173 Works

Data from: Climate mediates the effects of disturbance on ant assemblage structure

Heloise Gibb, Nathan J. Sanders, Robert R. Dunn, Simon Watson, Manoli Photakis, Silvia Abril, Alan N. Andersen, Elena Angulo, Inge Armbrecht, Xavier Arnan, Fabricio B. Baccaro, Tom R. Bishop, Raphael Boulay, Cristina Castracani, Israel Del Toro, Thibaut Delsinne, Mireia Diaz, David A. Donoso, Martha L. Enríquez, Tom M. Fayle, Donald H. Feener, Matthew C. Fitzpatrick, Crisanto Gómez, Donato A. Grasso, Sarah Groc … & C. Gomez
Many studies have focused on the impacts of climate change on biological assemblages, yet little is known about how climate interacts with other major anthropogenic influences on biodiversity, such as habitat disturbance. Using a unique global database of 1128 local ant assemblages, we examined whether climate mediates the effects of habitat disturbance on assemblage structure at a global scale. Species richness and evenness were associated positively with temperature, and negatively with disturbance. However, the interaction...

Data from: Human movement, cooperation, and the effectiveness of coordinated vector control strategies

Chris M. Stone, Samantha R. Schwab, Dina M. Fonseca & Nina H. Fefferman
Vector-borne disease transmission is often typified by highly focal transmission and influenced by movement of hosts and vectors across different scales. The ecological and environmental conditions (including those created by humans through vector control programmes) that result in metapopulation dynamics remain poorly understood. The development of control strategies that would most effectively limit outbreaks given such dynamics is particularly urgent given the recent epidemics of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. We developed a stochastic, spatial...

Data from: Tree genetics strongly affect forest productivity, but intraspecific diversity-productivity relationships do not

Dylan G. Fischer, Gina M. Wimp, Erika Hersch-Green, Randy K. Bangert, Carri J. LeRoy, Joseph K. Bailey, Jennifer A. Schweitzer, Clarissa Dirks, Stephen C. Hart, Gerard J. Allan & Thomas G. Whitham
Numerous studies have demonstrated biodiversity–productivity relationships in plant communities, and analogous genetic diversity–productivity studies using genotype mixtures of single species may show similar patterns. Alternatively, competing individuals among genotypes within a species are less likely to exhibit resource-use complementarity, even when they exhibit large differences in their effects on ecosystem function. In this study, we test the impact of genotype diversity and genetic identity on ecosystem function using an ecosystem-scale common garden experiment. Distinct tree...

Data from: Non-equilibrium dynamics and floral trait interactions shape extant angiosperm diversity

Brian C. O'Meara, Stacey D. Smith, W. Scott Armbruster, Lawrence D. Harder, Christopher R. Hardy, Lena C. Hileman, Larry Hufford, Amy Litt, Susana Magallon, Stephen A. Smith, Peter F. Stevens, Charles B. Fenster & Pamela K. Diggle
Why are some traits and trait combinations exceptionally common across the tree of life, whereas others are vanishingly rare? The distribution of trait diversity across a clade at any time depends on the ancestral state of the clade, the rate at which new phenotypes evolve, the differences in speciation and extinction rates across lineages, and whether an equilibrium has been reached. Here we examine the role of transition rates, differential diversification (speciation minus extinction), and...

Data from: Revisiting the measurement of anomie

Ali Teymoori, Jolanda Jetten, Brock Bastian, Amarina Ariyanto, Frédérique Autin, Nadia Ayub, Constantina Badea, Tomasz Besta, Fabrizio Butera, Rui Costa-Lopes, Lijuan Cui, Carole Fantini, Gillian Finchilesc, Lowell Gaertner, Mario Gollwitzer, Ángel Gómez, Roberto González, Ying Yi Hong, Dorthe Høj Jensen, Minoru Karasawa, Thomas Kessler, Olivier Klein, Marcus Lima, Tuuli Anna Mähönen, Laura Megevand … & Gillian Finchilescu
Sociologists coined the term "anomie" to describe societies that are characterized by disintegration and deregulation. Extending beyond conceptualizations of anomie that conflate the measurements of anomie as 'a state of society' and as a 'state of mind', we disentangle these conceptualizations and develop an analysis and measure of this phenomenon focusing on anomie as a perception of the 'state of society'. We propose that anomie encompasses two dimensions: a perceived breakdown in social fabric (i.e.,...

