173 Works

Data from: Efficacy of visual surveys for white-nose syndrome at bat hibernacula

Amanda F. Janicki, Winifred F. Frick, A. Marm Kilpatrick, Katy L. Parise, Jeffrey T. Foster & Gary F. McCracken
White-Nose Syndrome (WNS) is an epizootic disease in hibernating bats caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Surveillance for P. destructans at bat hibernacula consists primarily of visual surveys of bats, collection of potentially infected bats, and submission of these bats for laboratory testing. Cryptic infections (bats that are infected but display no visual signs of fungus) could lead to the mischaracterization of the infection status of a site and the inadvertent spread of P. destructans....

Data from: Metabolic rate associates with, but does not generate covariation between, behaviours in western stutter-trilling crickets, Gryllus integer

Indrikis A. Krams, Petri T. Niemelä, Giedrius Trakimas, Ronalds Krams, Gordon M. Burghardt, Tatjana Krama, Aare Kuusik, Marika Mand, Markus J. Rantala, Raivo Mand, Jukka Kekäläinen, Ilkka Sirkka, Severi Luoto, Raine Kortet & Indrikis Krams
The causes and consequences of among-individual variation and covariation in behaviours are of substantial interest to behavioural ecology, but the proximate mechanisms underpinning this (co)variation are still unclear. Previous research suggests metabolic rate as a potential proximate mechanism to explain behavioural covariation. We measured the resting metabolic rate (RMR), boldness and exploration in western stutter-trilling crickets, Gryllus integer, selected differentially for short and fast development over two generations. After applying mixed-effects models to reveal the...

Increasing agricultural habitat reduces solitary bee offspring number and weight in apple orchards through reduced floral diet diversity and increased fungicide risk

Mary Centrella, Laura Russo, Natalia Moreno-Ramirez, Brian Eitzer, Maria Van Dyke, Bryan Danforth & Katja Poveda
1. Threats to bee pollinators such as land use change, high pesticide risk, and reduced floral diet diversity are usually assessed independently, even though they often co-occur to impact bees in agroecosystems. 2. We established populations of the non-native mason bee O. cornifrons at 17 NY apple orchards varying in proportion of surrounding agriculture and measured floral diet diversity and pesticide risk levels in the pollen provisions they produced. We used path analysis to test...

Data from: Impact of agricultural weathering on physicochemical properties of biodegradable plastic mulch films: comparison of two diverse climates over four successive years

Douglas Hayes
Biodegradable plastic mulch films (BDMs) are essential in the production of vegetable and specialty crops due to their promotion of increased crop yield and quality. Unlike conventional polyethylene (PE) mulches, BDMs can be tilled into the soil after crop harvest to undergo biodegradation, thereby leading to minimal environmental impact. Agricultural weathering impacts both the performance of BDMs during crop production as a barrier to weeds and biodegradability of BDMs in the soil. To better understand...

Data from: Effects of soil particles and convective transport on dispersion and aggregation of nanoplastics via small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra SANS (USANS)

Douglas Hayes, Sai Pingali, Anton Astner, Volker Urban, Hugh O'Neill, Kenneth Littrell & Barbara Evans
Terrestrial nanoplastics (NPs) pose a serious threat to agricultural food production systems due to the potential harm of soil-born micro- and macroorganisms that promote soil fertility and ability of NPs to adsorb onto and penetrate into vegetables and other crops. Very little is known about the dispersion, fate and transport of NPs in soils. This is because of the challenges of analyzing terrestrial NPs by conventional microscopic techniques due to the low concentrations of NPs...

Data from: Preservation-induced morphological change in salamanders and failed DNA extraction from a decades-old museum specimen: implications for Plethodon ainsworthi

Todd Pierson, Troy Kieran, Adam Clause & Nikole Castleberry
Natural history collections are important data repositories, but different chemical treatments of specimens can influence morphological measurements and DNA extraction, complicating taxonomic and conservation decisions dependent upon these data. One such example is the Bay Springs Salamander (Plethodon ainsworthi), the only United States amphibian categorized as Extinct by the IUCN. Recent research has proposed that P. ainsworthi is an invalid taxon, arguing that the 55-year-old type specimens’ morphological distinctiveness from syntopic P. mississippi is a...

