40 Works

Data from: Bird diversity and endemism along a land-use gradient in Madagascar: the conservation value of vanilla agroforests

Dominic Andreas Martin, Rouvah Andriafanomezantsoa, Saskia Dröge, Kristina Osen, Eric Rakotomalala, Annemarie Wurz, Aristide Andrianarimisa & Holger Kreft
Land-use change is the most important driver of biodiversity loss worldwide and particularly so in the tropics, where natural habitats are transformed into large-scale monocultures or heterogeneous landscape mosaics of largely unknown conservation value. Using birds as an indicator taxon, we evaluated the conservation value of a landscape mosaic in north-eastern Madagascar, a biodiversity hotspot and the center of global vanilla production. We assessed bird species richness and composition by conducting point counts across seven...

Mycorrhizal phosphorus efficiencies and microbial competition drive root P uptake

Simon Clausing & Andrea Polle
Phosphorus (P) availability shows large differences among different soil types, affecting P nutrition of forest trees. Chemical binding of P to soil moieties affects partitioning of P between soil particles and solution, affecting soluble P concentrations upon which plants, their associated mycorrhizal symbionts, and microbes feed. The goal of this study was to characterize root P uptake by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal root tips in competition with microbes in situ in the organic and mineral layer...

In the shadows of snow leopards and the Himalayas: density and habitat selection of blue sheep in Manang, Nepal

Marc Filla, Rinzin Phunjok Lama, Tashi Rapte Ghale, Johannes Signer, Tim Filla, Raja Ram Aryal, Marco Heurich, Matthias Waltert, Niko Balkenhol & Igor Khorozyan
There is a growing agreement that conservation needs to be proactive and pay increased attention to common species and to the threats they face. The blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) plays a key ecological role in sensitive high-altitude ecosystems of Central Asia and is among the main prey species for the globally vulnerable snow leopard (Panthera uncia). As the blue sheep has been increasingly exposed to human pressures, it is vital to estimate its population dynamics,...

Magnetotelluric data for the Halloween 2003 magnetic storm in the vicinity of Uppsala and Eskdalemuir geomagnetic observatories (synthesized using geomagnetic observatory data from INTERMAGNET)

Fiona Simpson & Karsten Bahr
Magnetotelluric data for the Halloween 2003 magnetic storm in the vicinity of Uppsala (UPS), Sweden and Eskdalemuir (ESK), Scotland geomagnetic observatories synthesized from geomagnetic observatory data from INTERMAGNET. The data were generated to facilitate comparison of the ground effects of the Halloween 2003 magnetic storm in Sweden and Scotland. The data demonstrate the greater risk of hazardous storm-time electric fields being generated in southern Sweden compared to central Scotland and are further described in the...

Challenging the concept that eumelanin is the polymorphic brown banded pigment in Cepaea nemoralis

Daniel Jackson, Susanne Affenzeller, Klaus Wolkenstein & Holm Frauendorf
The common grove snail Cepaea nemoralis displays a stable pigmentation polymorphism in its shell that has held the attention of scientists for decades. While the details of the molecular mechanisms that generate and maintain this diversity remain elusive, it has long been employed as a model system to address questions related to ecology, population genetics and evolution. In order to contribute to the ongoing efforts to identify the genes that generate this polymorphism we have...

Source pools and disharmony of the world’s island floras

Christian König, Patrick Weigelt, Amanda Taylor, Anke Stein, Wayne Dawson, Franz Essl, Jan Pergl, Petr Pysek, Mark Van Kleunen, Marten Winter, Cyrille Chatelain, Jan Wieringa, Pavel Krestov & Holger Kreft
Island disharmony refers to the biased representation of higher taxa on islands compared to their mainland source regions and represents a central concept in island biology. Here, we develop a generalizable framework for approximating these source regions and conduct the first global assessment of island disharmony and its underlying drivers. We compiled vascular plant species lists for 178 oceanic islands and 735 mainland regions. Using mainland data only, we modelled species turnover as a function...

