165 Works

Alpha-Band Activity in Parietofrontal Cortex Predicts Future Availability of Vibrotactile Feedback in Prosthesis Use

John Johnson, Daniele Gavetti De Mari, Harper Doherty, Frank L. Hammond III & Lewis Wheaton

People combine multisensory cues based on subjective confidence rather than objective signal reliability

Yi Gao, Brian Odegaard & Dobromir Rahnev
Summary Previous studies found that in a multisensory scenario, people make decisions by weighing the objective reliability of signals from each modality. However, an alternative possibility is that people don't actually have direct access to the reliability of the signals of each modality but only to a subjective estimate of their confidence. An unexamined alternative is that we may base our perceptual judgments on the subjective confidence of each modality. Here we will address this...

Data from: Nitrogen enrichment alters multiple dimensions of grassland functional stability via changing compositional stability

Qianna Xu, Xian Yang, Jian Song, Jingyi Ru, Jianyang Xia, Shaopeng Wang, Shiqiang Wan & Lin Jiang
Anthropogenic nutrient enrichment is known to alter the composition and functioning of plant communities. However, how nutrient enrichment influences multiple dimensions of community- and ecosystem-level stability remains poorly understood. Using data from a nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) addition experiment in a temperate semi-arid grassland that experienced a natural drought, we show that N enrichment, not P enrichment, decreased grassland functional and compositional temporal stability, resistance, and recovery, but increased functional and compositional resilience. Compositional...

Data from: Viral tagging reveals discrete populations in Synechococcus viral genome sequence space

Li Deng, J. Cesar Ignacio-Espinoza, Ann C. Gregory, Bonnie T. Poulos, Joshua S. Weitz, Philip Hugenholtz & Matthew B. Sullivan
Microbes and their viruses drive myriad processes across ecosystems ranging from oceans and soils to bioreactors and humans. Despite this importance, microbial diversity is only now being mapped at scales relevant to nature, while the viral diversity associated with any particular host remains little researched. Here we quantify host-associated viral diversity using viral-tagged metagenomics, which links viruses to specific host cells for high-throughput screening and sequencing. In a single experiment, we screened 107 Pacific Ocean...

Data from: Poor resource quality lowers transmission potential by changing foraging behaviour

Rachel M. Penczykowski, Brian C. P. Lemanski, Robert Drew Sieg, Spencer R. Hall, Jessica Housley Ochs, Julia Kubanek & Meghan A. Duffy
Resource quality can have conflicting effects on the spread of disease. High quality resources could hinder disease spread by promoting host immune function. Alternatively, high quality food might enhance the spread of disease through other traits of hosts or parasites. Thus, to assess how resource quality shapes epidemics, we need to delineate mechanisms by which food quality affects key epidemiological traits. Here, we disentangle effects of food quality on ‘transmission potential’ – a key component...

Data from: Environmental changes drive the temporal stability of semi-arid natural grasslands through altering species asynchrony

Zhuwen Xu, Haiyan Ren, Mai-He Li, Jasper Van Ruijven, Xingguo Han, Shiqiang Wan, Hui Li, Qiang Yu, Yong Jiang & Lin Jiang
Stability is an important property of ecological systems, many of which are experiencing increasing levels of anthropogenic environmental changes. However, how these environmental changes influence ecosystem stability remains poorly understood. We conducted an 8-year field experiment in a semi-arid natural grassland to explore the effects of two common environmental changes, precipitation and nitrogen enrichment, on the temporal stability of plant above-ground biomass. A split-plot design, with precipitation as the main plot factor and nitrogen as...

Data from: Predator identity influences metacommunity assembly

Nicole K. Johnston, Zhichao Pu & Lin Jiang
1.Predation is among the most important biotic factors influencing natural communities, yet we have a rather rudimentary understanding of its role in modulating metacommunity assembly. 2.We experimentally examined the effects of two different predators (a generalist and a specialist) on metacommunity assembly, using protist microcosm metacommunities that varied in predator identity, dispersal among local communities, and the history of species colonization into local communities. 3.Generalist predation resulted in reduced α diversity and increased β diversity...