Radio-tracking reveals insight into survival and dynamic habitat selection of fledgling Cerulean Warblers

Douglas Raybuck, Scott Stoleson, Jeffery Larkin & Than Boves
The Cerulean Warbler is a declining Nearctic-Neotropical migrant species of concern that breeds in hardwood forests of the eastern United States and Canada. While much knowledge has been gained about the nesting period of this canopy species, little is known about the post-fledging period. During the 2014 and 2015 breeding seasons, after locating and monitoring nests within a matrix of habitat conditions created by various forest management strategies in NW Pennsylvania, USA, we captured fledglings...

Multiple phenotypes conferred by a single insect symbiont are independent

Ailsa McLean, Jan Hrček, Benjamin Parker, Hugo Mathé-Hubert, Heidi Kaech, Chantal Paine & Charles Godfray
Many microbial symbionts have multiple phenotypic consequences for their animal hosts. However, the ways in which different symbiont-mediated phenotypes combine to affect fitness are not well understood. We investigated whether there are correlations between different symbiont-mediated phenotypes. We used the symbiont Spiroplasma, a striking example of a bacterial symbiont conferring diverse phenotypes on insect hosts. We took 11 strains of Spiroplasma infecting pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) and assessed their ability to provide protection against the...

Data from: Do microorganism stoichiometric alterations affect carbon sequestration in paddy soil subjected to phosphorus input?

Zhi Jian Zhang, Qiang He, ZhiJian Zhang, HongYi Li, Jiao Hu, Xia Li, GuangMing Tian, Hang Wang, ShunYao Wang & Bei Wang
Ecological stoichiometry provides a powerful tool for integrating microbial biomass stoichiometry with ecosystem processes, opening far-reaching possibilities for linking microbial dynamics to soil carbon (C) metabolism in response to agricultural nutrient management. Despite its importance to crop yield, the role of phosphorus (P) with respect to ecological stoichiometry and soil C sequestration in paddy fields remains poorly understood, which limits our ability to predict nutrient-related soil C cycling. Here, we collected soil samples from a...

Data from: Transatlantic disjunctions in fleshy fungi III: Gymnopus confluens

Ronald H. Petersen & Karen W. Hughes
Phylogeographic data indicate that DNA differences consistently exist between the North American and European allopatric populations of Gymnopus confluens. Conversely, pairing experiments show that collections from both populations were sexually compatible in vitro and detailed morphological examinations of numerous fresh and dried basidiomata do not produce qualitative differences. Percent ITS sequence divergence between Europe and North American collections of G. confluens was 3.25%. Species delineation metrics including Rosenberg’s PAB statistic, PID metrics, RRD (randomly distributed)...

Data from: Heterogeneous rates of molecular evolution and diversification could explain the Triassic age estimate for angiosperms

Jeremy M. Beaulieu, Brian O'Meara, Peter Crane & Michael J. Donoghue
Dating analyses based on molecular data imply that crown angiosperms existed in the Triassic, long before their undisputed appearance in the fossil record in the Early Cretaceous. Following a re-analysis of the age of angiosperms using updated sequences and fossil calibrations, we use a series of simulations to explore the possibility that the older age estimates are a consequence of (i) major shifts in the rate of sequence evolution near the base of the angiosperms...

Data from: Loci under selection during multiple range expansions of an invasive plant are mostly population-specific, but patterns are associated with climate

Rafael D. Zenni & Sean M. Hoban
Identifying the genes underlying rapid evolutionary changes, describing their function and ascertaining the environmental pressures that determine fitness are the central elements needed for understanding of evolutionary processes and phenotypic changes that improve the fitness of populations. It has been hypothesized that rapid adaptive changes in new environments may contribute to the rapid spread and success of invasive plants and animals. As yet, studies of adaptation during invasion are scarce, as is knowledge of the...

Data from: Genetic structure and post-glacial expansion of Cornus florida L. (Cornaceae): integrative evidence from phylogeography, population demographic history, and species distribution modeling

Ashley Call, Yan-Xia Sun, Yan Yu, Peter B. Pearman, David T. Thomas, Robert Trigiano, Ignazio Carbone, Qiu-Yun Xiang, Robert N. Trigiano, Yan-Xia Sun & Qiu-Yun Jenny Xiang
Repeated global climatic cooling and warming cycles during the Pleistocene played a major role in the distribution and evolution of the Earth biota. Here, we integrate phylogeography, coalescent-based Bayesian estimation of demographic history, and species distribution modeling (SDM) to understand the genetic patterns and biogeography of the flowering dogwood, Cornus florida subsp. florida L., since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Natural populations of the species are severely threatened by dogwood anthracnose. We genotyped 306 plants...

