18 Works

Data from: Visual ecology of true lemurs suggests a cathemeral origin for the primate cone opsin polymorphism

Kim Valenta, Melissa Edwards, Radoniaina R. Rafaliarison, Steig E. Johnson, Sheila M. Holmes, Kevin A. Brown, Nathaniel J. Dominy, Shawn M. Lehman, Esteban J. Parra & Amanda D. Melin
In contrast to the majority of primates, which exhibit dedicated diurnality or nocturnality, all species of Eulemur are cathemeral. Color vision, in particular, is strongly affected by the spectral composition and intensity of ambient light, and the impact of activity period on the evolution of primate color vision is actively debated. We studied three groups of wild brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus) in Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar over a one-year span. We also used non-invasive fecal...

Data from: Peripheral sensory coding through oscillatory synchrony in weakly electric fish

Christa A. Baker, Kevin R. Huck & Bruce A. Carlson
Adaptations to an organism's environment often involve sensory system modifications. In this study, we address how evolutionary divergence in sensory perception relates to the physiological coding of stimuli. Mormyrid fishes that can detect subtle variations in electric communication signals encode signal waveform into spike-timing differences between sensory receptors. In contrast, the receptors of species insensitive to waveform variation produce spontaneously oscillating potentials. We found that oscillating receptors respond to electric pulses by resetting their phase,...

Data from: Rate of evolutionary change in cranial morphology of the marsupial genus Monodelphis is constrained by the availability of additive genetic variation

Arthur Porto, Harley Sebastião, Silvia Eliza Pavan, John L. VandeBerg, Gabriel Marroig & James M. Cheverud
We tested the hypothesis that the rate of marsupial cranial evolution is dependent on the distribution of genetic variation in multivariate space. To do so, we carried out a genetic analysis of cranial morphological variation in laboratory strains of Monodelphis domestica and used estimates of genetic covariation to analyze the morphological diversification of the Monodelphis brevicaudata species group. We found that within-species genetic variation is concentrated in only a few axes of the morphospace and...

Data from: Speciation is not necessarily easier in species with sexually monomorphic mating signals

Suegene Noh & Charles S. Henry
Should we have different expectations regarding the likelihood and pace of speciation by sexual selection when considering species with sexually monomorphic mating signals? Two conditions that can facilitate rapid species divergence are Felsenstein's one-allele mechanism and a genetic architecture that includes a genetic association between signal and preference loci. In sexually monomorphic species, the former can manifest in the form of mate choice based on phenotype matching. The latter can be promoted by selection acting...

Data from: When does intraspecific trait variation contribute to functional beta-diversity?

Marko J. Spasojevic, Benjamin L. Turner & Jonathan A. Myers
1. Intraspecific trait variation (ITV) is hypothesized to play an important role in community assembly and the maintenance of biodiversity. However, fundamental gaps remain in our understanding of how ITV contributes to mechanisms that create spatial variation in the functional-trait composition of communities (functional β-diversity). Importantly, ITV may influence the perceived importance of environmental filtering across spatial scales. 2. We examined how ITV contributes to functional β-diversity and environmental filtering in woody plant communities in...

Data from: Indirect effects of global change accumulate to alter plant diversity but not ecosystem function in alpine tundra

Emily Farrer, Isabel Ashton, Marko Spasojevic, Shiyang Fu, David Gonzalez, Katharine Suding, Emily C. Farrer, David J. X. Gonzalez, Katharine N. Suding & Marko J. Spasojevic
1. Environmental change can affect species directly by altering their physical environment and indirectly by altering the abundance of interacting species. A key challenge at the interface of community ecology and conservation biology is to predict how direct and indirect effects combine to influence response in a changing environment. In particular, little is known about how direct and indirect effects on biodiversity develop over time or their potential to influence ecosystem function. 2. We studied...

Data from: Disturbance alters beta-diversity but not the relative importance of community assembly mechanisms

Jonathan A. Myers, Jonathan M. Chase, Raelene M. Crandall & Iván Jiménez
1.Ecological disturbances are often hypothesized to alter community assembly processes that influence variation in community composition (β-diversity). Disturbance can cause convergence in community composition (low β-diversity) by increasing niche selection of disturbance-tolerant species. Alternatively, disturbance can cause divergence in community composition (high β-diversity) by increasing habitat filtering across environmental gradients. However, because disturbance may also influence β-diversity through random sampling effects owing to changes in the number of individuals in local communities (community size) or...

