165 Works

Machine learning to extract muscle fascicle length changes from dynamic ultrasound images in real-time

Luis Rosa
B-mode ultrasound has become one-off, if not the main way of measuring muscle fascicle fiber lengths non-invasively. Yet, the gold standard for tracking these is still time-intensive hand-tracking, and even with semi-automated approaches, the process takes time and has to be done post hoc. Hence, towards greatly improving current processing capabilities by tracking these muscle fasicle lengths in real-time, we trained and optimized machine learning models with collected B-mode ultrasound data. We focused on soleus...

Positive Effects of Coral Biodiversity on Coral Performance: Patterns, Processes, and Dynamics

Cody Clements
Coral reefs are extremely diverse, supply critical ecosystem services, and are collapsing at an alarming rate, with 80% coral loss in the Caribbean and >50% in the Pacific in recent decades. Previous studies emphasized negative interactions (competition, predation) as structuring reef systems, but positive interactions in such species-rich systems could be of equal importance in maintaining ecosystem function. If foundation species like corals depend on positive interactions, then their fitness may decline with the loss...

The evolution of two distinct strategies of moth flight

Brett Aiello
Across insects, wing shape and size have undergone dramatic divergence even in closely related sister groups. However, we do not know how morphology changes in tandem with kinematics to support body weight within available power and how the specific force production patterns are linked to differences in behavior. Hawkmoths and wild silkmoths are diverse sister families with divergent wing morphology. Using 3d kinematics and quasi-steady aerodynamic modeling, we compare the aerodynamics and the contributions of...

A Transfer Learning-Based Framework for Enriching National Household Travel Survey Data with Attitudinal Variables

Aliaksandr Malokin, Patricia Mokhtarian & Giovanni Circella

Data from: Fluc­tu­a­tion domains in adap­tive evo­lu­tion

Carl Boettiger, Jonathan Dushoff & Joshua S. Weitz
We derive an expression for the variation between parallel trajectories in phenotypic evolution, extending the well known result that predicts the mean evolutionary path in adaptive dynamics or quantitative genetics. We show how this expression gives rise to the notion of fluctuation domains–parts of the fitness landscape where the rate of evolution is very predictable (due to fluctuation dissipation) and parts where it is highly variable (due to fluctuation enhancement). These fluctuation domains are determined...

The DART Project: using data management plans as a research tool

Amanda Whitmire, Jacob Carlson, Brian Westra, Patricia Hswe & Susan Parham
This is a two-year National Leadership Grant for Libraries Demonstration Project to facilitate a multi-university study of faculty data management plans (DMPs). The primary outputs of this project will be an analytic rubric to standardize the review of data management plans as a means to inform targeted expansion or development of research data services at academic libraries; and a study utilizing the rubric that presents the results of data management plan analyses at five universities....

Data from: Intoxicated copepods: ingesting toxic phytoplankton leads to risky behaviour

Rachel S. Lasley-Rasher, Kathryn Nagel, Aakanksha Angra & Jeannette Yen
Understanding interactions between harmful algal bloom (HAB) species and their grazers is essential for determining mechanisms of bloom proliferation and termination. We exposed the common calanoid copepod, Temora longicornis to the harmful algal bloom species Alexandrium fundyense and examined effects on copepod survival, ingestion, egg production and swimming behaviour. A. fundyense was readily ingested by T. longicornis and significantly altered copepod swimming behaviour without affecting copepod survival or fitness. A. fundyense caused T. longicornis to...

Data from: Plant functional diversity modulates global environmental change effects on grassland productivity

Zhuwen Xu, Mai-He Li, Niklaus E. Zimmermann, Shaopeng Li, Hui Li, Haiyan Ren, Hao Sun, Xingguo Han, Yong Jiang, Lin Jiang & Shao-Peng Li
1. Although much research has explored changes in ecosystem functions associated with global environmental changes, the mechanistic pathways behind the observed changes remain poorly understood. 2. Using an 11-year experiment that increased growing season precipitation and nitrogen deposition in a temperate steppe, we explored the relative importance of direct and indirect environmental change effects on plant primary productivity. 3. We show that increases in water and nitrogen availability influenced plant productivity via both direct and...

Backing up into advocacy: The case of smartphone driver distraction

Robert Rosenberger
For the last decade, I’ve been studying the topic of the driving impairment of smartphones. While this began as an exclusively academic project, it has increasingly compelled public engagement. One example of this came in an opinion piece I wrote in 2018 in response to a new traffic law. I take the opportunity here to fill out the academic backstory of this particular op-ed, reflect on how this larger project has evolved to include an...

Indirect actuation reduces flight power requirements in Manduca sexta via elastic energy exchange

Jeff Gau, Nick Gravish & Simon Sponberg
In many insects, wing movements are generated indirectly via exoskeletal deformations. Measurements of inertial and aerodynamic power suggest that elastic recovery of energy between wingstrokes might reduce power requirements of flight. We tested three questions. 1) Can the thorax itself provide significant energy return? 2) Does a simple damped elastic model describe the bulk mechanical behavior? and 3) Are different regions of the thorax specialized for elastic energy exchange? We measured deformation mechanics of the...

Data from: Species colonisation, not competitive exclusion, drives community overdispersion over long-term succession

Shao-Peng Li, Marc W. Cadotte, Scott J. Meiners, Zheng-Shuang Hua, Lin Jiang & Wen-Sheng Shu
Ecological communities often transition from phylogenetic and functional clustering to overdispersion over succession as judged by space-for-time substitution studies. Such a pattern has been generally attributed to the increase in competitive exclusion of closely related species with similar traits through time, although colonisation and extinction have rarely been examined. Using 44 years of uninterrupted old-field succession in New Jersey, USA, we confirmed that phylogenetic and functional clustering decreased as succession unfolded, but the transition was...

