423 Works

Data from: Biodiversity and yield trade-offs for organic farming

Yi Zou, Shanxing Gong, Jenny Hodgson, Teja Tscharntke, Yunhui Liu, Wopke Van Der Werf, Péter Batáry & Johannes Knops
Organic farming supports higher biodiversity than conventional farming, but at the cost of lower yields. We conducted a meta-analysis quantifying the trade-off between biodiversity and yield, comparing conventional and organic farming. We developed a compatibility index to assess whether biodiversity gains from organic farming exceed yield losses, and a substitution index to assess whether organic farming would increase biodiversity in an area if maintaining total production under organic farming would require cultivating more land at...

Vacuole fragmentation depends on a novel Atg18-containing retromer-complex

Lisa Marquardt, Matthew Taylor, Florian Kramer, Kerstin Schmitt, Gerhard H. Braus, Oliver Valerius & Michael Thumm
The yeast PROPPIN Atg18 folds as a β-propeller with two binding sites for phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) and PtdIns(3,5)P2 at its circumference. Membrane insertion of an amphipathic loop of Atg18 leads to membrane tubulation and fission. Atg18 has known functions at the PAS during macroautophagy, but the functional relevance of its endosomal and vacuolar pool is not well understood. Here we show in a proximity-dependent labeling approach and by co-immunoprecipitations that Atg18 interacts with Vps35, a central...

Accuracy of intraoral real-time navigation versus static, CAD/CAM-manufactured pilot drilling guides in dental implant surgery: an in vitro study

Robert Stünkel, Alexander-Nicolai Zeller, Thomas Bohne, Florian Böhrnsen, Edris Wedi, David Raschke & Philipp Kauffmann
Abstract Background Nowadays, 3D planning and static for dynamic aids play an increasing role in oral rehabilitation of the masticatory apparatus with dental implants. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy of implant placement using a 3D-printed drilling guide and an intraoral real-time dynamic navigation system. Methods A total of 60 implants were placed on 12 partially edentulous lower jaw models. 30 were placed with pilot drilling guides, the other half with...

High variation in hydraulic efficiency but not xylem safety between roots and branches in four temperate broad-leaved tree species

Torben Lübbe, Laurent J. Lamarque, Sylvain Delzon, José M. Torres-Ruiz, Régis Burlett, Christoph Leuschner & Bernhard Schuldt
Xylem hydraulic safety and efficiency are key traits determining tree fitness in a warmer and drier world. While numerous plant hydraulic studies have focused on branches, our understanding of root hydraulic functioning remains limited, although roots control water uptake, influence stomatal regulation and have commonly been considered as the most vulnerable organ along the hydraulic pathway. We investigated 11 traits related to xylem safety and efficiency along the hydraulic pathway in four temperate broad-leaved tree...

High-resolution 3D forest structure explains ecomorphological trait variation in assemblages of saproxylic beetles

Lukas Drag, Ryan Burner, Jörg Stephan, Tone Birkemoe, Inken Doerfler, Martin M. Gossner, Paul Magdon, Otso Ovaskainen, Mária Potterf, Peter Schall, Tord Snäll, Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson, Wolfgang Weisser & Jörg Müller
1. Climate, topography, and the 3D structure of forests are major drivers affecting local species communities. However, little is known about how the specific functional traits of saproxylic (wood-living) beetles, involved in the recycling of wood, might be affected by those environmental characteristics. 2. Here we combine ecological and morphological traits available for saproxylic beetles and airborne laser scanning (ALS) data in Bayesian trait-based joint species distribution models to study how traits drive the distributions...

Application of in-situ U-Pb-He double-dating on detrital zircons – an example of Alpine sediments from the Inn river and its tributaries

Falko Malis , István Dunkl & Hilmar von Eynatten
In-situ U-Pb-He double-dating of detrital zircon provides information regarding formation and cooling ages of source rocks. Its advantage over conventional dating methods is the unique ability to obtain a high quantity of precise single zircon data with constraints for both low- and high-temperature chronology. In provenance studies the information collected by double-dating can be used to reconstruct more complex tectonic settings and geologic evolution of individual zircons. Here, it is used to distinguish the components...

