125 Works

Functional traits explain the consistent resistance of biodiversity to plant invasion under nitrogen enrichment

Shao-Peng Li, Jia Pu, Shu-Ya Fan, Yingtong Wu, Xiang Liu, Yani Meng, Yue Li, Wen-Sheng Shu, Jin-Tian Li & Lin Jiang
Elton’s biotic resistance hypothesis, which posits that diverse communities should be more resistant to biological invasions, has received considerable experimental support. However, it remains unclear whether such a negative diversity–invasibility relationship would persist under anthropogenic environmental change. By using the common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) as a model invader, our four-year grassland experiment demonstrated consistently negative relationships between resident species diversity and community invasibility, irrespective of nitrogen addition, a result further supported by a meta-analysis. Importantly,...

Plasticity of the gastrocnemius elastic system in response to decreased work and power demand during growth

Suzanne Cox, Jonas Rubenson, Stephen Piazza, Matthew Salzano, Kavya Katugam & Adam DeBoef
Elastic energy storage and release can enhance performance that would otherwise be limited by the force-velocity constraints of muscle. While functional influence of a biological spring depends on tuning between components of an elastic system (the muscle, spring, driven mass, and lever system), we do not know whether elastic systems systematically adapt to functional demand. To test whether altering work and power generation during maturation alters the morphology of an elastic system, we prevented growing...

Bulk and amino acid nitrogen specific isotope data from particulate organic matter and mesozooplankton (1000-2000 µm) from the Mekong River plume and southern South China Sea

Natalie Loick-Wilde, Sarah Weber, Joseph P. Montoya, Melvin Bach, Hai Doan-Nhu, Ajit Subramaniam, Iris Liskow, Lam Nguyen-Ngoc, Dirk Wodarg & Maren Voss
The mean trophic position (TP) of mesozooplankton largely determines how much mass and energy is available for higher trophic levels like fish. Unfortunately, the ratio of herbivores to carnivores in mesozooplankton is difficult to identify in field samples. Here we investigated changes in the mean TP of mesozooplankton in a highly dynamic environment encompassing four distinct habitats in the southern South China Sea: the Mekong River plume, coastal upwelling region, shelf waters, and offshore oceanic...

Phylotranscriptomics points to multiple independent origins of multicellularity and cellular differentiation in the volvocine algae

Charles Lindsey, Frank Rosenzweig & Matthew Herron
The volvocine algae, which include the single-celled species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the colonial species Volvox carteri, serve as a model in which to study the evolution of multicellularity and cellular differentiation. Studies reconstructing the history of this group have by and large relied on datasets of one to a few genes for phylogenetic inference and ancestral character state reconstruction. As a result, volvocine phylogenies lack concordance depending on the number and/or type of genes (i.e.,...

Hawkmoths use wingstroke-to-wingstroke frequency modulation for aerial recovery to vortex ring perturbations

Jeff Gau, Ryan Gemilere, FM Subteam LDS-VIP, James Lynch, Nick Gravish & Simon Sponberg
Centimetre-scale fliers must contend with the high power requirements of flapping flight. Insects have elastic elements in their thoraxes which may reduce the inertial costs of their flapping wings. Matching wingbeat frequency to a mechanical resonance can be energetically favourable, but also poses control challenges. Many insects use frequency modulation on long timescales, but wingstroke-to-wingstroke modulation of wingbeat frequencies in a resonant spring-wing system is potentially costly because muscles must work against the elastic flight...

Mechanics of walking and running up and downhill: A joint-level perspective to guide design of lower-limb exoskeletons

Richard Nuckols, Kota Takahashi, Dominic Farris, Sarai Mizrachi, Raziel Riemer & Gregory Sawicki
Lower-limb wearable robotic devices can improve clinical gait and reduce energetic demand in healthy populations. To help enable real-world use, we sought to examine how assistance should be applied in variable gait conditions and suggest an approach derived from knowledge of human locomotion mechanics to establish a ‘roadmap’ for wearable robot design. We characterized the changes in joint mechanics during walking and running across a range of incline/decline grades and then provide an analysis that...