Data from: Decreasing predation rates and shifting predator compositions along a land-use gradient in Madagascar’s vanilla landscapes

Dominik Schwab, Annemarie Wurz, Ingo Grass, Anjaharnony A.N.A. Rakotomalala, Kristina Osen, Marie Rolande Soazafy, Dominic A. Martin & Teja Tscharntke
1. Land-use change is the main driver of deforestation and land degradation resulting in the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in north-eastern Madagascar. Vanilla, the region’s main cash crop, is grown in agroforestry systems and may provide an opportunity for the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. 2. We used dummy caterpillars to assess predation rates and predator communities along a land-use gradient including unburned old-growth and forest fragments, herbaceous and woody fallows after...

Isotope analyses of amino acids in fungi and fungal feeding Diptera larvae allow differentiating ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi-based food chains

Melanie Mira Pollierer, Stefan Scheu & Alexei V. Tiunov
1- Both ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and saprotrophic fungi are fundamental to carbon and nutrient dynamics in forest ecosystems; however, the relative importance of these different fungal functional groups for higher trophic levels of the soil food web is virtually unknown. 2- To explore differences between fungal functional groups and their importance for higher trophic levels, we analysed isotopic composition of nitrogen and carbon in amino acids (AAs) and bulk tissue of leaf litter, fungi, and fungal-feeding...

Carbohydrate depletion in roots impedes phosphorus nutrition of forest trees

Simon Clausing, Rodica Pena, Bin Song, Karolin Müller, Paula Mayer-Gruner, Sven Marhan, Martin Grafe, Stefanie Schulz, Jaane Krüger, Friederike Lang, Michael Schloter, Ellen Kandeler & Andrea Polle
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of belowground plant-derived carbohydrates on P uptake, P concentrations and enzymes activities related to P mobilization in roots, ectomycorrhizas and soil and on the abundances of P-related genes in soil bacteria. We report data from a girdling experiment in two temperate beech forest with contrasting soil phosphorus concentrations. We used soil cores and the fractions of the organic layer and mineral topsoil separately one and...

Post-fire vegetation succession in the Siberian subarctic tundra over 45 years

Ramona Julia Heim, Anna Bucharova, Leya Brodt, Johannes Kamp, Daniel Rieker, Andrey Soromotin, Andrey Yurtaev & Norbert Hölzel
Wildfires are relatively rare in subarctic tundra ecosystems, but they can strongly change ecosystem properties. Short-term fire effects on subarctic tundra vegetation are well documented, but long-term vegetation recovery has been studied less. The frequency of tundra fires will increase with climate warming. Understanding the long-term effects of fire is necessary to predict future ecosystem changes. We used a space-for-time approach to assess vegetation recovery after fire over more than four decades. We studied soil...

Data from: Land-use intensification increases richness of native and exotic herbaceous plants, but not endemics, in Malagasy vanilla landscapes

Estelle Raveloaritiana, Annemarie Wurz, Ingo Grass, Kristina Osen, Marie Rolande Soazafy, Dominic A. Martin, Lucien Faliniaina, Nantenaina H. Rakotomalala, Maria S. Vorontsova, Teja Tscharntke & Bakolimalala Rakouth
Aim: North‐eastern Madagascar is a hotspot of plant diversity, but vanilla and rice farming are driving land‐use change, including slash‐and‐burn management. It still remains unknown how land‐use change and land‐use history affect richness and composition of endemic, native and exotic herbaceous plant species. Location: North‐eastern Madagascar. Methods: We assessed herbaceous plants along a land‐use intensification gradient ranging from unburned land‐use types (i.e. old‐growth forest, forest fragment and forest‐derived vanilla agroforest) to burned land‐use types (i.e....

Impact of nitrogen and phosphorus addition on resident soil and root mycobiomes in beech forests

Simon Clausing, Likulunga Emmanuel Likulunga, Dennis Janz, Huanying Feng, Dominik Schneider, Rolf Daniel, Jaane Krüger, Friederike Lang & Andrea Polle
The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of fertilizers on root-associated and soil residing fungi in beech forests. We report data from a fertilization experiment in three temperate beech forest with contrasting soil phosphorus concentrations. We used soil cores and the fractions of the organic layer and mineral topsoil separately of spring and fall 2018. We collected bulk soil and roots. We provide data on soil for pH, mineral elements, ammonium, nitrate,...

