296 Works

Data from: Environmental and historical imprints on beta diversity: insights from variation in rates of species turnover along gradients

Matthew C. Fitzpatrick, Nathan J. Sanders, Signe Normand, Jens-Christian Svenning, Simon Ferrier, Aaron D. Gove, Robert R. Dunn, N. J. Sanders, S. Normand, R. R. Dunn, J.-C. Svenning, A. D. Gove & S. Ferrier
A common approach for analysing geographical variation in biodiversity involves using linear models to determine the rate at which species similarity declines with geographical or environmental distance and comparing this rate among regions, taxa or communities. Implicit in this approach are weakly justified assumptions that the rate of species turnover remains constant along gradients and that this rate can therefore serve as a means to compare ecological systems. We use generalized dissimilarity modelling, a novel...

Data from: Evolutionary origins of a bioactive peptide buried within preproalbumin

Alysha G. Elliott, Christina Delay, Huanle Liu, Zaiyang Phua, K. Johan Rosengren, Aurélie H. Benfield, Jose L. Panero, Michelle L. Colgrave, Achala S. Jayasena, Kerry M. Dunse, Marilyn A. Anderson, Edward E. Schilling, Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos, David J. Craik & Joshua S. Mylne
The de novo evolution of proteins is now considered a frequented route for biological innovation, but the genetic and biochemical processes that lead to each newly created protein are often poorly documented. The common sunflower (Helianthus annuus) contains the unusual gene PawS1 (Preproalbumin with SFTI-1) that encodes a precursor for seed storage albumin; however, in a region usually discarded during albumin maturation, its sequence is matured into SFTI-1, a protease-inhibiting cyclic peptide with a motif...

Data from: Tree genetics strongly affect forest productivity, but intraspecific diversity-productivity relationships do not

Dylan G. Fischer, Gina M. Wimp, Erika Hersch-Green, Randy K. Bangert, Carri J. LeRoy, Joseph K. Bailey, Jennifer A. Schweitzer, Clarissa Dirks, Stephen C. Hart, Gerard J. Allan & Thomas G. Whitham
Numerous studies have demonstrated biodiversity–productivity relationships in plant communities, and analogous genetic diversity–productivity studies using genotype mixtures of single species may show similar patterns. Alternatively, competing individuals among genotypes within a species are less likely to exhibit resource-use complementarity, even when they exhibit large differences in their effects on ecosystem function. In this study, we test the impact of genotype diversity and genetic identity on ecosystem function using an ecosystem-scale common garden experiment. Distinct tree...

Data from: Non-equilibrium dynamics and floral trait interactions shape extant angiosperm diversity

Brian C. O'Meara, Stacey D. Smith, W. Scott Armbruster, Lawrence D. Harder, Christopher R. Hardy, Lena C. Hileman, Larry Hufford, Amy Litt, Susana Magallon, Stephen A. Smith, Peter F. Stevens, Charles B. Fenster & Pamela K. Diggle
Why are some traits and trait combinations exceptionally common across the tree of life, whereas others are vanishingly rare? The distribution of trait diversity across a clade at any time depends on the ancestral state of the clade, the rate at which new phenotypes evolve, the differences in speciation and extinction rates across lineages, and whether an equilibrium has been reached. Here we examine the role of transition rates, differential diversification (speciation minus extinction), and...

Data from: Revisiting the measurement of anomie

Ali Teymoori, Jolanda Jetten, Brock Bastian, Amarina Ariyanto, Frédérique Autin, Nadia Ayub, Constantina Badea, Tomasz Besta, Fabrizio Butera, Rui Costa-Lopes, Lijuan Cui, Carole Fantini, Gillian Finchilesc, Lowell Gaertner, Mario Gollwitzer, Ángel Gómez, Roberto González, Ying Yi Hong, Dorthe Høj Jensen, Minoru Karasawa, Thomas Kessler, Olivier Klein, Marcus Lima, Tuuli Anna Mähönen, Laura Megevand … & Gillian Finchilescu
Sociologists coined the term "anomie" to describe societies that are characterized by disintegration and deregulation. Extending beyond conceptualizations of anomie that conflate the measurements of anomie as 'a state of society' and as a 'state of mind', we disentangle these conceptualizations and develop an analysis and measure of this phenomenon focusing on anomie as a perception of the 'state of society'. We propose that anomie encompasses two dimensions: a perceived breakdown in social fabric (i.e.,...

Data from: Stable eusociality via maternal manipulation when resistance is costless

Mauricio González-Forero
In many eusocial species, queens use pheromones to influence offspring to express worker phenotypes. While evidence suggests that queen pheromones are honest signals of the queen's reproductive health, here I show that queen's honest signaling can result from ancestral maternal manipulation. I develop a mathematical model to study the coevolution of maternal manipulation, offspring resistance to manipulation, and maternal resource allocation. I assume that (1) maternal manipulation causes offspring to be workers against offspring's interests;...

Data from: Social feedback and the emergence of rank in animal society

Elizabeth A. Hobson & Simon DeDeo
Dominance hierarchies are group-level properties that emerge from the aggression of individuals. Although individuals can gain critical benefits from their position in a hierarchy, we do not understand how real-world hierarchies form. Nor do we understand what signals and decision-rules individuals use to construct and maintain hierarchies in the absence of simple cues such as size or spatial location. A study of conflict in two groups of captive monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) found that a...