Data from: Is the switch to an ectomycorrhizal state an evolutionary key innovation in mushroom-forming fungi? a case study in the tricholomatineae (agaricales)

Marisol Sanchez-Garcia & Patrick Brandon Matheny
Although fungi are one of the most diverse groups of organisms, little is known about the processes that shape their high taxonomic diversity. This study focuses on evolution of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mushroom-forming fungi, symbiotic associates of many trees and shrubs, in the suborder Tricholomatineae of the Agaricales. We used the BiSSE model and BAMM to test the hypothesis that the ECM habit represents an evolutionary key innovation that allowed the colonization of new niches followed...

The effect of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity and differentiation: fine- scale population structure of Cercis canadensis (Eastern Redbud)

Meher Ony, Marcin Nowicki, Sarah Boggess, William Klingeman, John Zobel, Robert Trigiano & Denita Hadziabdic
Forest fragmentation may negatively affect plants through reduced genetic diversity and increased population structure due to habitat isolation, decreased population size, and disturbance of pollen-seed dispersal mechanisms. However, in the case of tree species, effective pollen-seed dispersal, mating system, and ecological dynamics may help the species overcome the negative effect of forest fragmentation. A fine-scale population genetics study can shed light on the post-fragmentation genetic diversity and structure of a species. Here, we present the...

Data from: Genetic data reveal fine-scale ecological segregation between larval plethodontid salamanders in replicate contact zones

Todd Pierson, Carlos Camp & Benjamin Fitzpatrick
Contact zones present unique opportunities to investigate ecological divergence, reproductive barriers, and gene flow between species. The two-lined salamander (Eurycea bislineata) species complex is a group of semiaquatic plethodontid salamanders with a reticulate evolutionary history that reflects the reorganization of river drainage basins. Although evidence for widespread, ancient introgression suggests an absence of reproductive isolating mechanisms in the early evolutionary history of the group, modern contact zones reveal a broader diversity of outcomes—with some putative...

Wing plasticity and associated gene expression varies across the pea aphid biotype complex

Benjamin J. Parker, Rose M. H. Driscoll, Mary E. Grantham, Jan Hrcek & Jennifer A. Brisson
Developmental phenotypic plasticity is a widespread phenomenon that allows organisms to produce different adult phenotypes in response to different environments. Investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying plasticity has the potential to reveal the precise changes that lead to the evolution of plasticity as a phenotype. Here, we study wing plasticity in multiple host-plant adapted populations of pea aphids as a model for understanding adaptation to different environments within a single species. We describe the wing plasticity...

Seeking Care at Free Episodic Health Care Clinics in Appalachia

Malerie Lazar, Sandra Thomas & Lisa Davenport
Background: People who live in rural Appalachia experience a wide variety of problems when seeking access to health care. Health care disparities continue to be one of the most complex and prevalent problems, and many barriers exist for impoverished men and women such as a lack of education, complications with health insurance, and personal distrust of healthcare providers. Purpose: A critical gap in the literature is the unheard voice of persons in rural underserved areas....

Assessing Student Learning and Development in Fraternity and Sorority Affairs

Terrell L. Strayhorn & Amy J. Colvin

Data from: The many dimensions of diet breadth: phytochemical, genetic, behavioral, and physiological perspectives on the interaction between a native herbivore and an exotic host

Joshua G. Harrison, Zachariah Gompert, James A. Fordyce, C. Alex Buerkle, Rachel Grinstead, Joshua P. Jahner, Scott Mikel, Christopher C. Nice, Aldrin Santamaria & Matthew L. Forister
From the perspective of an herbivorous insect, conspecific host plants are not identical, and intraspecific variation in host nutritional quality or defensive capacity might mediate spatially variable outcomes in plant-insect interactions. Here we explore this possibility in the context of an ongoing host breadth expansion of a native butterfly (the Melissa blue, Lycaeides melissa) onto an exotic host plant (alfalfa, Medicago sativa). We examine variation among seven alfalfa populations that differed in terms of colonization...

Data from: The Phylogeny of the Diploporita: a polyphyletic assemblage of blastozoan echinoderms

Sarah L. Sheffield & Colin D. Sumrall
The phylogenetic relationships of Paleozoic blastozoan echinoderms are poorly understood and many of the traditionally ascribed groups are likely polyphyletic. Diploporitans, those blastozoans with double pore (diplopore) respiratory structures, have never been placed within a rigorous phylogenetic framework and their highly variable morphologies suggest that they do not represent a natural clade. A maximum parsimony phylogenetic analysis, spanning a wide range of diploporitan and related taxa, indicates that diplopore-bearing blastozoans are a polyphyletic grouping and,...

