Aim: Sexual systems strongly influence angiosperm evolution, and play important roles in community assembly and species responses to climate change. However, geographical variation in proportions of different sexual systems (dioecy, monoecy, and hermaphroditism) in response to changes in climate, life-history traits and evolutionary age remains poorly understood. Here, we map the geographical variation in proportions of different sexual systems and hypothesize that the prevalence of hermaphrodites increases with aridity due to their advantages in colonizing...
Endemic organisms of ancient lakes have been studied as models to understand processes of speciation and adaptive radiation. However, it remains unclear how ancient lakes play roles in genetic and phenotypic diversity of freshwater mollusks. In the present study, we focus on viviparid freshwater snails in the ancient lakes of East and Southeast Asia (Japan and China) to address this question. Using molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial (COI, 16S) and nuclear genes (18S, 28S,...
Angiosperm to Gymnosperm host-plant switch entails shifts in microbiota of the Welwitschia bug, Probergrothius angolensis (Distant, 1902)Adam Martinez, Martin Kaltenpoth, Mario Sandoval-Calderón, Chantal Ingham, Juergen Deckert, Hassan Salem & Thomas Onchuru
Adaptation of herbivorous insects to new host plants is key to their evolutionary success in diverse environments. Many insects are associated with mutualistic gut bacteria that contribute to the host’s nutrition and can thereby facilitate dietary switching in polyphagous insects. However, how gut microbial communities differ between populations of the same species that feed on different host plants remains poorly understood. Most species of Pyrrhocoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) are specialist seed-feeders on plants in the family...
Links between prey assemblages and poison frog toxins: a landscape ecology approach to assess how biotic interactions affect species phenotypesIvan Prates, Andrea Paz, Jason Brown & Ana Carnaval
Ecological studies of species pairs showed that biotic interactions promote phenotypic change and eco-evolutionary feedbacks. However, it is unclear how phenotypes respond to synergistic interactions with multiple taxa. We investigate whether interactions with multiple prey species explain spatially structured variation in the skin toxins of the Neotropical poison frog Oophaga pumilio. Specifically, we assess how dissimilarity (i.e., beta diversity) of alkaloid-bearing arthropod prey assemblages (68 ant species) and evolutionary divergence between frog populations (from a...
Local versus broad scale environmental drivers of continental beta diversity patterns in subterranean spider communities across EuropeStefano Mammola, Pedro Cardoso, Dorottya Angyal, Gergely Balázs, Theo Blick, Hervé Brustel, Julian Carter, Srećko Ćurčić, Samuel Danflous, László Dányi, Sylvain Déjean, Christo Deltshev, Mert Elverici, Jon Fernandez Perez, Fulvio Gasparo, Marjan Komnenov, Christian Komposch, Ľubomír Kováč, Kadir Kuntz, Andrej Mock, Oana Moldovan, Maria Naumova, Martina Pavlek, Carlos Prieto, Carles Ribera … & Marco Isaia
Macroecologists seek to identify drivers of community turnover (β-diversity) through broad spatial scales. Yet, the influence of local habitat features in driving broad-scale β-diversity patterns remains largely untested, due to the objective challenges of associating local-scale variables to continental-framed datasets. We examined the relative contribution of local- versus broad-scale drivers of continental β-diversity patterns, using a uniquely suited dataset of cave-dwelling spider communities across Europe (35–70° latitude). Generalized dissimilarity modeling showed that geographical distance, mean...
Habitat destruction is the single greatest anthropogenic threat to biodiversity. Decades of research on this issue have led to the accumulation of hundreds of data sets comparing species assemblages in larger, intact, habitats to smaller, more fragmented, habitats. Despite this, little synthesis or consensus has been achieved, primarily because of non‐standardized sampling methodology and analyses of notoriously scale‐dependent response variables (i.e., species richness). To be able to compare and contrast the results of habitat fragmentation...
Data from: The biotic interactions hypothesis partially explains bird species turnover along a lowland Neotropical precipitation gradientJuan Pablo Gomez, Jose Miguel Ponciano, Gustavo Londoño & Scott Robinson
Aim: We evaluated the influence of climate in determining bird communities along precipitation gradients. We argue that mechanisms responsible for community turnover along precipitation gradients are similar to mechanisms operating along temperature and latitudinal gradients. We test the hypothesis that environmental conditions affect community composition in dry forests, whereas biotic interactions affect community composition in wet forests. Location: Low-elevation forests along a precipitation gradient in Colombia where precipitation ranges from 700 – 4000 mm annually...
Prirodnjacki Muzej Crne Gore7
Hessische Hochschule für Polizei und Verwaltung2
University of the Basque Country1
City University of New York1
Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México1
Purpan Engineering School1
University of Jos1
Universidade do Oeste Paulista1
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine1