorus concentrations. We used soil cores and the fractions of the organic layer and mineral topsoil separately one and...

Post-fire vegetation succession in the Siberian subarctic tundra over 45 years

Ramona Julia Heim, Anna Bucharova, Leya Brodt, Johannes Kamp, Daniel Rieker, Andrey Soromotin, Andrey Yurtaev & Norbert Hölzel
Wildfires are relatively rare in subarctic tundra ecosystems, but they can strongly change ecosystem properties. Short-term fire effects on subarctic tundra vegetation are well documented, but long-term vegetation recovery has been studied less. The frequency of tundra fires will increase with climate warming. Understanding the long-term effects of fire is necessary to predict future ecosystem changes. We used a space-for-time approach to assess vegetation recovery after fire over more than four decades. We studied soil...

Conversion of Andean montane forests into plantations: effects on soil characteristics, microorganisms and microarthropods

Franca Marian, Pablo Ramirez Castillo, Carlos Iñiguez Armijos, Sven Günter, Mark Maraun & Stefan Scheu
Tropical montane forests in the Andes are subjected to deforestation and subsequent transformation into pastures. Abandoned pastures are frequently reforested by planting monoculture timber plantations, resulting in reduced aboveground diversity and changes in soil characteristics compared to primary forests. In this study, we evaluated differences in soil properties (litter layer thickness, pH, water content and C-to-N ratio) between degraded primary montane forest and monoculture pine (Pinus patula) and alder (Alnus acuminata) plantations and their effect...

Impact of nitrogen and phosphorus addition on resident soil and root mycobiomes in beech forests

Simon Clausing, Likulunga Emmanuel Likulunga, Dennis Janz, Huanying Feng, Dominik Schneider, Rolf Daniel, Jaane Krüger, Friederike Lang & Andrea Polle
The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of fertilizers on root-associated and soil residing fungi in beech forests. We report data from a fertilization experiment in three temperate beech forest with contrasting soil phosphorus concentrations. We used soil cores and the fractions of the organic layer and mineral topsoil separately of spring and fall 2018. We collected bulk soil and roots. We provide data on soil for pH, mineral elements, ammonium, nitrate,...

Data from: The Shortlist Method for fast computation of the Earth Mover's Distance and finding optimal solutions to transportation problems

Carsten Gottschlich & Dominic Schuhmacher
Finding solutions to the classical transportation problem is of great importance, since this optimization problem arises in many engineering and computer science applications. Especially the Earth Mover's Distance is used in a plethora of applications ranging from content-based image retrieval, shape matching, fingerprint recognition, object tracking and phishing web page detection to computing color differences in linguistics and biology. Our starting point is the well-known revised simplex algorithm, which iteratively improves a feasible solution to...

Data from: Root biomass and exudates link plant diversity with soil bacterial and fungal biomass

Nico Eisenhauer, Arnaud Lanoue, Tanja Strecker, Stefan Scheu, Katja Steinauer, Madhav P. Thakur & Liesje Mommer
Plant diversity has been shown to determine the composition and functioning of soil biota. Although root-derived organic inputs are discussed as the main drivers of soil communities, experimental evidence is scarce. While there is some evidence that higher root biomass at high plant diversity increases substrate availability for soil biota, several studies have speculated that the quantity and diversity of root inputs into the soil, i.e. though root exudates, drive plant diversity effects on soil...

Data from: Configurational landscape heterogeneity shapes functional community composition of grassland butterflies

David Perović, Sagrario Gámez-Virués, Carmen Börschig, Alexandra-Maria Klein, Jochen Krauss, Juliane Steckel, Christoph Rothenwöhrer, Stefan Erasmi, Teja Tscharntke & Catrin Westphal
1. Landscape heterogeneity represents two aspects of landscape simplification: (i) compositional heterogeneity (diversity of habitat types) and (ii) configurational heterogeneity (number, size and arrangement of habitat patches); both with different ecological implications for community composition. 2. We examined how independent gradients of compositional and configurational landscape heterogeneity, at eight spatial scales, shape taxonomic and functional composition of butterfly communities in 91 managed grasslands across Germany. We used landscape metrics that were calculated from functional maps...

Data from: The Paleozoic origin of enzymatic lignin decomposition reconstructed from 31 fungal genomes

Dimitrios Floudas, Manfred Binder, Robert Riley, Kerrie Barry, Robert A. Blanchette, Bernard Henrissat, Angel T. Martínez, Robert Ortillar, Joseph W. Spatafora, Jagjit S. Yadav, Andrea Aerts, Isabelle Benoit, Alex Boyd, Alexis Carlson, Alex Copeland, Pedro M. Coutinho, Ronald P. De Vries, Patricia Ferreira, Keisha Findley, Brian Foster, Jill Gaskell, Dylan Glotzer, Paweł Górecki, Joseph Heitman, Cedar Hesse … & David S. Hibbett
Wood is a major pool of organic carbon that is highly resistant to decay, owing largely to the presence of lignin. The only organisms capable of substantial lignin decay are white rot fungi in the Agaricomycetes, which also contains non–lignin-degrading brown rot and ectomycorrhizal species. Comparative analyses of 31 fungal genomes (12 generated for this study) suggest that lignin-degrading peroxidases expanded in the lineage leading to the ancestor of the Agaricomycetes, which is reconstructed as...

Data from: Contemporary evolution of plant growth rate following experimental removal of herbivores

Nash E. Turley, Walter C. Odell, Hanno Schaefer, Georg Everwand, Michael J. Crawley & Marc T. J. Johnson
Herbivores are credited with driving the evolutionary diversification of plant defensive strategies over macroevolutionary time. For this to be true, herbivores must also cause short-term evolution within plant populations, but few studies have experimentally tested this prediction. We addressed this gap using a long-term manipulative field experiment where exclosures protected 22 plant populations from natural rabbit herbivory for <1 to 26 years. We collected seeds of Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae) from our plots and grew...

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