37 Works

Hawkmoths use wingstroke-to-wingstroke frequency modulation for aerial recovery to vortex ring perturbations

Jeff Gau, Ryan Gemilere, FM Subteam LDS-VIP, James Lynch, Nick Gravish & Simon Sponberg
Centimetre-scale fliers must contend with the high power requirements of flapping flight. Insects have elastic elements in their thoraxes which may reduce the inertial costs of their flapping wings. Matching wingbeat frequency to a mechanical resonance can be energetically favourable, but also poses control challenges. Many insects use frequency modulation on long timescales, but wingstroke-to-wingstroke modulation of wingbeat frequencies in a resonant spring-wing system is potentially costly because muscles must work against the elastic flight...

Plasticity of the gastrocnemius elastic system in response to decreased work and power demand during growth

Suzanne Cox, Jonas Rubenson, Stephen Piazza, Matthew Salzano, Kavya Katugam & Adam DeBoef
Elastic energy storage and release can enhance performance that would otherwise be limited by the force-velocity constraints of muscle. While functional influence of a biological spring depends on tuning between components of an elastic system (the muscle, spring, driven mass, and lever system), we do not know whether elastic systems systematically adapt to functional demand. To test whether altering work and power generation during maturation alters the morphology of an elastic system, we prevented growing...

Functional traits explain the consistent resistance of biodiversity to plant invasion under nitrogen enrichment

Shao-Peng Li, Jia Pu, Shu-Ya Fan, Yingtong Wu, Xiang Liu, Yani Meng, Yue Li, Wen-Sheng Shu, Jin-Tian Li & Lin Jiang
Elton’s biotic resistance hypothesis, which posits that diverse communities should be more resistant to biological invasions, has received considerable experimental support. However, it remains unclear whether such a negative diversity–invasibility relationship would persist under anthropogenic environmental change. By using the common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) as a model invader, our four-year grassland experiment demonstrated consistently negative relationships between resident species diversity and community invasibility, irrespective of nitrogen addition, a result further supported by a meta-analysis. Importantly,...

Bulk and amino acid nitrogen specific isotope data from particulate organic matter and mesozooplankton (1000-2000 µm) from the Mekong River plume and southern South China Sea

Natalie Loick-Wilde, Sarah Weber, Joseph P. Montoya, Melvin Bach, Hai Doan-Nhu, Ajit Subramaniam, Iris Liskow, Lam Nguyen-Ngoc, Dirk Wodarg & Maren Voss
The mean trophic position (TP) of mesozooplankton largely determines how much mass and energy is available for higher trophic levels like fish. Unfortunately, the ratio of herbivores to carnivores in mesozooplankton is difficult to identify in field samples. Here we investigated changes in the mean TP of mesozooplankton in a highly dynamic environment encompassing four distinct habitats in the southern South China Sea: the Mekong River plume, coastal upwelling region, shelf waters, and offshore oceanic...

Phylotranscriptomics points to multiple independent origins of multicellularity and cellular differentiation in the volvocine algae

Charles Lindsey, Frank Rosenzweig & Matthew Herron
The volvocine algae, which include the single-celled species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the colonial species Volvox carteri, serve as a model in which to study the evolution of multicellularity and cellular differentiation. Studies reconstructing the history of this group have by and large relied on datasets of one to a few genes for phylogenetic inference and ancestral character state reconstruction. As a result, volvocine phylogenies lack concordance depending on the number and/or type of genes (i.e.,...

Leveraging Energy Data for the Benefit of Society and Consumers

Karim Farhat, Milton Mueller, Matt Schaub, Richard A. Simmons & Sharon Murphy

De Novo Design of Peptides that Co-assemble into β-sheet Based Nanofibrils Dataset

Kong M. Wong, Xingqing Xiao, Yiming Wang, Dillon T. Seroski, Renjie Liu, Anant K. Paravastu, Gregory A. Hudalla & Carol K. Hall

Will it Unblend?

Yuval Pinter, Cassandra L. Jacobs & Jacob Eisenstein

Positive Effects of Coral Biodiversity on Coral Performance: Patterns, Processes, and Dynamics

Cody Clements
Coral reefs are extremely diverse, supply critical ecosystem services, and are collapsing at an alarming rate, with 80% coral loss in the Caribbean and >50% in the Pacific in recent decades. Previous studies emphasized negative interactions (competition, predation) as structuring reef systems, but positive interactions in such species-rich systems could be of equal importance in maintaining ecosystem function. If foundation species like corals depend on positive interactions, then their fitness may decline with the loss...

Supporting data for: Gene-rich UV sex chromosomes harbor conserved regulators of sexual development (Carey et al., 2021)

Sarah Carey, Shenqiang Shu, John Lovell, Avinash Shenqiang, Florian Maumus, George Tiley, Noe Fernandez-Pozo, Kerrie Barry, Cindy Chen, Mei Wang, Anna Lipzen, Chris Daum, Christopher Saski, Adam Payton, Jordan McBreen, Roth Conrad, Leslie Kollar, Sanna Olsson, Sanna Huttunen, Jacob Landis, Norman Wickett, Matthew Johnson, Stefan Rensing, Jane Grimwood, Jeremy Schmutz … & Adam Healey
Non-recombining sex chromosomes, like the mammalian Y, often lose genes and accumulate transposable elements, a process termed degeneration. The correlation between suppressed recombination and degeneration is clear in animal XY systems, but the absence of recombination is confounded with other asymmetries between the X and Y. In contrast, UV sex chromosomes, like those found in bryophytes, experience symmetrical population genetic conditions. Here we generate and use nearly gapless female and male chromosome-scale reference genomes of...

