15 Works

Data from: Prenatal stress effects in a wild, long-lived primate: predictive adaptive responses in an unpredictable environment

Andreas Berghänel, Michael Heistermann, Oliver Schülke & Julia Ostner
Prenatal maternal stress affects offspring phenotype in numerous species including humans, but it is debated whether these effects are evolutionarily adaptive. Relating stress to adverse conditions, current explanations invoke either short-term developmental constraints on offspring phenotype resulting in decelerated growth to avoid starvation, or long-term predictive adaptive responses (PARs) resulting in accelerated growth and reproduction in response to reduced life expectancies. Two PAR subtypes were proposed, acting either on predicted internal somatic states or predicted...

Data from: Species interactions increase the temporal stability of community productivity in Pinus sylvestris-Fagus sylvatica mixtures across Europe

Miren Del Río, Hans Pretzsch, Ricardo Ruiz-Peinado, Evy Ampoorter, Peter Annighöfer, Ignacio Barbeito, Kamil Bielak, Gediminas Brazaitis, Lluis Coll, Lars össler, Marek Fabrika, David I. Forrester, Michael Heym, Václav Hurt, Viktor Kurylyak, Magnus Löf, Fabio Lombardi, Ekaterina Makrickiene, Bratislav Matovic, Frits Mohren, Renzo Motta, Jan Den Ouden, Maciej Pach, Quentin Ponette, Gerhard Schütze … & Lars Drössler
1.There is increasing evidence that species diversity enhances the temporal stability of community productivity in different ecosystems, although its effect at population and tree levels seems to be negative or neutral. Asynchrony in species responses to environmental conditions was found to be one of the main drivers of this stabilizing process. However, the effect of species mixing on the stability of productivity, and the relative importance of the associated mechanisms, remain poorly understood in forest...

Data from: Forest defoliator pests alter carbon and nitrogen cycles

Anne L-M-Arnold, Maren Grüning, Judy Simon, Annett-Barbara Reinhardt, Norbert Lamersdorf & Carsten Thies
Climate change may foster pest epidemics in forests, and thereby the fluxes of elements that are indicators of ecosystem functioning. We examined compounds of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in insect faeces, leaf litter, throughfall and analysed the soils of deciduous oak forests (Quercus petraea L.) that were heavily infested by the leaf herbivores winter moth (Operophtera brumata L.) and mottled umber (Erannis defoliaria L.). In infested forests, total net canopy-to-soil fluxes of C and...

Data from: Evolution in situ: hybrid origin and establishment of willows (Salix L.) on alpine glacier forefields

Susanne Gramlich, Patrick Sagmeister, Stefan Dullinger, Franz Hadacek & Elvira Hörandl
Little attention has been paid to the evolutionary consequences of the colonizing dynamics and succession processes following glacier retreat. Here we studied hybrid populations that have recently formed and established on glacier forefields of the European Alps owing to secondary contact of a lowland colonizer with a subalpine species. We analyzed the composition of two hybrid populations between Salix purpurea and Salix helvetica with nine microsatellite markers by using Bayesian methods (structure and NewHybrids), and...

Data from: Population genetic structure and reproductive strategy of the introduced grass Centotheca lappacea in tropical land-use systems in Sumatra

Ladislav Hodač, Fuad Bahrul Ulum, Nicole Opfermann, Natalie Breidenbach, Diego Hojsgaard, Sri Sudarmiyati Tjitrosoedirdjo, Barbara Vornam, Reiner Finkeldey & Elvira Hörandl
Intensive transformation of lowland rainforest into oil palm and rubber monocultures is the most common land-use practice in Sumatra (Indonesia), accompanied by invasion of weeds. In the Jambi province, Centotheca lappacea is one of the most abundant alien grass species in plantations and in jungle rubber (an extensively used agroforest), but largely missing in natural rainforests. Here, we investigated putative genetic differentiation and signatures for adaptation in the introduced area. We studied reproductive mode and...

Data from: Corridors restore animal-mediated pollination in fragmented tropical forest landscapes

Urs Kormann, Christoph Scherber, Teja Tscharntke, Nadja Klein, Manuel Larbig, Jonahon Valente, Adam Hadley, Matthew Betts, Matthew G. Betts, Adam S. Hadley & Jonathon J. Valente
Tropical biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions have become heavily eroded through habitat loss. Animal-mediated pollination is required in >94% of higher tropical plant species and 75% of the world´s leading food crops, but it remains unclear if corridors avert deforestation-driven pollination breakdown in fragmented tropical landscapes. Here, we used manipulative resource experiments and field observations to show that corridors functionally connect neotropical forest fragments for forest-associated hummingbirds and increase pollen transfer. Further, corridors boosted forest-associated...

Data from: Three-dimensional reconstruction on cell level: case study elucidates the ultrastructure of the spinning apparatus of Embia sp. (Insecta: Embioptera)

Sebastian Büsse, Thomas Hörnschemeyer & Christian Fischer
Spinning is a phenomenon not only present in spiders, but also in many other arthropods. The functional morphology and complexity of spinning organs is often poorly understood. Their elements are minute and studying them poses substantial methodological difficulties. This study presents a three-dimensional reconstruction of a silk gland of Embia sp. on cellular level, based on serial sections acquired with serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) to showcase the power of this method. Previous studies...