Increased production of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine in human urine, a novel biomarker of osteoporosis

Qian Liu, Zhen Liu, Chen-Chen Wang, Xin Gao, Chuan-Bao Li, Meng Wang, Qiang Wang & Jian-Ping Cai
Osteoporosis is a worldwide disease that seriously affects the quality of life and survival rate of the elderly. The detection of bone biomarkers will provide supplementary information on bone mineral density, contributing to the accurate diagnosis of osteoporosis and better health care for prevention. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of oxidative stress markers—8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGsn) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGsn) in the assessment of osteoporosis. We conducted a cross-sectional study among menopausal women with a mean...

Timing and mechanisms of Late Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic exhumation and uplift in Central Europe

Hilmar von Eynatten , Jonas Kley & István Dunkl
Widespread exhumation and uplift affected Central Europe in Late Cretaceous to Paleogene time (e.g. Kley and Voigt, 2008, Geology, 36, 839-842). The area involved includes thrust-related basement uplifts and inverted Mesozoic basins and extends at least from the Rhenish Massif to the Bohemian Massif and from the Black Forest/Vosges to the North German Basin. Exhumation and basin inversion started at approx. 95 Ma based on stratigraphic constraints (Voigt et al. 2021, Solid Earth, https://se.copernicus.org/preprints/se-2020-188), well...

Patterns of livestock depredation by snow leopards and effects of intervention strategies: lessons from the Nepalese Himalaya

Marc Filla, Rinzin Phunjok Lama, Tim Filla, Marco Heurich, Niko Balkenhol, Matthias Waltert & Igor Khorozyan
Context. Large carnivores are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic activities, and their protection is among the main goals of biodiversity conservation. The snow leopard (Panthera uncia) inhabits high-mountain landscapes where livestock depredation drives it into conflicts with local people and poses an obstacle for its conservation. Aims. The aim of this study was to identify the livestock groups most vulnerable to depredation, target them in implementation of practical interventions, and assess the effectiveness of intervention strategies...

Combined architectural-element and microfacies analyses in carbonate sedimentology: the intra-basin shoal complex of the Lower Muschelkalk (Rüdersdorf Formation, Anisian)

Fabian Käsbohrer & Matthias Franz
The layer-cake strata of the epeiric Anisian-Ladinian Muschelkalk are devoid of large-scale architectural elements, e. g. steep clinoforms of a progradional platform slope. This resulted in a simplified approach in facies analysis, in which results of classical microfacies analysis (microscale) are used directly to conclude on depositional models (macroscale). In coastal settings, depositional cycles (mesoscale) are often defined in an intermediate step to visualize progradational or retrogradational patterns of shorelines or shoreline-detached shoals. Apart from...

Stabilized morphological evolution of spiders despite mosaic changes in foraging ecology

Jonas Wolff, Kaja Wierucka, Jonathan Coddington, Gustavo Hormiga, Michael Kelly, Marie Herberstein, Martín Ramírez & Gustavo Paterno
A prominent question in animal research is how the evolution of morphology and ecology interact in the generation of phenotypic diversity. Spiders are some of the most abundant arthropod predators in terrestrial ecosystems and exhibit a diversity of foraging styles. It remains unclear how spider body size and proportions relate to foraging style, and if the use of webs as prey capture devices correlates with changes in body characteristics. Here we present the most extensive...

Functional diversity of farmland bees across rural-urban landscapes in a tropical megacity

Gabriel Marcacci, Ingo Grass, Vikas S Rao, Shabarish Kumar S, K.B. Tharini, Vasuki Belavadi, Nils Nölke, Teja Tscharntke & Catrin Westphal
Urbanization is a major threat to biodiversity and food security, as expanding cities, especially in the Global South, increasingly compete with natural and agricultural lands. However, the impact of urban expansion on agricultural biodiversity in tropical regions is overlooked. Here we assessed how urbanization affects the functional response of farmland bees, the most important pollinators for crop production. We sampled bees across three seasons in 36 conventional vegetable-producing farms spread along an urbanization gradient in...

Population structure and genetic variance among local populations of an non-native earthworm species in Minnesota, USA

Ina Schaefer
A variety of human activities have been identified as driving factors for the release and spread of invasive earthworm species in North America. Population genetic markers can help to identify locally relevant anthropogenic vectors and provide insights into the processes of population dispersal and establishment. We sampled the invasive European earthworm species Lumbricus terrestris at nine sites and several bait shops within the metropolitan area of Minneapolis-St. Paul in Minnesota, USA. We used microsatellite markers...