Data from: Megaphylogeny resolves global patterns of mushroom evolution

Torda Varga, Krisztina Krizsán, Csenge Földi, Bálint Dima, Marisol Sánchez-García, Santiago Sánchez-Ramírez, Gergely J. Szöllősi, János G. Szarkándi, Viktor Papp, László Albert, William Andreopoulos, Claudio Angelini, Vladimír Antonín, Kerrie W. Barry, Neale L. Bougher, Peter Buchanan, Bart Buyck, Viktória Bense, Pam Catcheside, Mansi Chovatia, Jerry Cooper, Wolfgang Dämon, Dennis Desjardin, Péter Finy, József Geml … & László G. Nagy
Mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) have the greatest morphological diversity and complexity of any group of fungi. They have radiated into most niches and fulfill diverse roles in the ecosystem, including wood decomposers, pathogens or mycorrhizal mutualists. Despite the importance of mushroom-forming fungi, large-scale patterns of their evolutionary history are poorly known, in part due to the lack of a comprehensive and dated molecular phylogeny. Here, using multigene and genome-based data, we assemble a 5,284-species phylogenetic tree...

Data from: Nonlandmark classification in paleobiology: computational geometry as a tool for species discrimination

Joshua Mike, Colin Sumrall, Vasileios Maroulas & Fernando Schwartz
One important and sometimes contentious challenge in paleobiology is discriminating between species, which is increasingly accomplished by comparing specimen shape. While lengths and proportions are needed to achieve this task, finer geometric information, such as concavity, convexity, and curvature, plays a crucial role in the undertaking. Nonetheless, standard morphometric methodologies such as landmark analysis are not able to capture in a quantitative way these features and other important fine-scale geometric notions. Here we develop and...

Data from: A new species of logperch endemic to Tennessee (Percidae: Etheostomatinae: Percina)

Thomas J. Near, Jeffrey W. Simmons, Jon Michael Mollish, Maria A. Correa, Edgar Benavides, Richard C. Harrington & Benjamin P. Keck
Percina apina, the Tennessee Logperch, is described as a new species endemic to Tennessee and distributed in the Duck River system and Whiteoak Creek. The earliest collection records for Percina apina date to 1971 and the species was identified as Percina burtoni, the Blotchside Logperch. A phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) published in 2006 showed that populations identified as Percina burtoni in the Duck River system and Whiteoak Creek were a new and undescribed...

Data from: Positive selection on sociobiological traits in invasive fire ants

Eyal Privman, Pnina Cohen, Amir B. Cohanim, Oksana Riba-Grognuz, DeWayne Shoemaker & Laurent Keller
The fire ant Solenopsis invicta and its close relatives are highly invasive. Enhanced social cooperation may facilitate invasiveness in these and other invasive ant species. We investigated whether invasiveness in Solenopsis fire ants was accompanied by positive selection on sociobiological traits by applying a phylogenomics approach to infer ancient selection, and a population genomics approach to infer recent and ongoing selection in both native and introduced S. invicta populations. A combination of whole-genome sequencing of...

Data from: Reef fish functional traits evolve fastest at trophic extremes

Samuel R. Borstein, James A. Fordyce, Brian C. O'Meara, Peter C. Wainwright & Matthew D. McGee
Trophic ecology is thought to exert a profound influence on biodiversity, but the specifics of the process are rarely examined at large spatial and evolutionary scales. We investigate how trophic position and diet breadth influence functional trait evolution in one of the most species-rich and complex vertebrate assemblages, coral reef fishes, within a large-scale phylogenetic framework. We show that, in contrast with established theory, functional traits evolve fastest in trophic specialists with narrow diet breadths...

Data from: A rangewide herbarium-derived dataset indicates high levels of gene flow in black cherry (Prunus serotina)

Lauren Konrade, Joey Shaw & James Beck
Aim: Isolation by Distance (IBD) is a genetic pattern in which populations geographically closer to one another are more genetically similar to each other than populations which are farther apart. Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) (Rosaceae) is a forest tree species widespread in eastern North America, and found sporadically in the southwestern United States, Mexico, and Guatemala. IBD has been studied in relatively few North American plant taxa, and no study has rigorously sampled across...

Data from: Quantitative heterodonty in Crocodylia: variability and decoupling in size and shape across modern and extinct taxa.