Data from: Environmental heterogeneity dynamics drive plant diversity on oceanic islands

Martha Paola Barajas Barbosa, Patrick Weigelt, Michael Borregaard, Gunnar Keppel & Holger Kreft
Aim: The General Dynamic Model (GDM) links island biogeographical processes to island geological history. A key premise of the GDM implies that environmental factors shaping the ecology and evolution of insular biota follow a hump-shaped trend over the island’s life span and drive dynamics in carrying capacity, species diversity and endemism. An important component of the GDM is environmental heterogeneity (EH), but its effects on insular diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we first quantified EH,...

The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield: a quantitative synthesis

Matthias Albrecht, David Kleijn, Neal Williams, Matthias Tschumi, Brett Blaauw, Riccardo Bommarco, Alistair Campbell, Matteo Dainese, Frank Drummond, Martin Entling, Dominik Ganser, Arjen De Groot, David Goulson, Heather Grab, Hannah Hamilton, Felix Herzog, Rufus Isaacs, Katja Jacot, Philippe Jeanneret, Mattias Jonsson, Eva Knop, Claire Kremen, Doug Landis, Greg Loeb, Lorenzo Marini … & Louis Sutter
Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in...

Water level response in wells to dynamic shaking in confining unconsolidated sediments: a laboratory study

Hongbiao Gu, Shuang-Shuang Lan, Huang Zhang, Mingyuan Wang, Baoming Chi & Martin Sauter
This article focuses on laboratory experiments designed to investigate the influence of dynamic shaking on water level fluctuation in wells of unconsolidated sediments. A large flume filled with natural sandy sediments was subjected to horizontal dynamic loading at different frequencies (0.5-15Hz) and accelerations (0.1g, 0.15g, 0.25g and 0.5g), generated by a shaking table. Thus, the change in characteristics of the water and saturated sediments were investigated, including how water level and hydraulic properties changed over...

Data from: Decomposition of leaf litter mixtures across biomes: The role of litter identity, diversity and soil fauna

Shixing Zhou, Olaf Butenschoen, Sandra Barantal, I. Tanya Handa, Marika Makkonen, Veronique Vos, Rien Aerts, Matty P. Berg, Brendan McKie, Jasper Van Ruijven, Stephan Hättenschwiler & Stefan Scheu
1. At broad spatial scales, the factors regulating litter decomposition remain ambiguous, with the understanding of these factors largely based on studies investigating site-specific single litter species, whereas studies using multi litter species mixtures across sites are rare. 2. We exposed in microcosms containing single species and all possible mixtures of four leaf litter species differing widely in initial chemical and physical characteristics from a temperate forest to the climatic conditions of four different forests...

Environmental heterogeneity predicts global species richness patterns better than area

Kristy Udy, Matthias Fritsch, Katrin Meyer, Ingo Grass, Sebastian Hanß, Florian Hartig, Thomas Kneib, Hoger Kreft, Collins Kukuna, Guy Pe'er, Hannah Reininghaus, Britta Tietjen, Clara-Sophie Van Waveren, Kerstin Wiegand & Teja Tscharntke
Aim: It is widely accepted that biodiversity can be determined by niche-relate processes and by pure area effects from local to global scales. Their relative importance, however, is still disputed, and empirical tests are still surprisingly scarce at the global scale. We compare the explanatory power of area and environmental heterogeneity as a proxy for niche-related processes as drivers of native mammal species richnessworldwide and with biogeographical regions. Location: Global Time Period: Data was collated...

Breeding system of diploid sexuals within the Ranunculus auricomus complex and its role in a geographical parthenogenesis scenario

Kevin Karbstein, Elisabeth Rahmsdorf, Salvatore Tomasello, Ladislav Hodač & Elvira Hörandl
The larger distribution area of asexuals compared to their sexual relatives in geographical parthenogenesis (GP) scenarios has been widely attributed to the advantages of uniparental reproduction and polyploidy. However, potential disadvantages of sexuals due to their breeding system have received little attention so far. Here, we study the breeding system of five narrowly distributed sexual lineages of Ranunculus notabilis s.l. (R. auricomus complex) and its effects on outcrossing, inbreeding, female fitness, and heterozygosity. We performed...

Validation of the AD dementia conversion-related pattern as an ATN biomarker of neurodegeneration: Supplemental material

Ganna Blazhenets, Lars Frings, Yilong Ma, Arnd Sörensen, David Eidelberg, Jens Wiltfang & Philipp T. Meyer
Objective: To determine whether the Alzheimer’s disease dementia conversion-related pattern (ADCRP) on [18F]FDG PET can serve as a valid predictor for the development of Alzheimer’s disease dementia, the individual expression of the ADCRP (subject score) and its prognostic value were examined in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and biologically defined Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: 269 subjects with available [18F]FDG PET, [18F]AV-45 PET, phosphorylated and total tau in CSF, and neurofilament light chain in plasma were included....