Late Anisian microbe-metazoan build-ups (“stromatolites”) in the Germanic Basin – aftermath of the Permian – Triassic Crisis

Yu Pei , Jan-Peter Duda , Jan Schönig , Cui Luo & Joachim Reitner
The so-called Permian – Triassic mass extinction was followed by a prolonged period of ecological recovery that lasted until the Middle Triassic. Triassic stromatolites from the Germanic Basin seem to be an important part of the puzzle, but have barely been investigated so far. Here we analyzed late Anisian (upper Middle Muschelkalk) stromatolites from across the Germanic Basin by combining petrographic approaches (optical microscopy, micro X-ray fluorescence, Raman imaging) and geochemical analyses (sedimentary hydrocarbons, stable...

Exhumation and erosion rates in the flat-topped Nock Mountains in the Eastern Alps constrained by low-temperature and cosmogenic 10Be data

Andreas Wölfler , Andrea Hampel , Christoph Glotzbach & István Dunkl
Constraining rates of landscape evolution is a necessary pre-requisite for reconstructing the spatiotemporal evolution of the Earth´s surface. In our study, we present new zircon and apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He ages as well as catchment-wide 10Be-derived erosion rates to determine exhumation and erosion rates in the Nock Mountains, an elevated-low relief landscape in the Eastern Alps. Zircon fission track and zircon (U-Th)/He analyses yielded cooling ages of ~90 and ~80 Ma, respectively, which we...

Data from: ETIB-T: An aquilibrium theory of island biogeography for plant traits

Julian Schrader, Ian J. Wright, Holger Kreft, Patrick Weigelt, Samuel C. Andrew, Ian Abbott & Mark Westoby
This dataset holds information on community mean seed mass, plant height and leaf area of 156 species and their occurrences on 15 islands ranging in size from 164 m2 - 19 km2. The islands are located in Western Australia off Perth. Further, the dataset provides information on island coordinates, size, isolation and elevation. The islands were sampled four times within four decades. The data can be used to investigate spatial and temporal turnover dynamics on...

Attention to visual motion suppresses neuronal and behavioral sensitivity in nearby feature space

Sang-Ah Yoo, Julio C. Martinez-Trujillo, Stefan Treue, John K. Tsotsos & Mazyar Fallah
Abstract Background Feature-based attention prioritizes the processing of the attended feature while strongly suppressing the processing of nearby ones. This creates a non-linearity or “attentional suppressive surround” predicted by the Selective Tuning model of visual attention. However, previously reported effects of feature-based attention on neuronal responses are linear, e.g., feature-similarity gain. Here, we investigated this apparent contradiction by neurophysiological and psychophysical approaches. Results Responses of motion direction-selective neurons in area MT/MST of monkeys were recorded...

Additional file 1 of Attention to visual motion suppresses neuronal and behavioral sensitivity in nearby feature space

Sang-Ah Yoo, Julio C. Martinez-Trujillo, Stefan Treue, John K. Tsotsos & Mazyar Fallah
Additional file 1: Table S1. Distribution of all neurons’ minimum responses. Figure S1. Histogram of Table S1. Table S2. Distribution of minimum responses of the neurons where the sum of two Gaussians model fits better. Figure S2. Histogram of Table S2. Table S3. Distribution of minimum responses of the neurons with the center-surround profile. Figure S3. Histogram of Table S3.

Electronic Supplementary Information from The road to recovery: a synthesis of outcomes from ecosystem restoration in tropical and sub-tropical Asian forests

Lindsay F. Banin, Elizabeth H. Raine, Lucy M. Rowland, Robin L. Chazdon, Stuart W. Smith, Nur Estya Binte Rahman, Adam Butler, Christopher Philipson, Grahame G. Applegate, E. Petter Axelsson, Sugeng Budiharta, Siew Chin Chua, Mark E. J. Cutler, Stephen Elliott, Elva Gemita, Elia Godoong, Laura L. B. Graham, Robin M. Hayward, Andy Hector, Ulrik Ilstedt, Joel Jensen, Srinivasan Kasinathan, Christopher J. Kettle, Daniel Lussetti, Benjapan Manohan … & David F. R. P. Burslem
Appendices 1-6: [Appendix 1: Methods for literature search and data collation for the planted tree datasets Appendix 2: Methods for literature search and data collation for the community-level dataset Appendix 3: Estimating standardised annual growth rates for planted trees Appendix 4: Supplementary results of tree mortality analyses Appendix 5: Investigating the impact of uncertainty is estimation of annual growth rates Appendix 6: Supplementary results of the community-level analyses]