Domenic C. D'Amore, Megan Harmon, Stephanie K. Drumheller & Jason J. Testin
Heterodonty in Crocodylia and closely related taxa has not been defined quantitatively, as the teeth rarely have been measured. This has resulted in a range of qualitative descriptors, with little consensus on the condition of dental morphology in the clade. The purpose of this study is to present a method for the quantification of both size- and shape-heterodonty in members of Crocodylia. Data were collected from dry skeletal and fossil specimens of 34 crown crocodylians...

Data from: Evolution and spread of glyphosate resistance in Conyza canadensis in California

Miki Okada, Bradley D. Hanson, Kurt J. Hembree, Yanhui Peng, Anil Shrestha, , Steven D. Wright, Marie Jasieniuk & Charles Neal Stewart
Recent increases in glyphosate use in perennial crops of California, USA, are hypothesized to have led to an increase in selection and evolution of resistance to the herbicide in Conyza canadensis populations. To gain insight into the evolutionary origins and spread of resistance and to inform glyphosate resistance management strategies, we investigated the geographical distribution of glyphosate resistance in C. canadensis across and surrounding the Central Valley, its spatial relationship to groundwater protection areas (GWPA),...

Data from: Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments

Amy E. Zanne, David C. Tank, William K. Cornwell, Jonathan M. Eastman, Stephen A. Smith, Richard G. FitzJohn, Daniel J. McGlinn, Brian C. O'Meara, Angela T. Moles, Peter B. Reich, Dana L. Royer, Douglas E. Soltis, Peter F. Stevens, Mark Westoby, Ian J. Wright, Lonnie Aarssen, Robert I. Bertin, Andre Calaminus, Rafaël Govaerts, Frank Hemmings, Michelle R. Leishman, Jacek Oleksyn, Pamela S. Soltis, Nathan G. Swenson, Laura Warman … & Alejandro Ordonez
Early flowering plants are thought to have been woody species restricted to warm habitats1, 2, 3. This lineage has since radiated into almost every climate, with manifold growth forms4. As angiosperms spread and climate changed, they evolved mechanisms to cope with episodic freezing. To explore the evolution of traits underpinning the ability to persist in freezing conditions, we assembled a large species-level database of growth habit (woody or herbaceous; 49,064 species), as well as leaf...

Data from: A 34K SNP genotyping array for Populus trichocarpa: Design, application to the study of natural populations and transferability to other Populus species

Armando Geraldes, Steve P. DiFazio, Gancho T. Slavov, Priya Ranjan, Wellington Muchero, Jan Hannemann, Lee E. Gunter, Ann M. Wymore, Christopher J. Grassa, Nima Farzaneh, Ilga Porth, Athena D. Mckown, Oleksandr Skyba, Eryang Li, Miki Fujita, Jaroslav Klápště, Joel Martin, Wendy Schackwitz, Christa Pennacchio, Daniel Rokhsar, Michael C. Friedmann, Geoffrey O. Wasteneys, Robert D. Guy, Yousry A. El-Kassaby, Shawn D. Mansfield … & Gerald A. Tuskan
Genetic mapping of quantitative traits requires genotypic data for large numbers of markers in many individuals. For such studies, the use of large single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays still offers the most cost-effective solution. Herein we report on the design and performance of a SNP genotyping array for Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood). This genotyping array was designed with SNPs pre-ascertained in 34 wild accessions covering most of the species latitudinal range. We adopted a...

Data from: Convergent effects of elevation on functional leaf traits within and among species

Quentin D. Read, Leigh C. Moorhead, Nathan G. Swenson, Joseph K. Bailey & Nathan J. Sanders
1.Spatial variation in filters imposed by the abiotic environment causes variation in functional traits within and among plant species. This is abundantly clear for plant species along elevational gradients, where parallel abiotic selection pressures give rise to predictable variation in leaf phenotypes among ecosystems. Understanding the factors responsible for such patterns may provide insight into the current and future drivers of biodiversity, local community structure, and ecosystem function. 2.In order to explore patterns in trait...

Data from: Explicit tests of paleodrainage connections of southeastern North America and the historical biogeography of Orangethroat Darters (Percidae: Etheostoma: Ceasia)

Christen M. Bossu, Jeremy M. Beaulieu, Patrick A. Ceas & Thomas J. Near
The alteration of paleodrainage river connections has shaped patterns of speciation, genetic diversity, and the geographic distribution of the species-rich freshwater fauna of North America. The integration of ancestral range reconstruction methods and divergence time estimates provides an opportunity to infer paleodrainage connectivity and test alternative paleodrainage hypotheses. Members of the Orangethroat Darter clade, Ceasia, are endemic to southeastern North America and occur north and south of the Pleistocene glacial front, a distributional pattern that...

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