Data from: Temperature-regulated guest admission and release in microporous materials

Gang Kevin Li, Jin Shang, Qinfen Gu, Rohan V. Awati, Nathan Jensen, Andrew Grant, Xueying Zhang, David S. Sholl, Jefferson Z. Liu, Paul A. Webley & Eric F. May
While it has long been known that some highly adsorbing microporous materials suddenly become inaccessible to guest molecules below certain temperatures, previous attempts to explain this phenomenon have failed. Here we show that this anomalous sorption behaviour is a temperature-regulated guest admission process, where the pore-keeping group’s thermal fluctuations are influenced by interactions with guest molecules. A physical model is presented to explain the atomic-level chemistry and structure of these thermally regulated micropores, which is...

Data from: Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle

Kyle P. Blum, Boris Lamotte D’Incamps, Daniel Zytnicki & Lena H. Ting
Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs) of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle...

Data from: Spatial storage effect promotes biodiversity during adaptive radiation

Jiaqi Tan, Jennifer B. Rattray, Xian Yang & Lin Jiang
Many ecological communities are enormously diverse. Variation in environmental conditions over time and space provides opportunities for temporal and spatial storage effects to operate, potentially promoting species coexistence and biodiversity. While several studies have provided empirical evidence supporting the significance of the temporal storage effect for coexistence, empirical tests of the role of the spatial storage effect are rare. In particular, we know little about how the spatial storage effect contributes to biodiversity over evolutionary...

Data from: How do morphological sharpness measures relate to puncture performance in viperid snake fangs?

Stephanie B. Crofts, Yang Lai, Yuhang Hu & Philip S.L. Anderson
It makes intuitive sense that you need a sharp tool to puncture through a tough material. The typical approach to evaluating sharpness in biological puncturing tools is to treat morphological measurements as a proxy for puncture ability. However there are multiple approaches to measuring sharpness, and the relative influence of morphology on function remains unclear. Our goal is to determine what aspects of tip morphology have the greatest impact on puncture ability, using a) viper...

Data from: Evolution of altruistic cooperation among nascent multicellular organisms

Jordan G. Gulli, Matthew D. Herron & William C. Ratcliff
Cooperation is a classic solution to hostile environments that limit individual survival. In extreme cases this may lead to the evolution of new types of biological individuals (e.g., eusocial super-organisms). We examined the potential for inter-individual cooperation to evolve via experimental evolution, challenging nascent multicellular ‘snowflake yeast’ with an environment in which solitary multicellular clusters experienced low survival. In response, snowflake yeast evolved to form cooperative groups composed of thousands of multicellular clusters that typically...

Data from: Resource addition drives taxonomic divergence and phylogenetic convergence of plant communities

Xian Yang, Guoyong Li, Shao-Peng Li, Qianna Xu, Huanhuan Song, Danyu Sun, Mingxing Zhong, Zhenxing Zhou, Jian Song, Jingyi Ru, Shiqiang Wan & Lin Jiang
1. Anthropogenic environmental changes are known to affect the Earth’s ecosystems. However, how these changes influence assembly trajectories of the impacted communities remains a largely open question. 2. In this study, we investigated the effect of elevated nitrogen (N) deposition and increased precipitation on plant taxonomic and phylogenetic β-diversity in a 9-year field experiment in the temperate semi-arid steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. 3. We found that both N and water addition significantly increased taxonomic...

Autonomous Vehicles and the Ethical Tension Between Occupant and Non-Occupant Safety

Jason Borenstein, Joseph Herkert & Keith W. Miller
Autonomous vehicle manufacturers, people inside an autonomous vehicle (occupants), and people outside the vehicle (non-occupants) are among the distinct stakeholders when addressing ethical issues inherent in systems that include autonomous vehicles. As responses to recent tragic cases illustrate, advocates for autonomous vehicles tend to focus on occupant safety, sometimes to the exclusion of non-occupant safety. Thus, we aim to examine ethical issues associated with non-occupant safety, including pedestrians, bicyclists, motorcyclists, and riders of motorized scooters....

Data from: Quorum-sensing signaling by chironomid egg masses’ microbiota affects haemagglutinin/protease (HAP) production by Vibrio cholerae

Rotem Sela, Brian Hammer & Malka Halpern
Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is commonly isolated, along with other bacterial species, from chironomid insects (Diptera: Chironomide). Nevertheless, its prevalence in the chironomid egg masses’ microbiota is less than 0.5%. V. cholerae secretes haemagglutinin/protease (HAP) that degrades the gelatinous matrix of chironomid egg masses and prevents hatching. Quorum sensing (QS) activates HAP production in response to accumulation of bacterial autoinducers (AIs). Our aim was to define the impact of chironomid microbiota on...

Species responses to changing precipitation depends on trait plasticity rather than trait means and intraspecific variation

Bingwei Zhang, Yann Hautier, Xingru Tan, Cuihai You, Marc Cadotte, Chengjin Chu, Lin Jiang, Xinghua Sui, Tingting Ren, Xingguo Han & Shiping Chen
1. Trait-based approaches are key to develop mechanistic understanding of differences in plant species performance under environmental change. While mean trait values have been widely used to link functional traits to species performance, the contribution of intraspecific trait variation and trait plasticity remains unclear. Moreover, environmentally induced changes in species biomass is caused by changes in the number of individuals and individual growth rate, both of which should be influenced by trait differences and plasticity....

Divergence in Architectural Research

Hayri Dortdivanlioglu & Marisabel Marratt

Tuiteamos o pongamos un tuit? Investigating the Social Constraints of Loanword Integration in Spanish Social Media

Ian Stewart, Diyi Yang & Jacob Eisenstein

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