Data from: Mechanical evidence that flamingos can support their body on one leg with little active muscular force

Young-Hui Chang & Lena H. Ting
Flamingos (Phoenicopteridae) often stand and sleep on one leg for long periods, but it is unknown how much active muscle contractile force they use for the mechanical demands of standing on one leg: body weight support and maintaining balance. First, we demonstrated that flamingo cadavers could passively support body weight on one leg without any muscle activity while adopting a stable, unchanging, joint posture resembling that seen in live flamingos. By contrast, the cadaveric flamingo...

Data from: Species ecological similarity modulates the importance of colonization history for adaptive radiation

Jiaqi Tan, Xian Yang & Lin Jiang
Adaptive radiation is an important evolutionary process, through which a single ancestral lineage rapidly gives rise to multiple newly formed lineages that specialize in different niches. In the first-arrival hypothesis, David Lack emphasized the importance of species colonization history for adaptive radiation, suggesting that the earlier arrival of a diversifying species would allow it to radiate to a greater extent. Here, we report on the first rigorous experimental test of this hypothesis, using the rapidly...

Public COAPI Toolkit of Open Access Policy Resources

Judy Anderson, Jordan Andrade, Virginia Barbour, Jeff Belliston, Marilyn Billings, Michael Boock, Mark Christel, Amy Coughenour, Eva Cunningham, Barbara DeFelice, Kimberly Douglas, Ada Emmett, Ellen Finnie, Stephen Flynn, Bryn Geffert, Chloe Georas, Dan Heuer, Erin Jerome, Timothy Jewell, Brian Kern, Shannon Kipphut-Smith, Farley Laine, Anne Langley, Ruth Lewis, Camilla MacKay … & John Martin
The Coalition of Open Access Policy Institutions (COAPI, https://sparcopen.org/coapi ) is committed to sharing information and resources to assist in the development and implementation of institutional Open Access (OA) policies. The COAPI Toolkit includes a diverse collection of resources that COAPI members have developed in the course of their OA policy initiatives. These resources are openly accessible and published here under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licenses, unless otherwise noted on the resources themselves.

Autonomous Vehicles and the Ethical Tension Between Occupant and Non-Occupant Safety

Jason Borenstein, Joseph Herkert & Keith Miller
Given that the creation and deployment of autonomous vehicles is likely to continue, it is important to explore the ethical responsibilities of designers, manufacturers, operators, and regulators of the technology. We specifically focus on the ethical responsibilities surrounding autonomous vehicles that these stakeholders have to protect the safety of non-occupants, meaning individuals who are around the vehicles while they are operating. The term “non-occupants” includes, but is not limited to, pedestrians and cyclists. We are...

Dimensional analysis of spring-wing systems reveals performance metrics for resonant flapping-wing flight

Nicholas Gravish, James Lynch, Jeff Gau & Simon Sponberg
Flapping-wing insects, birds, and robots are thought to offset the high power cost of oscillatory wing motion by using elastic elements for energy storage and return. Insects possess highly resilient elastic regions in their flight anatomy that may enable high dynamic efficiency. However, recent experiments highlight losses due to damping in the insect thorax that could reduce the benefit of those elastic elements. We performed experiments on, and simulations of a dynamically-scaled robophysical flapping model...

Microtus californicus toothrow and molar .tps files

Jenny McGuire & Daniel Lauer
Aim. This study examines how climate shaped Microtus californicus (Rodentia: Arvicolinae) ecomorphology throughout the Quaternary. It tests three hypotheses: (1) climate corresponds with consistent shape variation in M. californicus dentition; (2) Quaternary warming and drying trends caused M. californicus morphotypes to predictably shift in range through time; (3) Quaternary warming and drying led to predictable changes in tooth morphological variation. Finally, we discuss how shifts in climate-linked morphological variation may affect the potential of M....

Effects of future climate on coral-coral competition

Nicole Johnston, Mark Hay, Valerie Paul & Justin Campbell
As carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) levels increase, coral reefs and other marine systems will be affected by the joint stressors of ocean acidification (OA) and warming. The effects of these two stressors on coral physiology are relatively well studied, but their impact on biotic interactions between corals are poorly understood. While coral-coral interactions are less common on modern reefs, it is important to document the nature of these interactions to better inform restoration strategies...