Data from: Fuels and fires influence vegetation via above- and below-ground pathways in a high-diversity plant community

Paul R. Gagnon, Heather A. Passmore, Matthew Slocum, Jonathan A. Myers, Kyle E. Harms, William J. Platt & C. E. Timothy Paine
1. Fire strongly influences plant populations and communities around the world, making it an important agent of plant evolution. Fire influences vegetation through multiple pathways, both above- and belowground. Few studies have yet attempted to tie these pathways together in a mechanistic way through soil heating even though the importance of soil heating for plants in fire-prone ecosystems is increasingly recognized. 2. Here we combine an experimental approach with structural equation modelling (SEM) to simultaneously...

Data from: More than one way to evolve a weed: Parallel evolution of U.S. weedy rice through independent genetic mechanisms

Xinshuai Qi, Yan Liu, Cynthia C. Vigueira, Nelson D. Young, Ana L. Caicedo, Yulin Jia, David R. Gealy & Kenneth M. Olsen
Many different crop species were selected for a common suite of ‘domestication traits’, which facilitates their use for studies of parallel evolution. Within domesticated rice (Oryza sativa), there has also been independent evolution of weedy strains from different cultivated varieties. This makes it possible to examine the genetic basis of parallel weed evolution and the extent to which this process occurs through shared genetic mechanisms. We performed comparative QTL mapping of weediness traits using two...

Data from: Burkholderia bacteria infectiously induce the proto-farming symbiosis of Dictyostelium amoebae and food bacteria

Susanne DiSalvo, Tamara S. Haselkorn, Usman Bashir, Daniela A. Jimenez, Debra A. Brock, David C. Queller & Joan E. Strassmann
Symbiotic associations can allow an organism to acquire novel traits by accessing the genetic repertoire of its partner. In the Dictyostelium discoideum farming symbiosis, certain amoebas (termed “farmers”) stably associate with bacterial partners. Farmers can suffer a reproductive cost but also gain beneficial capabilities, such as carriage of bacterial food (proto-farming) and defense against competitors. Farming status previously has been attributed to amoeba genotype, but the role of bacterial partners in its induction has not...

Data from: Pervasive and strong effects of plants on soil chemistry: a meta-analysis of individual plant ‘Zinke’ effects

Bonnie G. Waring, Leonor Álvarez-Cansino, Kathryn E. Barry, Kristen K. Becklund, Sarah Dale, Maria G. Gei, Adrienne B. Keller, Omar R. Lopez, Lars Markesteijn, Scott Mangan, Charlotte E. Riggs, Maria Elizabeth Rodríguez-Ronderos, R. Max Segnitz, Stefan A. Schnitzer & Jennifer S. Powers
Plant species leave a chemical signature in the soils below them, generating fine-scale spatial variation that drives ecological processes. Since the publication of a seminal paper on plant-mediated soil heterogeneity by Paul Zinke in 1962, a robust literature has developed examining effects of individual plants on their local environments (individual plant effects). Here, we synthesize this work using meta-analysis to show that plant effects are strong and pervasive across ecosystems on six continents. Overall, soil...

Data from: Challenging the inbreeding hypothesis in a eusocial mammal: population genetics of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber.

Colleen M. Ingram, Nicholas J. Troendle, Clare A. Gill, Stanton Braude & Rodney L. Honeycutt
The role of genetic relatedness in the evolution of eusociality has been the topic of much debate, especially when contrasting eusocial insects with vertebrates displaying reproductive altruism. The naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber, was the first described eusocial mammal. Although this discovery was based on an ecological constraints model of eusocial evolution, early genetic studies reported high levels of relatedness in naked mole-rats, providing a compelling argument that low dispersal rates and consanguineous mating (inbreeding as...

