161 Works

Precise timing is ubiquitous, consistent and coordinated across a comprehensive, spike-resolved flight motor program

Joy Putney, Rachel Conn & Simon Sponberg
Sequences of action potentials, or spikes, carry information in the number of spikes and their timing. Spike timing codes are critical in many sensory systems, but there is now growing evidence that millisecond-scale changes in timing also carry information in motor brain regions, descending decision-making circuits, and individual motor units. Across all the many signals that control a behavior how ubiquitous, consistent, and coordinated are spike timing codes? Assessing these open questions ideally involves recording...

Data from: History-dependent perturbation response in limb muscle

Simon Sponberg, Chidinma Chukwueke & Thomas Libby
Muscle mediates movement but movement is typically unsteady and perturbed. Muscle is known to behave non-linearly and with history dependent properties during steady locomotion, but the importance of history dependence in mediating muscles function during perturbations remains less clear. To explore muscle's capacity to mitigate perturbations during locomotion, we constructed a series of perturbations that varied only in kinematic history, keeping instantaneous position, velocity and time from stimulation constant. We find that muscle's perturbation response...

Minnesota peat viromes reveal terrestrial and aquatic niche partitioning for local and global viral populations

Anneliek Ter Horst, Christian Santos-Medellín, Jackson Sorensen, Laura Zinke, Rachel Wilson, Eric Johnston, Gareth Trubl, Jennifer Pett-Ridge, Steven Blazewicz, Paul Hanson, Jeffrey Chanton, Christopher Schadt, Joel Kostka & Joanne Emerson
Background: Peatlands are expected to experience sustained yet fluctuating higher temperatures due to climate change, leading to increased microbial activity and greenhouse gas emissions. Despite mounting evidence for viral contributions to these processes in thawing permafrost, little is known about viruses in other peatlands. More generally, soil viral biogeography and its potential drivers are poorly understood at both local and global scales. Here, 87 metagenomes and five viral size-fraction metagenomes (viromes) from a boreal peatland...

Technology review and roadmap for inventorying complete streets for integration into pavement asset management systems

April Gadsby, & John Harvey
Complete Streets provide mobility for all modes of transportation including active transportation. Complete Streets are being implemented in the US and transportation agencies must maintain these assets, which requires bringing them into asset management systems. Many gaps exist to include Complete Streets in asset management, and there is no comprehensive plan for filling those gaps. This project developed a road map to fill those gaps. To create this roadmap, the study completed the following tasks:...

Data from: Experimental demonstration of the importance of keystone communities for maintaining metacommunity biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

Xian Yang, Jiaqi Tan, Kevin Harry Sun & Lin Jiang
As local communities within a metacommunity may differ considerably in their contributions to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, it has been suggested that conservation priority should be given to disproportionately important local communities (i.e., keystone communities). However, we know little about what characterizes a keystone community. Using laboratory protist microcosms as the model system, we examined how the environmental uniqueness and location of a local community affect its contributions to the metacommunities. We found that the...

OSNAP Model Truth Code

Anne-Sophie Fortin, Sudip Majumder, Feili Li & Yao Fu

Data from: De novo active sites for resurrected Precambrian enzymes

Valeria A. Risso, Sergio Martinez Rodriguez, Adela M. Candel, Dennis M. Krüger, David Pantoja-Uceda, Mariano Ortega-Munoz, Francisco Santoyo-Gonzalez, Eric A. Gaucher, Shina Caroline Lynn Kamerlin, Marta Bruix, Jose A. Gavira & Jose M. Sanchez-Ruiz
Protein engineering studies often suggest the emergence of completely new enzyme functionalities to be highly improbable. However, enzymes likely catalysed many different reactions already in the last universal common ancestor. Mechanisms for the emergence of completely new active sites must therefore either plausibly exist or at least have existed at the primordial protein stage. Here, we use resurrected Precambrian proteins as scaffolds for protein engineering and demonstrate that a new active site can be generated...