Data from: Changes in data sharing and data reuse practices and perceptions among scientists worldwide

Carol Tenopir, Elizabeth D. Dalton, Suzie Allard, Mike Frame, Ivanka Pjesivac, Ben Birch, Danielle Pollock & Kristina Dorsett
The incorporation of data sharing into the research lifecycle is an important part of modern scholarly debate. In this study, the DataONE Usability and Assessment working group addresses two primary goals: To examine the current state of data sharing and reuse perceptions and practices among research scientists as they compare to the 2009/2010 baseline study, and to examine differences in practices and perceptions across age groups, geographic regions, and subject disciplines. We distributed surveys to...

Data from: The impact of shifts in marine biodiversity hotspots on patterns of range evolution: evidence from the Holocentridae (squirrelfishes and soldierfishes)

Alex Dornburg, Jon Moore, Jeremy Michael Beaulieu, Ron I. Eytan & Thomas J. Near
One of the most striking biodiversity patterns is the uneven distribution of marine species richness, with species diversity in the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) exceeding all other areas. However, the IAA formed fairly recently, and marine biodiversity hotspots have shifted across nearly half the globe since the Paleogene. Understanding how lineages have responded to shifting biodiversity hotspots represents a necessary historic perspective on the formation and maintenance of global marine biodiversity. Such evolutionary inferences are often...

Data from: Female dietary bias towards large migratory moths in the European free-tailed bat (Tadarida teniotis)

Vanessa A. Mata, Francisco Amorim, Martin F. V. Corley, Gary F. McCracken, Hugo Rebelo & Pedro Beja
In bats, sexual segregation has been described in relation to differential use of roosting and foraging habitats. It is possible that variation may also exist between genders in the use of different prey types. However, until recently this idea was difficult to test owing to poorly resolved taxonomy of dietary studies. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing to describe gender-related variation in diet composition of the European free-tailed bat (Tadarida teniotis), while controlling for effects of...

Data from: The evolution of novel host use is unlikely to be constrained by tradeoffs or a lack of genetic variation

Zachariah Gompert, Joshua P. Jahner, Cynthia F. Scholl, Joseph S. Wilson, Lauren K. Lucas, Victor Soria-Carrasco, James A. Fordyce, Chris C. Nice, C. Alex Buerkle & Matthew L. Forister
The genetic and ecological factors that shape the evolution of animal diets remain poorly understood. For herbivorous insects, the expectation has been that trade-offs exist, such that adaptation to one host plant reduces performance on other potential hosts. We investigated the genetic architecture of alternative host use by rearing individual Lycaeides melissa butterflies from two wild populations in a crossed design on two hosts (one native and one introduced) and analysing the genetic basis of...

Data from: Recurrent fruit harvesting reduces seedling density but increases the frequency of clonal reproduction in a tropical tree

Orou G. Gaoue, Choukouratou Gado, Armand K. Natta & M’Mouyohoun Kouagou
Studies on the ecological impacts of non-timber forest products (NTFP) harvest reveal that plants are often more resilient to fruit and seed harvest than to bark and root harvest. Several studies indicate that sustainable fruit harvesting limits can be set very high (>80% fruit harvesting intensity). For species with clonal and sexual reproduction, understanding how fruit harvest affects clonal reproduction can shed light on the genetic risks and sustainability of NTFP harvest. We studied 18...

Data from: Confirmation of independent introductions of an exotic plant pathogen of Cornus species, Discula destructiva, on the east and west coasts of North America

Kristie Mantooth, Denita Hadziabdic, Sarah Boggess, Mark Windham, Stephen Miller, Cai Guohong, Joseph Spatafora, Ning Zhang, Meg Staton, Bonnie Ownley, Robert Trigiano & Guohong Cai
Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) and C. nuttallii (Pacific dogwood) are North American native tree species that belong to the big-bracted group of dogwoods. Cornus species are highly valued for their ornamental characteristics, and have fruits that contain high fat content for animals. Also, they are an important understory tree in natural forests. Dogwood anthracnose, caused by Discula destructiva, was observed in the late 1970s on the east and west coasts of the United States and...