Data from: A deteriorating state of affairs: how endogenous and exogenous factors determine plant decay rates

Amy E. Zanne, Brad Oberle, Kevin M. Dunham, Amy M. Milo, Maranda L. Walton & Darcy F. Young
Woody plants store large quantities of carbon (C) and nutrients. As plants senesce and decay, these stores transfer to the soil or other organisms or are released to the atmosphere. Exogenous factors such as topographic position and microclimatic and edaphic conditions tied to locations affect decay rates; however, we know less about how exogenous relative to endogenous factors such as morphological, anatomical and chemical construction tied to plant species affect these rates, especially across different...

Data from: Mechanical factors direct mouse aortic remodeling during early maturation

Victoria P. Le, Jeffrey K. Cheng, Jungsil Kim, Marius C. Staiculescu, Shawn W. Ficker, Saahil C. Sheth, Siddharth A. Bhayani, Robert P. Mecham, Hiromi Yanagisawa & Jessica E. Wagenseil
Numerous diseases have been linked to genetic mutations that lead to reduced amounts or disorganization of arterial elastic fibres. Previous work has shown that mice with reduced amounts of elastin (Eln+/−) are able to live a normal lifespan through cardiovascular adaptations, including changes in haemodynamic stresses, arterial geometry and arterial wall mechanics. It is not known if the timeline and presence of these adaptations are consistent in other mouse models of elastic fibre disease, such...

Data from: Concurrent co-evolution of intra-organismal cheaters and resisters

Samuel Levin, Debra Brock, David Queller, Joan Strassmann, S. R. Levin, D. A. Brock, D. C. Queller & J. E. Strassmann
The evolution of multicellularity is a major transition that is not yet fully understood. Specifically, we do not know if there are any mechanisms by which multicellularity can be maintained without a single cell bottleneck or other relatedness enhancing mechanisms. Under low relatedness, cheaters can evolve that benefit from the altruistic behaviour of others without themselves sacrificing. If these are obligate cheaters, incapable of co-operating, their spread can lead to the demise of multicellularity. One...

Data from: Socially selected ornaments and fitness: signals of fighting ability in paper wasps are positively associated with survival, reproductive success, and rank

Elizabeth Alison Tibbetts, Taylor Forrest, Cassondra Vernier, Judy Jinn & Andrew Madagame
Many animals have ornaments that mediate choice and competition in social and sexual contexts. Individuals with elaborate sexual ornaments typically have higher fitness than those with less elaborate ornaments, but less is known about whether socially selected ornaments are associated with fitness. Here, we test the relationship between fitness and facial patterns that are a socially-selected signal of fighting ability in Polistes dominula wasps. We found wasps that signal higher fighting ability have larger nests,...

Data from: Evolution of ecological dominance of yeast species in high-sugar environments

Kathryn M. Williams, Ping Liu & Justin C. Fay
In budding yeasts, fermentation in the presence of oxygen evolved around the time of a whole genome duplication (WGD) and is thought to confer dominance in high-sugar environments because ethanol is toxic to many species. While there are many fermentative yeast species, only Saccharomyces cerevisiae consistently dominates wine fermentations. In this study, we use co-culture experiments and intrinsic growth rate assays to examine the relative fitness of non-WGD and WGD yeast species across environments to...

Data from: Mental illness, poverty and stigma in India: a case control study

Jean-Francois Trani, Parul Bakhshi, Jill Kuhlberg, Sreelatha S. Venkataraman, Hemalatha Venkataraman, Nagendra N. Mishra, Nora E. Groce, Sushrut Jadhav & Smita Deshpande
Objective: To assess the effect of experienced stigma on depth of multidimensional poverty of persons with severe mental illness (PSMI) in Delhi, India, controlling for gender, age and caste. Design: Matching case (hospital)–control (population) study. Setting: University Hospital (cases) and National Capital Region (controls), India. Participants: A case–control study was conducted from November 2011 to June 2012. 647 cases diagnosed with schizophrenia or affective disorders were recruited and 647 individuals of same age, sex and...

Registration Year

  • 2015
    18

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    18

Affiliations

  • Washington University in St. Louis
    18
  • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
    2
  • American Museum of Natural History
    2
  • University of Oxford
    2
  • City University of New York
    1
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
    1
  • Stanford University
    1
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    1
  • University of California System
    1
  • Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital
    1