Environmental stress gradients regulate the relative importance of predator density- and trait-mediated indirect effects in oyster reef communities

Jessica Pruett & Marc Weissburg
Predators affect community structure by influencing prey density and traits, but the importance of these effects often is difficult to predict. We measured the strength of blue crab predator effects on mud crab prey consumption of juvenile oysters across a flow gradient that inflicts both physical and sensory stress to determine how the relative importance of top predator density-mediated indirect effects (DMIEs) and trait-mediated indirect effects (TMIEs) change within systems. Overall, TMIEs dominated in relatively...

Data from: Nanotransfection-based vasculogenic cell reprogramming drives functional recovery in a mouse model of ischemic stroke

Luke Lemmerman, Maria Balch, Jordan Moore, Diego Alzate-Correa, Maria Rincon-Benavides, Ana Salazar-Puerta, Surya Gnyawali, Hallie Harris, William Lawrence, Lilibeth Ortega-Pineda, Lauren Wilch, Ian Risser, Aidan Maxwell, Silvia Duarte-Sanmiguel, Daniel Dodd, Gina Guio-Vega, Dana McTigue, William Arnold, Shahid Nimjee, Chandan Sen, Savita Khanna, Cameron Rink, Natalia Higuita-Castro & Daniel Gallego-Perez
Ischemic stroke causes vascular and neuronal tissue deficiencies that could lead to significant functional impairment and/or death. Although progenitor-based vasculogenic cell therapies have shown promise as a potential rescue strategy following ischemic stroke, current approaches face major hurdles. Here we used fibroblasts nanotransfected with Etv2, Foxc2, and Fli1 (EFF), to drive reprogramming-based vasculogenesis, intracranially, as a potential therapy for ischemic stroke. Perfusion analyses suggest that intracranial delivery of EFF-nanotransfected fibroblasts led to a dose-dependent increase...

Positive Effects of Coral Biodiversity on Coral Performance: Patterns, Processes, and Dynamics

Cody Clements
Coral reefs are extremely diverse, supply critical ecosystem services, and are collapsing at an alarming rate, with 80% coral loss in the Caribbean and >50% in the Pacific in recent decades. Previous studies emphasized negative interactions (competition, predation) as structuring reef systems, but positive interactions in such species-rich systems could be of equal importance in maintaining ecosystem function. If foundation species like corals depend on positive interactions, then their fitness may decline with the loss...

The evolution of two distinct strategies of moth flight

Brett Aiello
Across insects, wing shape and size have undergone dramatic divergence even in closely related sister groups. However, we do not know how morphology changes in tandem with kinematics to support body weight within available power and how the specific force production patterns are linked to differences in behavior. Hawkmoths and wild silkmoths are diverse sister families with divergent wing morphology. Using 3d kinematics and quasi-steady aerodynamic modeling, we compare the aerodynamics and the contributions of...

Will it Unblend?

Yuval Pinter, Cassandra L. Jacobs & Jacob Eisenstein

Supporting data for: Gene-rich UV sex chromosomes harbor conserved regulators of sexual development (Carey et al., 2021)

Sarah Carey, Shenqiang Shu, John Lovell, Avinash Shenqiang, Florian Maumus, George Tiley, Noe Fernandez-Pozo, Kerrie Barry, Cindy Chen, Mei Wang, Anna Lipzen, Chris Daum, Christopher Saski, Adam Payton, Jordan McBreen, Roth Conrad, Leslie Kollar, Sanna Olsson, Sanna Huttunen, Jacob Landis, Norman Wickett, Matthew Johnson, Stefan Rensing, Jane Grimwood, Jeremy Schmutz … & Adam Healey
Non-recombining sex chromosomes, like the mammalian Y, often lose genes and accumulate transposable elements, a process termed degeneration. The correlation between suppressed recombination and degeneration is clear in animal XY systems, but the absence of recombination is confounded with other asymmetries between the X and Y. In contrast, UV sex chromosomes, like those found in bryophytes, experience symmetrical population genetic conditions. Here we generate and use nearly gapless female and male chromosome-scale reference genomes of...


Amanda Whitmire, Jacob Carlson, Brian Westra, Patricia Hswe & Susan Parham

Hypothesis-Guided Search

David Illingworth & Rick Thomas

Memory-based Valuation Judgments

Ashley Lawrence-Huizenga, David Illingworth, Ling Liu & Justin Sukernek

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