38 Works

Bayesian inference of ancestral host-parasite interactions under a phylogenetic model of host repertoire evolution

Mariana P. Braga, Michael J. Landis, Sören Nylin, Niklas Janz & Fredrik Ronquist
Intimate ecological interactions, such as those between parasites and their hosts, may persist over long time spans, coupling the evolutionary histories of the lineages involved. Most methods that reconstruct the coevolutionary history of such interactions make the simplifying assumption that parasites have a single host. Many methods also focus on congruence between host and parasite phylogenies, using cospeciation as the null model. However, there is an increasing body of evidence suggesting that the host ranges...

Phylogenetic signal and evolutionary correlates of urban tolerance in a widespread neotropical lizard clade

Kristin Winchell, Klaus P. Schliep, D. Luke Mahler & Liam J. Revell
Urbanization is intensifying worldwide, and while some species tolerate and even exploit urban environments, many others are excluded entirely from this new habitat. Understanding the factors that underlie tolerance of urbanization is thus of rapidly growing importance. Here we examine urban tolerance across a diverse group of lizards: Caribbean members of the neotropical genus Anolis. Our analyses reveal that urban tolerance has strong phylogenetic signal, suggesting that closely related species tend to respond similarly to...

Biotic and abiotic drivers of plant-pollinator community assembly across wildfire gradients

Joseph LaManna, Laura Burkle, R. Belote & Jonathan Myers
1. Understanding how abiotic disturbance and biotic interactions determine pollinator and flowering-plant diversity is critically important given global climate change and widespread pollinator declines. To predict responses of pollinators and flowering-plant communities to changes in wildfire disturbance, a mechanistic understanding of how these two trophic levels respond to wildfire severity is needed. 2. We compared site-to-site variation in community composition (β-diversity), species richness, and abundances of pollinators and flowering plants among landscapes with no recent...

Tax-Time Saving and the Earned Income Tax Credit: Results from Online Field and Survey Experiments

Mathieu Despard

Changes in human health parameters associated with an immersive exhibit experience at a zoological institution

Audrey Coolman, Amy Niedbalski, David Powell, Corinne Kozlowski, Ashley Franklin & Sharon Deem
Zoological institutions often use immersive, naturalistic exhibits to create an inclusive atmosphere that is inviting for visitors while providing for the welfare of animals in their collections. In this study, we investigated physiological changes in salivary cortisol and blood pressure, as well as psychological changes among visitors before and after a walk through the River’s Edge, an immersive, naturalistic exhibit at the Saint Louis Zoo. Study participants had a significant reduction in salivary cortisol and...

Data from: Experimental study of species invasion – early population dynamics and role of disturbance in invasion success

David Reznick, Sebastiano De Bona, Andres Lopez-Sepulcre, Mauricio Torres, Ronald Bassar, Paul Bentzen & Joseph Travis
Much of our understanding of natural invasions is retrospective, based on data acquired after invaders become established. As a consequence, we know little about the characteristics of the early population growth and habitat use of the invaders during establishment. Here we report on experimental introductions of guppies into natural streams in which we conducted monthly censuses of each population. Two of the four introductions were in streams with thinned canopies, which mimics a common form...

Mutation of CFAP57, a protein required for the asymmetric targeting of a subset of inner dynein arms in Chlamydomonas, causes primary ciliary dyskinesia

Susan Dutcher, Ximena Bustamante-Marin, Amjad Horani, Mihaela Stoyanova, Wu-Lin Charng, Mathieu Bottier, Patrick Sears, Wei-Ning Yin, Leigh Anne Daniels, Hailey Bowen, Donald Conrad, Michael Knowles, Lawrence Ostrowski & Maimoona Zariwala
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is characterized by chronic airway disease, reduced fertility, and randomization of the left/right body axis. It is caused by defects of motile cilia and sperm flagella. We screened a cohort of affected individuals that lack an obvious axonemal defect for pathogenic variants using whole exome capture, next generation sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis assuming an autosomal recessive trait. We identified one subject with an apparently homozygous nonsense variant [(c.1762C>T), p.(Arg588*)] in the...

Data on assessing the effects of genetic divergence and morphology on Anolis lizard mating

Emmanuel D'Agostino, Colin Donihue, Jonathan Losos & Anthony Geneva
The brown anole (Anolis sagrei) is a widespread neotropical lizard found on many islands in the West Indies as well as the coast of Central America. Across their range, brown anole populations show extensive ecomorphological trait variation and substantial genetic divergence. It is unclear, however, whether this genetic and morphological divergence results in reproductive isolation between populations. We investigated variation in mating behavior across populations by analyzing four hours of video of each of 234...

Tree functional traits as predictors of microburst-associated treefalls in tropical wet forests

Alana Rader, Amy Cotrell, Anna Kudla, Tiffany Lum, David Henderson & Harshad Karandikar
On 19 May 2018 a microburst caused 600 isolated forest gaps in a Costa Rican tropical forest. We surveyed fallen and standing trees within gaps to determine if certain variables are associated with treefalls. Our results highlight considerations for future research to understand the impacts of microbursts in tropical forests. Our results show that at the scale and locality of our study, treefall vulnerability to microbursts and characteristics of fall events are independent of the...

