56 Works

Magnesium and calcium isotope fractionation during microbial dolomite formation

Michael Tatzel , Adina Paytan , Samantha Carter , Daniel A. Frick , Francisca Martinez-Ruiz , Zach A. DiLoreto , Maria Dittrich , Tomaso R. R. Bontognali & Mónica Sanchez-Román
Microbial mediation is considered an important process for the formation of primary dolomite at ambient temperature. Yet, no structural, mineralogical, chemical or isotopic means exist to discern this mode of dolomite formation from secondary dolomite. To explore the utility of metal isotopes in allowing this distinction we characterize magnesium and calcium stable isotope ratios in primary (proto)dolomites from a modern hypersaline environment. Samples from the Khor Al-Adaid sabkhas in Qatar show consistent isotopic differences of...

Introduction history mediates naturalization and invasiveness of cultivated plants

Nicole Kinlock, Katharina Dehnen-Schmutz, Franz Essl, Jan Pergl, Petr Pyšek, Holger Kreft, Patrick Weigelt, Qiang Yang & Mark Van Kleunen
Aim: Species characteristics and cultivation are both associated with alien plant naturalization and invasiveness. Particular species characteristics are favored for cultivation, obscuring the relationship between traits and naturalization success. We sought to better understand the drivers of naturalization and invasiveness by analyzing relationships with species characteristics and cultivation and by disentangling the direct effects of characteristics from the indirect effects mediated by cultivation. Location: Great Britain Time period: c. 1000–present Major taxa studied: Seed plants...

Large regional structures from puzzle pieces - the hidden Triassic rift on the western flank of the Eichsfeld-Altmark-Swell

Alexander Malz, Jonas Kley & Heinz-Gerd Röhling
The incorporation of regional geologic knowledge is essential to solve multiple geological questions in any defined research area meaning that small-scale observations must fit with general regional interpretations as well as the tectonic and sedimentary setting. Conversely, in areas with sparse subsurface information, a conceptional knowledge of the observed area must be developed by incorporating and combining small-scale indications into a sound regional geologic model. In this contribution, we collect some of these small-scale “puzzle...

A phylogenomic backbone for gastropod molluscs

Juan E. Uribe, Juan Uribe, Vanessa González, Iker Irisarri, Yasunori Kano, David Herbert, Ellen Strong & Myroslaw Harasewych
Gastropods have survived several mass extinctions during their evolutionary history resulting in extraordinary diversity in morphology, ecology, and developmental modes, which complicate the reconstruction of a robust phylogeny. Currently, gastropods are divided into six subclasses: Caenogastropoda, Heterobranchia, Neomphaliones, Neritimorpha, Patellogastropoda, and Vetigastropoda. Phylogenetic relationships among these taxa historically lack consensus, despite numerous efforts using morphological and molecular information. We generated sequence data for transcriptomes derived from twelve taxa belonging to clades with little or no...

Data from: Influence of different data cleaning solutions of point-occurrence records on downstream macroecological diversity models

Petra Fuehrding-Potschkat & Stefanie M. Ickert-Bond
Digital point-occurrence records from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and other data providers enable a wide range of research in macroecology and biogeography. However, data errors may hamper immediate use. Manual data cleaning is time-consuming and often unfeasible, given that the databases may contain thousands or millions of records. Automated data cleaning pipelines are therefore of high importance. This study examined the extent to which cleaned data from six pipelines using data cleaning tools...

Temporal changes in nutrients in forest soil and roots and root biomass of Fagus sylvatica after P and N fertilization

Andrea Polle & Likulunga Emmanuel Likulunga
We report data for nutrients in the organic layer and in mineral soil of Fagus sylvatica forests after P and N fertilization. We separated soil and roots and also report data for root biomass and nutrient contents in these soil layers. In addition, relative soil water contents and pH were measured. The samples were collected in three forests and repeatedly in spring and fall from 2016 to 2018.

Rapid diversification of the Australian Amitermes group during late Cenozoic climate change

Bastian Heimburger, Leonie Schardt, Alexander Brandt, Stefan Scheu & Tamara Hartke
Late Cenozoic climate change led to the progressive aridification of Australia over the past 15 million years. This gradual biome turnover fundamentally changed Australia’s ecosystems, opening new niches and prompting diversification of plants and animals. One example are termites of the Australian Amitermes Group (AAG), consisting of the Australian Amitermes and affiliated genera. Although the most speciose and diverse higher termite group in Australia, little is known about its evolutionary history. We used ancestral range...