Data from: Warming alters plant phylogenetic and functional community structure

Juntao Zhu, Yangjian Zhang, Xian Yang, Ning Chen, Shaopeng Li, Pandeng Wang & Lin Jiang
Climate change is known to affect many facets of the Earth’s ecosystems. However, little is known about its impacts on phylogenetic and functional properties of ecological communities. Here we studied the responses of plant communities in an alpine grassland on the Tibetan Plateau to environmental warming across taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional levels in a six-year multiple-level warming experiment. While low-level warming did not alter either plant species richness or phylogenetic/functional community structure, high-level warming significantly...

Leveraging Energy Data for the Benefit of Society and Consumers

Karim Farhat, Milton Mueller, Matt Schaub, Richard A. Simmons & Sharon Murphy

Alpha-Band Activity in Parietofrontal Cortex Predicts Future Availability of Vibrotactile Feedback in Prosthesis Use

John Johnson, Daniele Gavetti De Mari, Harper Doherty, Frank L. Hammond III & Lewis Wheaton

Data from: Interactive effects of disturbance and dispersal on community assembly

Miriam N. Ojima & Lin Jiang
The traditional debate on alternative community states has been over whether or not they exist. Studies of community assembly have examined the role of assembly history in driving community divergence, but the context in which assembly history becomes important is a continued topic of interest. In this study, we created communities of bacterivorous ciliated protists in laboratory microcosms and manipulated assembly history, disturbance frequency, and the presence of dispersal among local communities to investigate the...

Data from: Rapid evolution of sex frequency and dormancy as hydroperiod adaptations

Hilary A. Smith & Terry W. Snell
Dormancy can serve as an adaptation to persist in variable habitats, and often is coupled with sex. In cyclically parthenogenetic rotifers an asexual phase enables rapid population growth, whereas sex results in diapausing embryos capable of tolerating desiccation. Few studies have experimentally tested whether sex-dormancy associations in temporary waters reflect evolution in response to the short hydroperiod selecting for diapause ability. Here we demonstrate evolution of higher propensity for sex and dormancy in ephemeral rotifer...

Data from: Geographic differences in vertical connectivity in the Caribbean coral Montastraea cavernosa despite high levels of horizontal connectivity at shallow depths

Xaymara Serrano, Iliana B. Baums, Katherine O'Reilly, Tyler B. Smith, Ross J. Jones, Tonya L. Shearer, Flavia L. D. Nunes & Andrew C. Baker
The Deep Reef Refugia Hypothesis proposes that deep reefs can act as local recruitment sources for shallow reefs following disturbance. To test this hypothesis, nine polymorphic DNA microsatellite loci were developed and used to assess vertical connectivity in 583 coral colonies of the Caribbean depth-generalist coral Montastraea cavernosa. Samples were collected from three depth zones (≤10 m, 15-20 m and ≥25 m) at sites in Florida Upper Keys, Lower Keys and Dry Tortugas), Bermuda, and...

Data from: Comparative system identification of flower tracking performance in three hawkmoth species reveals adaptations for dim light vision

Anna L. Stöckl, Klara Kihlström, Steven Chandler & Simon Sponberg
Flight control in insects is heavily dependent on vision. Thus, in dim light, the decreased reliability of visual signal detection also prompts consequences for insect flight. We have an emerging understanding of the neural mechanisms that different species employ to adapt the visual system to low light. However, much less explored are comparative analyses of how low light affects the flight behaviour of insect species, and the corresponding links between physiological adaptations and behaviour. We...