Data from: Factoring economic costs into conservation planning may not improve agreement over priorities for protection

Paul R. Armsworth, Heather Bird Jackson, Seong-Hoon Cho, Melissa Clark, Joseph E. Fargione, Gwenllian D. Iacona, Taeyoung Kim, Eric R. Larson, Thomas Minney & Nathan A. Sutton
Conservation organizations must redouble efforts to protect habitat given continuing biodiversity declines. Prioritization of future areas for protection is hampered by disagreements over what the ecological targets of conservation should be. Here we test the claim that such disagreements will become less important as conservation moves away from prioritizing areas for protection based only on ecological considerations and accounts for varying costs of protection using return-on-investment (ROI) methods. We combine a simulation approach with a...

Data from: Sustained fitness gains and variability in fitness trajectories in the long-term evolution experiment with Escherichia coli

Richard E. Lenski, Michael J. Wiser, Noah Ribeck, Zachary D. Blount, Joshua R. Nahum, James Jeffrey Morris, Luis Zaman, Caroline B. Turner, Brian D. Wade, Rohan Maddamsetti, Alita R. Burmeister, Elizabeth J. Baird, Jay Bundy, Nkrumah A. Grant, Kyle J. Card, Maia Rowles, Kiyana Weatherspoon, Spiridon E. Papoulis, Rachel Sullivan, Colleen Clark, Joseph S. Mulka & Neerja Hajela
Many populations live in environments subject to frequent biotic and abiotic changes. Nonetheless, it is interesting to ask whether an evolving population's mean fitness can increase indefinitely, and potentially without any limit, even in a constant environment. A recent study showed that fitness trajectories of Escherichia coli populations over 50 000 generations were better described by a power-law model than by a hyperbolic model. According to the power-law model, the rate of fitness gain declines...

Data from: Phylogenetic and morphological diversity of the Etheostoma zonistium species complex with the description of a new species endemic to the Cumberland Plateau of Alabama

Logan C. Kozal, Jeffrey W. Simmons, Jon Michael Mollish, Daniel J. MacGuigan, Edgar Benavides, Benjamin P. Keck & Thomas J. Near
We provide a description of the Blueface Darter, Etheostoma cyanoprosopum, which is distributed in the upper Sipsey Fork of the Mobile Basin and the upper portion of the Bear Creek system in the Tennessee River Drainage. The distinctiveness of Etheostoma cyanoprosopum is assessed through analysis of morphological variation and molecular phylogenetic diversity within the Etheostoma zonistium species complex. In addition to analyzing disparity of morphometric and meristic traits, we present phylogenetic analyses of a mitochondrial...

Data from: Systematics and taxonomy of the Snubnose Darter, Etheostoma simoterum (Cope)

Thomas J. Near, Ethan D. France, Benjamin P. Keck & Richard C. Harrington
A taxonomic revision of Etheostoma simoterum (Cope) published in 2007 resulted in the recognition of six species, with two species distributed in the Tennessee River system. A newly defined Etheostoma simoterum was restricted to populations in the Holston River above the confluence of the North and South Forks, and the Russell Fork system of the Ohio River drainage. A newly described species, Etheostoma tennesseense Powers & Mayden, included all other populations historically considered Etheostoma simoterum...

Data from: Admixture and the organization of genetic diversity in a butterfly species complex revealed through common and rare genetic variants

Zachariah Gompert, Lauren K. Lucas, C. Alex Buerkle, Matthew L. Forister, James A. Fordyce & Chris C. Nice
Detailed information about the geographic distribution of genetic and genomic variation is necessary to better understand the organization and structure of biological diversity. In particular, spatial isolation within species and hybridization between them can blur species boundaries and create evolutionary relationships that are inconsistent with a strictly bifurcating tree model. Here we analyze genome-wide DNA sequence and genetic ancestry variation in Lycaeides butterflies to quantify the effects of admixture and spatial isolation on how biological...

Data from: Specificity, rank preference and the colonization of a non-native host plant by the Melissa blue butterfly

Matthew L. Forister, Cynthia F. Scholl, Josh P. Jahner, Joseph S. Wilson, James A. Fordyce, Zach Gompert, Divya R. Narala, C. Alex Buerkle & Chris C. Nice
Animals often express behavioral preferences for different types of food or other resources, and these preferences can evolve or shift following association with novel food types. Shifts in preference can involve at least two phenomena: a change in rank preference or a change in specificity. The former corresponds to a change in the order in which hosts are preferred, while a shift in specificity can be an increase in the tendency to utilize multiple hosts....

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