Magnetotelluric data from before, during and after the September 2017 magnetic storm at 7 sites in Scotland

Fiona Simpson & Karsten Bahr
Magnetotelluric (MT) time series including the September 2017 magnetic storm at 7 sites in the Scottish Highlands collected by Fiona Simpson (University of Southampton) and Karsten Bahr (University of Göttingen) using Göttingen RAP dataloggers, Magson fluxgate magnetometers and Filloux-type electrodes. Data acquisition methodology is described in F. Simpson and K. Bahr, 2005. Practical Magnetotellurics, Cambridge University Press, London pp. 254, 2005, ISBN: 9781108462556, DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511614095 This dataset is described in: F. Simpson and K. Bahr,...

Do infants and preschoolers quantify probabilities based on proportions?

Sarah Placì, Julia Fischer & Hannes Rakoczy
Most statistical problems encountered throughout life require the ability to quantify probabilities based on proportions. Recent findings on the early ontogeny of this ability have been mixed: For example, when presented with jars containing preferred and less preferred items, 12-month-olds, but not 3- and 4-years-olds, seem to rely on the proportions of objects in the jars to predict the content of samples randomly drawn out of them. Given these contrasting findings, it remains unclear what...

The smell of cooperation: rats increase helpful behaviour when receiving odour cues of a conspecific performing a cooperative task

Nina Gerber, Manon Schweinfurth & Michael Taborsky
Reciprocity can explain cooperative behaviour among non-kin, where individuals help others depending on their experience in previous interactions. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) cooperate reciprocally according to direct and generalized reciprocity. In a sequence of four consecutive experiments, we show that odour cues from a cooperating conspecific are sufficient to induce altruistic help of rats in a food-exchange task. When rats were enabled to help a non-cooperative partner while receiving olfactory information from a rat helping...

Data from: Crop pollination services: complementary resource use by social vs solitary bees facing crops with contrasting flower supply

Svenja Bänsch, Teja Tscharntke, Doreen Gabriel & Catrin Westphal
1. Many farmers are facing high economic risks if pollinator declines continue or temporal and spatial variation in wild bee communities cause reduced pollination services. Co-flowering crops might compete for pollinators, while they also might facilitate the delivery of pollination services. This rarely studied topic is of particular interest with respect to the foraging decisions of bees from different functional groups and when more sparsely and mass-flowering crops are in bloom at the same time....

Bonds of bros and brothers: Kinship and social bonding in post-dispersal male macaques

Delphine De Moor, Christian Roos, Julia Ostner & Oliver Schülke
Group-living animals often maintain a few very close affiliative relationships – social bonds – that can buffer them against many of the inevitable costs of gregariousness. Kinship plays a central role in the development of such social bonds. The bulk of research on kin biases in sociality has focused on philopatric females, who typically live in deeply kin-structured systems, with matrilineal dominance rank inheritance and life-long familiarity between kin. Closely related males, in contrast, are...

Eumelanin and pheomelanin pigmentation in mollusc shells may be less common than expected: insights from mass spectrometry

Susanne Affenzeller, Klaus Wolkenstein, Holm Frauendorf & Daniel Jackson
Background: The geometric patterns that adorn the shells of many phylogenetically disparate molluscan species are comprised of pigments that span the visible spectrum. Although early chemical studies implicated melanin as a commonly employed pigment, surprisingly little evidence generated with more recent and sensitive techniques exists to support these observations. Results: Here we present the first mass spectrometric investigations for the presence of eumelanin and pheomelanin in 13 different molluscan species from three conchiferan classes: Bivalvia,...

Registration Year

  • 2020
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Resource Types

  • Dataset
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  • Text
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Affiliations

  • University of Göttingen
    39
  • University of Hohenheim
    5
  • University of Freiburg
    4
  • University of Antananarivo
    3
  • Royal Botanic Gardens
    2
  • German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research
    2
  • University of Southampton
    2
  • Julius Kühn-Institut
    2
  • German Primate Center
    2
  • University of Bern
    2