Supplementary material from \"The road to recovery: a synthesis of outcomes from ecosystem restoration in tropical and sub-tropical Asian forests\"

Lindsay F. Banin, Elizabeth H. Raine, Lucy M. Rowland, Robin L. Chazdon, Stuart W. Smith, Nur Estya Binte Rahman, Adam Butler, Christopher Philipson, Grahame G. Applegate, E. Petter Axelsson, Sugeng Budiharta, Siew Chin Chua, Mark E. J. Cutler, Stephen Elliott, Elva Gemita, Elia Godoong, Laura L. B. Graham, Robin M. Hayward, Andy Hector, Ulrik Ilstedt, Joel Jensen, Srinivasan Kasinathan, Christopher J. Kettle, Daniel Lussetti, Benjapan Manohan … & David F. R. P. Burslem
Current policy is driving renewed impetus to restore forests to return ecological function, protect species, sequester carbon and secure livelihoods. Here we assess the contribution of tree planting to ecosystem restoration in tropical and sub-tropical Asia; we synthesize evidence on mortality and growth of planted trees at 176 sites and assess structural and biodiversity recovery of co-located actively restored and naturally regenerating forest plots. Mean mortality of planted trees was 18% 1 year after planting,...

Supplementary document for Significant performance enhancement of UV-Vis self-powered CsPbBr₃ quantum dots photodetectors induced by ligand modification and P3HT embedding - 5987985.pdf

Meng Wang, Dehai Liang, Wen Ma, Qionghua Mo, Zhigang Zang, Qingkai Qian & wensi cai
The experiment and results.

Significant performance enhancement of UV-Vis self-powered CsPbBr3 quantum dot-based photodetectors induced by ligand modification and P3HT embedding

Meng Wang, Dehai Liang, Wen Ma, Qionghua Mo, Zhigang Zang, Qingkai Qian & wensi cai
In this work, we report a novel strategy in improving the performance of UV-Vis self-powered CsPbBr₃ quantum dots (QDs) photodetectors (PDs) by ligand modification and P3HT embedding. Compared with those based on pure QDs, modified PDs show a shorten of response time by nearly 10 times, and an increase of maximum responsivity and specific detectivity for nearly 45 and 97 times, respectively. Such PDs also show a high stability with 90% of the initial photocurrent...

Significant performance enhancement of UV-Vis self-powered CsPbBr3 quantum dot-based photodetectors induced by ligand modification and P3HT embedding

Meng Wang, Dehai Liang, Wen Ma, Qionghua Mo, Zhigang Zang, Qingkai Qian & wensi cai
In this work, we report a novel strategy in improving the performance of UV-Vis self-powered CsPbBr₃ quantum dots (QDs) photodetectors (PDs) by ligand modification and P3HT embedding. Compared with those based on pure QDs, modified PDs show a shorten of response time by nearly 10 times, and an increase of maximum responsivity and specific detectivity for nearly 45 and 97 times, respectively. Such PDs also show a high stability with 90% of the initial photocurrent...

Dementia risk prediction in individuals with mild cognitive impairment: a comparison of Cox regression and machine learning models

Meng Wang, Matthew Greenberg, Nils D. Forkert, Thierry Chekouo, Gabriel Afriyie, Zahinoor Ismail, Eric E. Smith & Tolulope T. Sajobi
Abstract Background Cox proportional hazards regression models and machine learning models are widely used for predicting the risk of dementia. Existing comparisons of these models have mostly been based on empirical datasets and have yielded mixed results. This study examines the accuracy of various machine learning and of the Cox regression models for predicting time-to-event outcomes using Monte Carlo simulation in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods The predictive accuracy of nine time-to-event regression...

sj-pdf-1-smm-10.1177_09622802221133557 - Supplemental material for Regularization approaches in clinical biostatistics: A review of methods and their applications

Sarah Friedrich, Andreas Groll, Katja Ickstadt, Thomas Kneib, Markus Pauly, Jörg Rahnenführer & Tim Friede
Supplemental material, sj-pdf-1-smm-10.1177_09622802221133557 for Regularization approaches in clinical biostatistics: A review of methods and their applications by Sarah Friedrich, Andreas Groll, Katja Ickstadt, Thomas Kneib, Markus Pauly, Jörg Rahnenführer and Tim Friede in Statistical Methods in Medical Research

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