Data from: CRISPR-induced distributed immunity in microbial populations

Lauren M. Childs, Whitney E. England, Mark J. Young, Joshua S. Weitz & Rachel J. Whitaker
In bacteria and archaea, viruses are the primary infectious agents, acting as virulent, often deadly pathogens. A form of adaptive immune defense known as CRISPR-Cas enables microbial cells to acquire immunity to viral pathogens by recognizing specific sequences encoded in viral genomes. The unique biology of this system results in evolutionary dynamics of host and viral diversity that cannot be fully explained by the traditional models used to describe microbe-virus coevolutionary dynamics. Here, we show...

Data from: Nitrogen addition does not reduce the role of spatial asynchrony in stabilizing grassland communities

Yunhai Zhang, Jinchao Feng, Michel Loreau, Nianpeng He, Xingguo Han & Lin Jiang
While nitrogen (N) amendment is known to affect the stability of ecological communities, whether this effect is scale‐dependent remains an open question. By conducting a field experiment in a temperate grassland, we found that both plant richness and temporal stability of community biomass increased with spatial scale, but N enrichment reduced richness and stability at the two scales considered. Reduced local‐scale stability under N enrichment arose from N‐induced reduction in population stability, which was partly...

Data from: Scale dependence of the diversity–stability relationship in a temperate grassland

Yunhai Zhang, Nianpeng He, Michel Loreau, Qingmin Pan & Xingguo Han
1. A positive relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem stability has been reported in many ecosystems; however, it has yet to be determined whether and how spatial scale affects this relationship. Here, for the first time, we assessed the effects of alpha, beta and gamma diversity on ecosystem stability and the scale dependence of the slope of the diversity–stability relationship. 2. By employing a long-term (33 years) dataset from a temperate grassland, northern China, we calculated...

Data from: Phylogenetic context determines the role of competition in adaptive radiation

Jiaqi Tan, Matthew R. Slattery, Xian Yang & Lin Jiang
Understanding ecological mechanisms regulating the evolution of biodiversity is of much interest to ecologists and evolutionary biologists. Adaptive radiation constitutes an important evolutionary process that generates biodiversity. Competition has long been thought to influence adaptive radiation, but the directionality of its effect and associated mechanisms remain ambiguous. Here, we report a rigorous experimental test of the role of competition on adaptive radiation using the rapidly evolving bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 interacting with multiple bacterial species...

Data from: Long-term antagonistic effect of increased precipitation and nitrogen addition on soil respiration in a semiarid steppe

Hongyan Han, Yue Du, Dafeng Hui, Lin Jiang, Mingxing Zhong & Shiqiang Wan
Changes in water and nitrogen (N) availability due to climate change and atmospheric N deposition could have significant effects on soil respiration, a major pathway of carbon (C) loss from terrestrial ecosystems. A manipulative experiment simulating increased precipitation and atmospheric N deposition has been conducted for 9 years (2005–2013) in a semiarid grassland in Mongolian Plateau, China. Increased precipitation and N addition interactively affect soil respiration through the 9 years. The interactions demonstrated that N...

Data from: De novo origins of multicellularity in response to predation

Matthew D. Herron, Joshua M. Borin, Jacob C. Boswell, Jillian Walker, I-Chen Kimberly Chen, Charles A. Knox, Margrethe Boyd, Frank Rosenzweig & William C. Ratcliff
The transition from unicellular to multicellular life was one of a few major events in the history of life that created new opportunities for more complex biological systems to evolve. Predation is hypothesized as one selective pressure that may have driven the evolution of multicellularity. Here we show that de novo origins of simple multicellularity can evolve in response to predation. We subjected outcrossed populations of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to selection by...