Data from: Nitrogen fertilization, not water addition, alters plant phylogenetic community structure in a semi-arid steppe

Xian Yang, Zhongling Yang, Jiaqi Tan, Guoyong Li, Shiqiang Wan & Lin Jiang
1. Anthropogenic environmental changes, such as nitrogen (N) enrichment and alteration in precipitation regimes, significantly influence ecosystems worldwide. However, we know little about whether and how these changes alter the phylogenetic properties of ecological communities. 2. Based on a seven-year field experiment in the temperate semi-arid steppe of Inner Mongolia, China, we investigated the influence of increased N and precipitation on plant phylogenetic structure and phylogenetic patterns of species colonization and extinction. 3. Our study...

Data from: Variation in costs of parasite resistance among natural host populations

Stuart K. J. R. Auld, Rachel M. Penczykowski, Jessica Housley Ochs, Dylan C. Grippi, Spencer R. Hall & Meghan A. Duffy
Organisms that can resist parasitic infection often have lower fitness in the absence of parasites. These costs of resistance can mediate host evolution during parasite epidemics. For example, large epidemics will select for increased host resistance. In contrast, small epidemics (or no disease) can select for increased host susceptibility when costly resistance allows more susceptible hosts to outcompete their resistant counterparts. Despite their importance for evolution in host populations, costs of resistance (which are also...

Data from: Manipulating virulence factor availability can have complex consequences for infections

Michael Weigert, Adin Ross-Gillespie, Anne Leinweber, Gabriella Pessi, Sam P. Brown & Rolf Kuemmerli
Given the rise of bacterial resistance against antibiotics, we urgently need alternative strategies to fight infections. Some propose we should disarm rather than kill bacteria, through targeted disruption of their virulence factors. It is assumed that this approach (i) induces weak selection for resistance because it should only minimally impact bacterial fitness, and (ii) is specific, only interfering with the virulence factor in question. Given that pathogenicity emerges from complex interactions between pathogens, hosts, and...

Data from: Increased snowfall weakens complementarity of summer water use by different plant functional groups

Yonggang Chi, Lei Zhou, Qingpeng Yang, Shaopeng Li & Shuxia Zheng
Winter snowfall is an important water source for plants during summer in semiarid regions. Snow, rain, soil water, and plant water were sampled for hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopes analyses under control and increased snowfall conditions in the temperate steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. Our study showed that the snowfall contribution to plant water uptake continued throughout the growing season and was detectable even in the late growing season. Snowfall versus rainfall accounted for 30%...

Data from: Species pools and differential performance generate variation in leaf nutrients between native and exotic species in succession

Kirstin I. Duffin, Shaopeng Li, Scott J. Meiners & Shao-Peng Li
1. A central aim of invasion biology has been to identify key functional differences between native and exotic species to determine which traits may be responsible for invasion success and impacts. There are two primary ways that differences may exist between native and exotic species - the traits of the local species pools may differ, or the way that the traits interact with their environment may differ. 2. We explored leaf nutrient concentrations as functional...

Autonomous Vehicles and the Ethical Tension Between Occupant and Non-Occupant Safety

Jason Borenstein, Joseph Herkert & Keith Miller
Given that the creation and deployment of autonomous vehicles is likely to continue, it is important to explore the ethical responsibilities of designers, manufacturers, operators, and regulators of the technology. We specifically focus on the ethical responsibilities surrounding autonomous vehicles that these stakeholders have to protect the safety of non-occupants, meaning individuals who are around the vehicles while they are operating. The term “non-occupants” includes, but is not limited to, pedestrians and cyclists. We are...

De Novo Design of Peptides that Co-assemble into β-sheet Based Nanofibrils Dataset

Kong M. Wong, Xingqing Xiao, Yiming Wang, Dillon T. Seroski, Renjie Liu, Anant K. Paravastu, Gregory A. Hudalla & Carol K. Hall

Will it Unblend?

Yuval Pinter, Cassandra L. Jacobs & Jacob Eisenstein

A Transfer Learning-Based Framework for Enriching National Household Travel Survey Data with Attitudinal Variables

Aliaksandr Malokin, Patricia Mokhtarian & Giovanni Circella

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