Amazonian epiphytic bryophytes: community matrix and tools to assess diversity across scales

Monica Bibiana Berdugo Moreno, S. Robbert Gradstein, Louise Guérot, Susana León-Yánez, Jörg Bendix & Maaike Bader
Aim: Tropical forests are highly diverse at many spatial scales. In these forests, epiphytic bryophyte communities can be species-rich already within a few cm2, and their species numbers increase when expanding the sampling along the tree and the forest. Understanding how this diversity increase depends on scale and position within the tree is critical to evaluate the processes that maintain biodiversity. We, therefore, studied vertical zonation and alpha and beta diversity of epiphytic bryophytes across...

Emerging stability of forest productivity by mixing two species buffers temperature destabilizing effect

Miren Del Rio, Ricardo Ruiz‐Peinado, Stig‐Olof Holm, Aris Jansons, Thomas Nord‐Larsen, Kris Verheyen, Andrés Bravo‐Oviedo, Hans Pretzsch, Ricardo Ruiz-Peinado, Hervé Jactel, Lluís Coll, Magnus Löf, Jorge Aldea, Christian Ammer, Admir Avdagić, Ignacio Barbeito, Kamil Bielak, Felipe Bravo, Gediminas Brazaitis, Jakub Cerný, Catherine Collet, Sonia Condés, Lars Drössler, Marek Fabrika, Michael Heym … & Andrés Bravo-Oviedo
The increasing disturbances in monocultures around the world are testimony to their instability under global change. Many studies have claimed that temporal stability of productivity increase with species richness, although the ecological fundaments have mainly been investigated through diversity experiments. To adequately manage forest ecosystems, it is necessary to have a comprehensive understanding of the effect of mixing species on the temporal stability of productivity and the way in which this it is influenced by...

Pollination deficits and contributions of pollinators in apple production: a global meta-analysis

Aruhan Olhnuud, Yunhui Liu, David Makowski, Teja Tscharntke, Catrin Westphal, Panlong Wu, Meina Wang & Wopke Van Der Werf
1. Apple is one of the most widely cultivated fruit crops worldwide, and apple yield benefits from pollination by insects. The global decline in wild pollinator populations raises concern about the adequacy of pollination services in apple production. 2. Here, we present a global meta-analysis of pollination in apple. We assembled from the literature a dataset comprising results of 48 studies across five continents on fruit set and seed set in apple with insect pollination,...

Habitability of early Earth: Liquid water under a faint young Sun facilitated by tidal heating due to a closer Moon

René Heller , Jan-Peter Duda , Max Winkler , Joachim Reitner & Laurent Gizon
Carbonatites crystallize from mantle-derived carbonate- and volatile-rich melts that exsolve large amounts of fluids during their ascent through and emplacement into the crust. A global review of available fluid inclusion data for carbonatitic systems from variable emplacement depths identified four types of fluid inclusions: (type-I) vapour-poor H2O-NaCl fluids with <50 wt.% salinity; (type-II) vapour-rich H2O-NaCl-CO2 fluids with <5 wt.% salinity; (type-III) multi-component fluids with high salinity without CO2; and (type-IV) multi-component fluids with high salinity...

Biotic filtering by species’ interactions constrains food-web variability across spatial and abiotic gradients

Barbara Bauer, Emilio Berti, Remo Ryser, Benoit Gauzens, Myriam Hirt, Benjamin Rosenbaum, Christoph Digel, David Ott, Stefan Scheu & Ulrich Brose
Despite intensive research on species dissimilarity patterns across communities (i.e. beta-diversity), we still know little about their implications for variation in food-web structures. Our analyses of 50 lake and 48 forest soil communities show that, while species dissimilarity depends on environmental and spatial gradients, these effects are only weakly propagated to the networks. Moreover, our results show that species and food-web dissimilarities are consistently correlated, but that much of the variation in food-web structure across...

Palaeoecological data of KP core, Kampar Peninsula, Riau, Sumatra, Indonesia

K. Anggi Hapsari, Tim Jennerjahn, Septriono Hari Nugroho, Eko Yulianto & Hermann Behling
Southeast Asian peatlands, along with their various important ecosystem services, are mainly distributed in the coastal areas of Sumatra and Borneo. These ecosystems are threatened by coastal development, global warming and sea level rise (SLR). Despite receiving growing attention for their biodiversity and as massive carbon stores, there is still a lack of knowledge on how they initiated and evolved over time, and how they responded to past environmental change, i.e., precipitation, sea level and...