Employee Financial Wellness Programs: Promising New Benefit for Frontline Workers?

Mathieu Despard

How does viscosity contrast influence phase mixing and strain localization?

Andrew Cross, Philip Skemer, Hélène Couvy & Elizabeth Olree
Ultramylonites with well-mixed mineral phases are thought to be an essential feature of Earth-like plate tectonics, because coupled phase mixing and grain boundary pinning enable rocks to deform by grain-size-sensitive, self-softening creep mechanisms over long geologic timescales. In isoviscous two-phase composites (and in the absence of chemical exchange or reaction), bulk “geometric” phase mixing occurs via the sequential formation and disaggregation of compositional layering. However, the effects of viscosity contrast on the mechanism(s) and timescale(s)...

Employee Financial Wellness Programs: Tips for Employers

Sloane Wolter

Data set from Argentinian plots from: 'Untangling the importance of niche breadth and niche position as drivers of tree species abundance and occupancy across biogeographic regions '. Global Ecology and Biogeography 2020. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.13139

Dilys M Vela Diaz, Cecilia Blundo, Leslie Cayola, Alfredo F. Fuentes, Lucio R Malizia & Jonathan Myers
Data package for 'Untangling the importance of niche breadth and niche position as drivers of tree species abundance and occupancy across biogeographic regions '. Global Ecology and Biogeography 2020. ABSTRACT Despite decades of interest in how ecological niches shape species commonness and rarity at local and regional scales, the relative importance of different niche mechanisms within and across ecosystems remains unresolved. We tested the relative importance of niche breadth (range of environmental conditions where species...

Data from: Joint phylogenetic estimation of geographic movements and biome shifts during the global diversification of Viburnum

Michael Landis, Deren Eaton, Wendy Clement, Brian Park, Elizabeth Spriggs, Patrick Sweeney, Erika Edwards & Michael Donoghue
Phylogeny, molecular sequences, fossils, biogeography, and biome occupancy are all lines of evidence that reflect the singular evolutionary history of a clade, but they are most often studied separately, by first inferring a fossil-dated molecular phylogeny, then mapping on ancestral ranges and biomes inferred from extant species. Here we jointly model the evolution of biogeographic ranges, biome affinities, and molecular sequences, incorporating fossils to estimate a dated phylogeny for all of the 163 extant species...

Data from: Exploring genomic variation associated with drought stress in Picea mariana populations

Joseph Napier, Guillaume De Lafontaine & Feng Sheng Hu
Predicted increases in drought and heat stress will likely induce shifts in species bioclimatic envelopes. Genetic variants adapted to water limitation may prove pivotal for species response under scenarios of increasing drought. In this study, we aimed to explore this hypothesis by investigating genetic variation in 16 populations of black spruce (Picea mariana) in relation to climate variables in Alaska. A total of 520 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped for 158 trees sampled from...

Data from: Feeding specialisation and longer generation time are associated with relatively larger brains in bees

Ferran Sayol, Miguel Á. Collado, Joan Garcia-Porta, Marc A. Seid, Jason Gibbs, Ainhoa Agorreta, Diego San Mauro, Ivo Raemakers, Daniel Sol & Ignasi Bartomeus
Despite their miniature brains, insects exhibit substantial variation in brain size. Although the functional significance of this variation is increasingly recognized, research on whether differences in insect brain sizes are mainly the result of constraints or selective pressures has hardly been performed. Here, we address this gap by combining prospective and retrospective phylogenetic-based analyses of brain size for a major insect group, bees (superfamily Apoidea). Using a brain dataset of 93 species from North America...

Facultative chemosynthesis in a deep-sea anemone from hydrothermal vents in the Pescadero Basin, Gulf of California

Shana Goffredi, Cambrie Motooka, David Fike, Luciana Gusmão, Ekin Tilic, Greg Rouse & Estefanía Rodríguez
Background Numerous deep-sea invertebrates have formed symbiotic associations with internal chemosynthetic bacteria in order to harness inorganic energy sources typically unavailable to most animals. Despite success in nearly all marine habitats and their well-known associations with photosynthetic symbionts, Cnidaria remain without a clear dependence on hydrothermal vents and chemosynthetic bacterial symbionts specifically. Results A new chemosynthetic symbiosis between the sea anemone Ostiactis pearseae (Daly & Gusmão, 2007) and intracellular bacteria was discovered at ~3700 m...

Data from: Recent biological invasion shapes species recognition and aggressive behavior in a native species: a behavioral experiment using robots in the field

Claire Dufour, David Clark, Jonathan Losos & Anthony Herrel
Invasive species are a worldwide threat to biodiversity. Yet, our understanding of biological invasions remains incomplete, partly due to the difficulty of tracking and studying behavioral interactions in recently created species interactions. We tested whether the interactions between the recently introduced invasive lizard Anolis cristatellus and the native Anolis oculatus in Dominica have led to changes in species recognition and aggressive behavior of the native species. The use of realistic robots allowed us to test...