Rubric & related files

Amanda Whitmire, Jacob Carlson, Brian Westra, Patricia Hswe & Susan Parham

Hypothesis-Guided Search & Termination

David Illingworth & Rick Thomas
We previously ran an experiment to evaluate the degree to which information source preference mapped to differential belief distributions (https://osf.io/67z5v). Our results supported the predicted pattern of results. The present study will attempt to replicate our initial observation. In addition to replicating our previous experiment, we are extending the paradigm to measure strength of belief on a sub-trial basis. There is some related work in metacognition that has shown self-monitoring judgments predict task switching and...

Category norms with a cross-sectional sample of adults in the United States: Consideration of cohort, age, and historical effects on semantic categories

Nichol Castro, Taylor Curley & Christopher Hertzog
This paper describes normative data for newly collected exemplar responses to 70 semantic categories described in previous norming studies (Battig & Montague, 1969; Van Overschelde, Rawson, & Dunlosky, 2004; Yoon et al., 2004). These categories were presented to 246 Young (18 – 39 years), Middle (40 – 59 years), and Older (60 years and older) English-speaking adults living in the United States who were asked to generate as many category exemplars as possible for each...

Identifying the Neural Mechanisms of Zone State Performance using Time-varying Functional Connectivity Methods.

Dolly Seeburger
To successfully achieve our goals and perform optimally in many tasks, we need to control our attention and sustain it. These tasks can vary from the mundane, like understanding a lecture, to highly-engaging ones like playing basketball. Some people think of attention as a light switch – it’s either on or off, but a better metaphor is to equate attention to a candle that flickers –even when it is lit, its flame varies. Unfortunately, many...

Effects of Probabilistic Decision Aid On Pilot Weather Decision-Making

Sweta Parmar & Rick Thomas
The purpose of the proposed work is to investigate how meteorological displays depicting probabilistic information concerning potentially hazardous weather may affect pilot decision-making during adverse meteorological conditions. The underlying principle behind the current project is that the ability of pilots to utilize weather forecast information to determine the safety of their flight path is inextricably linked to how a probabilistic forecast are displayed. Advanced graphical weather forecast products currently available do not render meteorological information...

Effect of wheels, casters and forks on vibration attenuation and propulsion cost of manual wheelchairs - dataset

Jacob Misch, Yuanning Liu & Stephen Sprigle

Data from: Hawkmoth flight in the unsteady wakes of flowers

Megan Matthews & Simon Sponberg
Flying animals maneuver and hover through environments where wind gusts and flower wakes produce unsteady flow. Although both flight maneuvers and aerodynamic mechanisms have been studied independently, little is known about how these interact in an environment where flow is already unsteady. Moths forage from flowers by hovering in the flower’s wake.We investigated hawkmoths tracking a 3D-printed robotic flower in a wind tunnel.We visualized the flow in the wake and around the wings and compared...


Amanda Whitmire, Jacob Carlson, Brian Westra, Patricia Hswe & Susan Parham

Redundancy and Point of Interruption on Alert Fatigue

Julie Harrison, Zachary Tidler, Terri Dunbar, David Grimm, Shiwen Zhou & Stanley Joseph
Alert fatigue is a phenomenon experienced by workers in fields such as healthcare that require many devices working at the same time in the work environment. When the number of false alarms is high, workers typically experience fatigue and become desensitized to potentially meaningful alerts. This study aims to further explore alert fatigue and assess variables that may mitigate or influence alert fatigue in the common office worker. We explore if repeated alerting about email...

Anatomy of a Selectively Coassembled Beta-sheet Peptide Nanofiber Dataset

Kong M. Wong, Qing Shao, Dillon T. Seroski, Yiming Wang, Renjie Liu, Anant K. Paravastu, Gregory A. Hudalla & Carol K. Hall

Weaving Fabrica and Ratiocinatio: An Inquiry into the Knowledge of Architecture in Vitruvian Theory

Hayri Dortdivanlioglu
ConCave Ph.D. Symposium 2020: Divergence in Architectural Research, March 5-6, 2020, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA.

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