Taxonomic and functional homogenization of farmland birds along an urbanization gradient in a tropical megacity

Gabriel Marcacci, Catrin Westphal, Arne Wenzel, Varsha Raj, Nils Nölke, Teja Tscharntke & Ingo Graß
Urbanization is a major driver of land use change and biodiversity decline. While most of the ongoing and future urbanization hot spots are located in the Global South, the impact of urban expansion on agricultural biodiversity and associated functions and services in these regions has widely been neglected. Additionally, most studies assess biodiversity responses at local scale (α-diversity), however, ecosystem functioning is strongly determined by compositional and functional turnover of communities (β-diversity) at regional scales....

Data set - Island area and historical geomorphological dynamics shape multifaceted diversity of barrier island floras

Thalita Ferreira-Arruda, Nathaly R. Guerrero-Ramirez, Pierre Denelle, Patrick Weigelt, Michael Kleyer & Holger Kreft
The influence of island dynamics and characteristics on taxonomic diversity, particularly species richness, are well studied. Yet, our knowledge on the influence of island dynamics and characteristics on other facets of diversity, namely functional and phylogenetic diversity, is limited, constraining our understanding of assembly processes on islands (e.g., biogeographic history, dispersal and environmental filtering, and species interactions). Using barrier islands, a highly dynamic and so far, understudied island type, we investigate how multiple facets of...

OneGeochemistry: Enabling a coordinated online global network of multiple distributed geochemical repositories and databases

Kerstin Annette Lehnert , Lesley Wyborn , Dominik Hezel , Alexander Prent , Kirsten Elger , Geertje ter Maat , Marthe Klöcking & Jens Klump
Since the discipline of ‘geochemistry’ was first defined in 1838, geochemical data has been pervasively acquired and used in the Earth, environmental and planetary sciences and become fundamental for understanding past, present, and future processes in natural systems. Initially, geochemical data was published in hard-copy literature, but as analytical systems became computerised, major digital databases emerged (EarthChem, PetDB, OZCHEM and GEOROC) which revolutionised data access. They have proven the power of re-use of geochemical data...

The Werra-Fulda mining district, underground extension of the CEVP-alkaline magmatic province – New insights in the magmatic evolution and its interaction with evaporitic deposits.

Axel Zirkler , Ulrich A. Glasmacher , Florian Krob , Silvio Zeibig , Jochen Olbert & Istvan Dunkl
The Werra-Fulda mining district located in Central Germany hosts a world-class deposit of sulfate bearing potash salts. The Permian (Zechstein, ca. 255 Ma) evaporite sequence was intruded by mafic melts in the Neogene resulting in magmatic dykes as well as sill structures frequently observed in the subsurface mining galleries. Furthermore, volcanic rocks intersect the overlaying strata (mainly Buntsandstein and Muschelkalk) at localized spots forming distinct mountains. In this study, samples from subsurface mafic dykes and...

Historical and future climate change fosters expansion of Australian harvester termites, Drepanotermes

Bastian Heimburger, Santiago Soto Maurer, Leonie Schardt, Stefan Scheu & Tamara Rose Hartke
Past evolutionary adaptations to Australia’s aridification can help us to understand potential responses of species in the face of global climate change. Here, we focus on the Australian-endemic termite genus Drepanotermes, which is widespread in semi-arid and arid regions of Australia. We used species delineation, phylogenetic inference, and ancestral state reconstruction to investigate the evolution of mound-building and in relation to reconstructed past climatic conditions. Our results suggest that mound-building evolved several times independently, apparently...

Higher phage virulence accelerates the evolution of host resistance

Carolin Wendling, Janina Lange, Heiko Liesegang, Michael Sieber, Anja Pöhlein, Boyke Bunk, Jelena Rajkov, Olivia Roth & Michael Brockhurst
Pathogens vary strikingly in their virulence and the selection they impose on their hosts. While the evolution of different virulence levels is well studied, the evolution of host resistance in response to different virulence levels is less understood and as of now mainly based on observations and theoretical predictions with few experimental tests. Increased virulence can increase selection for host resistance evolution if resistance costs are outweighed by the benefits of avoiding infection. To test...