Sensitivity analysis of the maximum entropy production method to model evaporation in boreal and temperate forests

Audrey Maheu, Pierre-Erik Isabelle, Laure Viens, Daniel F. Nadeau, François Anctil & Jingfeng Wang
The maximum entropy production (MEP) approach has been little used to simulate evaporation in forests and its sensitivity to input variables has yet to be systematically evaluated. This study addresses these shortcomings. First, we show that the MEP model performed well in simulating evaporation during the snow-free period at six sites in temperate and boreal forests (0.68 ≤ NSE ≤ 0.82). Second, we computed a sensitivity coefficient S representing the proportion of change in the...

Data from: Nanotransfection-based vasculogenic cell reprogramming drives functional recovery in a mouse model of ischemic stroke

Luke Lemmerman, Maria Balch, Jordan Moore, Diego Alzate-Correa, Maria Rincon-Benavides, Ana Salazar-Puerta, Surya Gnyawali, Hallie Harris, William Lawrence, Lilibeth Ortega-Pineda, Lauren Wilch, Ian Risser, Aidan Maxwell, Silvia Duarte-Sanmiguel, Daniel Dodd, Gina Guio-Vega, Dana McTigue, William Arnold, Shahid Nimjee, Chandan Sen, Savita Khanna, Cameron Rink, Natalia Higuita-Castro & Daniel Gallego-Perez
Ischemic stroke causes vascular and neuronal tissue deficiencies that could lead to significant functional impairment and/or death. Although progenitor-based vasculogenic cell therapies have shown promise as a potential rescue strategy following ischemic stroke, current approaches face major hurdles. Here we used fibroblasts nanotransfected with Etv2, Foxc2, and Fli1 (EFF), to drive reprogramming-based vasculogenesis, intracranially, as a potential therapy for ischemic stroke. Perfusion analyses suggest that intracranial delivery of EFF-nanotransfected fibroblasts led to a dose-dependent increase...

The evolution of two distinct strategies of moth flight

Brett Aiello
Across insects, wing shape and size have undergone dramatic divergence even in closely related sister groups. However, we do not know how morphology changes in tandem with kinematics to support body weight within available power and how the specific force production patterns are linked to differences in behavior. Hawkmoths and wild silkmoths are diverse sister families with divergent wing morphology. Using 3d kinematics and quasi-steady aerodynamic modeling, we compare the aerodynamics and the contributions of...

Data from: Virulent disease epidemics can increase host density by depressing foraging of hosts

Rachel Penczykowski, Marta Shocket, Jessica Housley Ochs, Brian Lemanski, Hema Sundar, Meghan Duffy & Spencer Hall
All else equal, parasites that harm host fitness should depress densities of their hosts. However, parasites that alter host traits may increase host density via indirect ecological interactions. Here, we show how depression of foraging rate of infected hosts can produce such a hydra effect. Using a foraging assay, we quantified reduced foraging rates of a zooplankton host infected with a virulent fungal parasite. We then parameterized a dynamical model of hosts, parasites, and resources...

Machine learning to extract muscle fascicle length changes from dynamic ultrasound images in real-time

Luis Rosa
B-mode ultrasound has become one-off, if not the main way of measuring muscle fascicle fiber lengths non-invasively. Yet, the gold standard for tracking these is still time-intensive hand-tracking, and even with semi-automated approaches, the process takes time and has to be done post hoc. Hence, towards greatly improving current processing capabilities by tracking these muscle fasicle lengths in real-time, we trained and optimized machine learning models with collected B-mode ultrasound data. We focused on soleus...

Industrial Data and Regional Economic Development Phase 1 Study and Findings

Jennifer Clark, Thomas James Lodatao & Supraja Sudharsan

Programming Mechanics in Knitted Materials, Stitch by Stitch - Code

Krishma Singal, Michael Dimitriyev & Elisabetta A. Matsumoto

Tuiteamos o pongamos un tuit? Investigating the Social Constraints of Loanword Integration in Spanish Social Media

Ian Stewart, Diyi Yang & Jacob Eisenstein

Divergence in Architectural Research

Hayri Dortdivanlioglu & Marisabel Marratt

Data from: Consistently positive effect of species diversity on ecosystem, but not population, temporal stability

Qianna Xu
Despite much recent progress, our understanding of diversity-stability relationships across different study systems remains incomplete. In particular, recent theory clarified that within-species population stability and among-species asynchronous population dynamics combine to determine ecosystem temporal stability, but their relative importance in modulating diversity-ecosystem temporal stability relationships in different ecosystems remains unclear. We addressed this issue with a meta-analysis of empirical studies of ecosystem and population temporal stability in relation to species diversity across a range of...

Heterogenous susceptibility to R-pyocins in populations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sourced from cystic fibrosis lungs

Madeline Mei, Jacob Thomas & Stephen Diggle
Bacteriocins are proteinaceous antimicrobials produced by bacteria which are active against other strains of the same species. R-type pyocins are phage tail-like bacteriocins produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Due to their anti-pseudomonal activity, R-pyocins have potential as therapeutics in infection. P. aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen and is particularly problematic for individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). P. aeruginosa from CF lung infections develop increasing resistance to antibiotics, making new treatment approaches essential. P. aeruginosa populations...

Comparative study of snake lateral undulation kinematics in model heterogeneous terrain

Perrin Schiebel, Alex Hubbard & Daniel I. Goldman

Registration Year

  • 2021
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Affiliations

  • Georgia Institute of Technology
    37
  • Google (United States)
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  • Duke University
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  • East China Normal University
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  • Yunnan University
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  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
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