Data from: Cold nights, city lights: artificial light at night reduces photoperiodically induced diapause in urban and rural populations of Aedes albopictus

Katie Westby & Kim Medley
As the planet becomes increasingly urbanized, it is imperative that we understand the ecological and evolutionary consequences of urbanization on species. One common attribute of urbanization that differs from rural areas is the prevalence of artificial light at night (ALAN). For many species, light is one of the most important and reliable environmental cues, largely governing the timing of daily and seasonal activity patterns. Recently, it has been shown that ALAN can alter behavioral, phenological,...

Data from: Abundance, origin and phylogeny of plants do not predict community-level patterns of pathogen diversity and infection

Robin Schmidt, Harald Auge, Holger Deising, Isabell Hensen, Scott Mangan, Martin Schädler, Claudia Stein & Tiffany Knight
Pathogens have the potential to shape plant community structure, and thus it is important to understand the factors that determine pathogen diversity and infection in communities. The abundance, origin and evolutionary relationships of plant hosts are all known to influence pathogen patterns, and are typically studied separately. We present an observational study that examined the influence of all three factors and their interactions on the diversity of and infection of several broad taxonomic groups of...

Variation in the strength of allometry drives rates of evolution in primate brain shape - Supplementary Material

Gabriele Sansalone, Kari Allen, Justin Ledogar, Sarah Heinz Ledogar, D. Rex Mitchell, Antonio Profico, Silvia Castiglione, Marina Melchionna, Carmela Serio, Alessandro Mondanaro, Pasquale Raia & Stephen Wroe
Large brains are a defining feature of primates, as is a clear allometric trend between body mass and brain size. However, important questions on the macroevolution of brain shape in primates remain unanswered. Here we address two: (i), does the relationship between the brain size and its shape follow allometric trends and (ii), is this relationship consistent over evolutionary time? We employ three-dimensional geometric morphometrics and phylogenetic comparative methods to answer these questions, based on...

Data from: Agricultural adaptation in the native North American weed waterhemp, Amaranthus tuberculatus (Amaranthaceae)

Katherine Waselkov, Romy Lum, Kenneth Olsen & Nathaniel Regenold
There is increasing interest in documenting adaptation of weedy plant species to agricultural ecosystems, beyond the evolution of herbicide resistance. Waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) is a native plant of the Midwestern U.S. that began infesting agricultural fields in the 20th century within the central portion of its range. We hypothesized that the vegetative growth and reproductive traits of waterhemp from this heavily infested central region provide differential fitness benefits in agricultural environments. We collected seeds from...

Earlier springs enable High-Arctic wolf spiders to produce a second clutch - supplementary data

Toke T. Høye, Jean-Claude Kresse, Amanda M. Koltz & Joseph J. Bowden
Spiders at southern latitudes commonly produce multiple clutches, but this has not been observed at high latitudes where activity seasons are much shorter. Yet the timing of snowmelt is advancing in the Arctic, which may allow some species to produce an additional clutch. To determine if this is already happening, we used specimens of the wolf spider Pardosa glacialis caught by pitfall traps from the long-term (1996-2014) monitoring program at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland. We dissected...

Education is associated with Aβ burden in preclinical familial and sporadic Alzheimer’s disease

Julie Gonneaud, Christophe Bedetti, Alexa Pichet Binette, Tammie Benzinger, John Morris, Randall Bateman, Judes Poirier, John Breitner & Sylvia Villeneuve
Objective. To determine whether years of education and the ε4 risk allele at APOE influence β-amyloid pathology similarly in asymptomatic individuals with a family history of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and pre-symptomatic autosomal dominant AD mutation carriers. Methods. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 106 asymptomatic individuals with a parental history of sporadic AD (PREVENT-AD cohort; age=67.28±4.72 years) and 117 pre-symptomatic autosomal dominant AD mutation carriers (DIAN cohort; age=34.00±9.43 years). All participants underwent structural MRI and...

Local diversity, beta diversity and climate influence the regional stability of bird biomass across North America

Christopher Catano, Trevor Fristoe, Joseph LaManna & Jonathan Myers
Biodiversity often stabilizes aggregate ecosystem properties (e.g., biomass) at small spatial scales. However, the importance of species diversity within communities and variation in species composition among communities (β-diversity) for stability at larger scales remains unclear. Using a continental-scale analysis of 1,657 North American breeding-bird communities spanning 20-years and 35 ecoregions, we show local species diversity and β-diversity influence two components of regional stability: local stability (stability of bird biomass within sites) and spatial asynchrony (asynchronous...

Registration Year

  • 2020
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Resource Types

  • Dataset
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  • Text
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Affiliations

  • Washington University in St. Louis
    38
  • Duke University
    3
  • University of North Carolina
    2
  • National University of Jujuy
    2
  • Yale University
    2
  • Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine
    2
  • Marquette University
    2
  • University of Massachusetts Boston
    2
  • Cornell University
    2
  • Donald Danforth Plant Science Center
    1