Data from: Bird responses to lowland rainforest conversion in Sumatran smallholder landscapes, Indonesia

Walesa Edho Prabowo, Kevin Felix Arno Darras, Yann Clough, Manuel Toledo-Hernández, Raphael Arlettaz, Yeni A. Mulyani, Teja Tscharntke & Kevin Darras
Rapid land-use change in the tropics causes dramatic losses in biodiversity and associated functions. In Sumatra, Indonesia, lowland rainforest has mainly been transformed by smallholders into oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) monocultures, interspersed with jungle rubber (rubber agroforests) and a few forest remnants. In two regions of the Jambi province, we conducted point counts in 32 plots of four different land-use types (lowland rainforest, jungle rubber, rubber plantation and oil palm plantation)...

Data from: The inbreeding strategy of a solitary primate, Microcebus murinus

Elise Huchard, Susanne Schliehe-Diecks, Peter M. Kappeler & Cornelia Kraus
Inbreeding depression may be common in nature, reflecting either the failure of inbreeding avoidance strategies or inbreeding tolerance when avoidance is costly. The combined assessment of inbreeding risk, avoidance and depression is therefore fundamental to evaluate the inbreeding strategy of a population, that is how individuals respond to the risk of inbreeding. Here, we use the demographic and genetic monitoring of 10 generations of wild grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus), small primates from Madagascar with...

Data from: Root-lesion nematodes suppress cabbage aphid population development by reducing aphid daily reproduction

Wilhelmina H. G. Hol, Ciska E. Raaijmakers, Ilse Mons, Katrin M. Meyer & Nicole M. Van Dam
Empirical studies have shown that belowground feeding herbivores can affect the performance of aboveground herbivores in different ways. Often the critical life-history parameters underlying the observed performance effects remain unexplored. In order to better understand the cause for the observed effects on aboveground herbivores, these ecological mechanisms must be better understood. In this study we combined empirical experiments with a modelling approach to analyse the effect of two root feeding endoparasitic nematodes with different feeding...

Data from: Canopy soil greenhouse gas dynamics in response to indirect fertilization across an elevation gradient of tropical montane forests

Amanda L. Matson, Marife D. Corre & Edzo Veldkamp
Canopy soils can significantly contribute to aboveground labile biomass, especially in tropical montane forests. Whether they also contribute to the exchange of greenhouse gases is unknown. To examine the importance of canopy soils to tropical forest-soil greenhouse gas exchange, we quantified gas fluxes from canopy soil cores along an elevation gradient with 4 yr of nutrient addition to the forest floor. Canopy soil contributed 5–12 percent of combined (canopy + forest floor) soil CO2 emissions...

Data from: Formin is associated with left-right asymmetry in the pond snail and the frog

Angus Davison, Gary S. McDowell, Jennifer M. Holden, Harriet F. Johnson, Georgios D. Koutsovoulos, M. Maureen Liu, Paco Hulpiau, Frans Van Roy, Christopher M. Wade, Ruby Banerjee, Fengtang Yang, Satoshi Chiba, John W. Davey, Daniel J. Jackson, Michael Levin & Mark L. Blaxter
While components of the pathway that establishes left-right asymmetry have been identified in diverse animals, from vertebrates to flies, it is striking that the genes involved in the first symmetry-breaking step remain wholly unknown in the most obviously chiral animals, the gastropod snails. Previously, research on snails was used to show that left-right signaling of Nodal, downstream of symmetry breaking, may be an ancestral feature of the Bilateria. Here, we report that a disabling mutation...

Data from: How ants, birds and bats affect crop yield along shade gradients in tropical cacao agroforestry

Pierre Gras, Teja Tscharntke, Bea Maas, Aiyen Tjoa, Awal Hafsah & Yann Clough
Tropical agroforests are diverse systems where several predator groups shape animal communities and plant–arthropod interactions. Ants, birds and bats in particular can reduce herbivore numbers and thereby increase crop yield. However, the relative importance of these groups, whether they interact, and how this interaction is affected by management and landscape context, is poorly understood. We jointly manipulated access of ants, birds and bats in Indonesian smallholder cacao agroforestry across gradients of shade and distance to...

Emergence patterns of novelty in European vegetation assemblages over the past 15 000 years

Walter Finsinger, Thomas Giesecke, Simon Brewer & Michelle Leydet
Plant communities are not stable over time and biological novelty is predicted to emerge due to climate change, the introduction of exotic species and land-use change. However, the rate at which this novelty may arise over longer time periods has so far received little attention. We reconstruct the emergence of novelty in Europe for a set of baseline conditions over the past 15 000 years to assess past rates of emergence and investigate underlying causes....

Data from: Pollinator adaptation and the evolution of floral nectar sugar composition

Stefan Abrahamczyk, Michael Kessler, Daniel Hanley, Dirk N. Karger, Matthias P. J. Müller, Anina C. Knauer, Felix Keller, Michael Schwerdtfeger & Aelys M. Humphreys
A longstanding debate concerns whether nectar sugar composition evolves as an adaptation to pollinator dietary requirements or whether it is ‘phylogenetically constrained’. Here we use a modeling approach to evaluate the hypothesis that nectar sucrose proportion (NSP) is an adaptation to pollinators. We analyze ~2,100 species of asterids, spanning several plant families and pollinator groups (PGs), and show that the hypothesis of adaptation cannot be rejected: NSP evolves toward two optimal values, high NSP for...

Registration Year

  • 2016
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Resource Types

  • Dataset
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Affiliations

  • University of Göttingen
    15
  • Ghent University
    2
  • Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution de Montpellier
    2
  • University of Vienna
    2
  • Bogor Agricultural University
    2
  • Aleksandras Stulginskis University
    1
  • Technical University of Zvolen
    1
  • National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
    1
  • University of Novi Sad
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  • Senckenberg Nature Research Society
    1