Body size and digestive system shape resource selection by ungulates: a cross-taxa test of the Forage Maturation Hypothesis

Saeideh Esmaeili, Brett Jesmer, Shannon Albeke, Ellen Aikens, Kathryn Schoenecker, Sarah King, Briana Abrahms, Bayarbaatar Buuveibaatar, Jeffrey Beck, Randall Boone, Francesca Cagnacci, Simon Chamaillé-Jammes, Buyanaa Chimeddorj, Paul Cross, Nandintsetseg Dejid, Jagdag Enkhbayar, Ilya Fischhoff, Adam Ford, Kate Jenks, Mahmoud-Reza Hemami, Jacob Hennig, Takehiko Ito, Petra Kaczensky, Matthew Kauffman, John Linnell … & Jacob Goheen
The Forage Maturation Hypothesis (FMH) states that energy intake for ungulates is maximized when forage biomass is at intermediate levels. Nevertheless, metabolic allometry and different digestive systems suggest that resource selection should vary across ungulate species. By combining GPS relocations with remotely-sensed data on forage characteristics and surface water, we quantified the effect of body size and digestive system in determining movements of 30 populations of hindgut fermenters (equids) and ruminants across biomes. Selection for...

Mesozoic to Cenozoic exhumation history of the Odenwald and Heidelberg, Germany

Ulrich Anton Glasmacher , Florian Krob , Melanie Raupp , Nicklas Brachmann , Dunkl István , Danny Stockli & Günther Wagner
In Germany, the first apatite fission-track study was performed in the Odenwald (Wagner 1968) with the results of Mesozoic apatite fission-track ages. The presentation will re-examine the Mesozoic-Cenozoic exhumation history of the Odenwald and Heidelberg area with new thermochronological data. The Odenwald as part of the Mid-German Crystalline Zone is characterized by outcrops of the Variscan basement and overlain Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata. Towards the West, the Variscan Basement is bound by the Upper Rhine...

Data from: Paradigm shift in soil animal ecology: How stable isotope (15N, 13C) analyses changed our view on the trophic ecology of oribatid mites (Acari) - a metastudy

Mark Maraun, Tanja Thomas, Elisabeth Fast, Nico Treibert, Ina Schaefer, Jing-Zhong Lu, Stefan Scheu & Tancredi Caruso
Knowledge about the trophic ecology of soil animals is important for understanding their high alpha diversity as well as their functioning in soil systems. In the last 20 years, the analysis of natural variations in stable isotope ratios (15N/14N, 13C/12C) has revolutionized our view on soil animal trophic ecology. Here, we review the state of the art of the trophic ecology of a highly abundant and diverse soil animal taxon, oribatid mites (Oribatida), investigated by...

Root traits, root diameter distribution and soil parameters at the community level along a mediterranean successional gradient

Amandine Erktan, Catherine Roumet & Francois Munoz
The data correspond to average root traits at the community level, and parameters describing the root diameter distribution at the community level. Soil parameters are also indicated. All measurements were conducted along a successional gradient on roadsides in the Mediterranean region (Montpellier, France, 43°6′N, 3°8′E). These data were used in the article entitled "Dissecting fine root diameter distribution at the community level captures root morpological diversity" from Erktan, A., Roumet, C., Munoz, F (in press)...

Quantifying the relationship between prey density, livestock and illegal killing of leopards

Mahmood Soofi, Ali Turk Qashqaei, Marzieh Mousavi, Ehsan Hadipour, Marc Filla, Bahram Hasanzadeh Kiabi, Benjamin Bleyhl, Arash Ghoddousi, Niko Balkenhol, Andrew Royle, Chris R. Pavey, Igor Khorozyan & Matthias Waltert
Many large mammalian carnivores are facing population declines due to illegal killing (e.g., shooting) and habitat modification (e.g., livestock farming). Illegal killing occurs cryptically and hence is difficult to detect. However, reducing illegal killing requires a solid understanding of its magnitude and underlying drivers, while accounting for the imperfect detection of illegal killing events. Despite the importance of illegal killing of large carnivores in comparison with other causes of mortality, its relationship with potential drivers...

Mineral inclusions in detrital garnet – An excellent petrogenetic tool

Jan Schönig
Cold and deep subduction is a characteristic feature of modern-style plate tectonics (MSPT) and a prerequisite for the formation of low-temperature/high-pressure (LT/HP) and ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) rocks. Although having strong implications for processes like the movement of materials between surface and mantle, mantle convection, thermal regimes, or the crustal growth rate, the onset of MSPT is poorly understood and controversially debated. One argument for an early onset are local occurrences of Paleoproterozoic retrogressed rocks suggested to...

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  • University of Göttingen
    55
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  • University of Würzburg
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  • Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research
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