Data from: Bayesian analysis of a morphological supermatrix sheds light on controversial fossil hominin relationships

Mana Dembo, Nicholas J. Matzke, Arne Ø. Mooers & Mark Collard
The phylogenetic relationships of several hominin species remain controversial. Two methodological issues contribute to the uncertainty—use of partial, inconsistent datasets and reliance on phylogenetic methods that are ill-suited to testing competing hypotheses. Here, we report a study designed to overcome these issues. We first compiled a supermatrix of craniodental characters for all widely accepted hominin species. We then took advantage of recently developed Bayesian methods for building trees of serially sampled tips to test among...

Data from: Is the switch to an ectomycorrhizal state an evolutionary key innovation in mushroom-forming fungi? a case study in the tricholomatineae (agaricales)

Marisol Sanchez-Garcia & Patrick Brandon Matheny
Although fungi are one of the most diverse groups of organisms, little is known about the processes that shape their high taxonomic diversity. This study focuses on evolution of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mushroom-forming fungi, symbiotic associates of many trees and shrubs, in the suborder Tricholomatineae of the Agaricales. We used the BiSSE model and BAMM to test the hypothesis that the ECM habit represents an evolutionary key innovation that allowed the colonization of new niches followed...

Habitat fragmentation influences genetic diversity and differentiation: Fine-scale population structure of Cercis canadensis (eastern redbud)

Meher Ony, Marcin Nowicki, Sarah Boggess, William Klingeman, John Zobel, Robert Trigiano & Denita Hadziabdic
Forest fragmentation may negatively affect plants through reduced genetic diversity and increased population structure due to habitat isolation, decreased population size, and disturbance of pollen-seed dispersal mechanisms. However, in the case of tree species, effective pollen-seed dispersal, mating system, and ecological dynamics may help the species overcome the negative effect of forest fragmentation. A fine-scale population genetics study can shed light on the postfragmentation genetic diversity and structure of a species. Here, we present the...

Global mycorrhizal fungal range sizes vary within and among mycorrhizal guilds but are not correlated with dispersal traits

Stephanie Kivlin
Aim: Mycorrhizal fungi associate with the majority of plant species with large consequences on ecosystem nutrient, carbon, and water cycling. Two main types of mycorrhizal fungi, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, dominate terrestrial ecosystems. Most global distribution modeling of AM and EM mycorrhizal associations describe the distribution of AM and EM plants, and not fungi directly. However, significant functional trait variation occurs within AM and EM fungal guilds. Therefore, modeling range sizes...

Assessing the effects of elephant foraging on the structure and diversity of an Afrotropical forest

Cooper Rosin, Kendall Beals, Michael Belovitch, Ruby Harrison, Megan Pendred, Megan Sullivan, Nicolas Yao & John Poulsen
African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) are ecosystem engineers that browse and damage large quantities of vegetation during their foraging and movement. Though elephant trail networks and clearings are conspicuous features of many African forests, the consequences of elephant foraging for forest structure and diversity are poorly documented. In this study in northeastern Gabon, we compare stem size, stem density, proportional damage, species diversity, and species relative abundance of seedlings and saplings in the vicinity of...

Scholarly Seeking, Reading, and Use Behaviors dataset

Carol Tenopir, Lisa Christian & Jordan Kaufman
While journal articles are still considered the most important sources of scholarly reading, libraries may no longer have a monopoly on providing discovery and access. Many other sources of scholarly information are available to readers. This international study examines how researchers discover, read, and use scholarly literature for their work. Respondents in 2018 report an average of almost 20 article readings a month and there are still significant differences found in the reading and use...

Data from: Female zebra finches prefer the songs of males who quickly solve a novel foraging task to the songs of males unable to solve the task

Clara Howell, Rindy Anderson & Elizabeth Derryberry
Correlative evidence suggests that high problem-solving and foraging abilities in a mate are associated with direct fitness advantages, so it would benefit females to prefer problem-solving males. Recent work has also shown that females of several bird species who directly observe males prefer those that can solve a novel foraging task over those that cannot. In addition to or instead of direct observation of cognitive skills, many species utilize assessment signals when choosing a mate....

Data from: An investigation on Mycetinis (Euagarics; Basidiomycota)

Ronald H. Petersen & Karen W. Hughes
Molecular analyses have revealed a clade which equates with the genus name Mycetinis Earle. An overall survey of this genus, however, has not been forthcoming. The current study summarizes taxa which are placed in Mycetinis based on morphological and/or molecular data. Fifteen taxa are accepted: Mycetinis scorodonius f. diminutivus and Mycetinis yunnanensis are proposed as new, while Mycetinis cinnamomeus, Mycetinis olidus, Mycetinis prasiosmus, Mycetinis subalpinus and Myctinis virgultorum are newly recombined binomials. Phylogenies based on...

Data from: Human movement, cooperation, and the effectiveness of coordinated vector control strategies

Chris M. Stone, Samantha R. Schwab, Dina M. Fonseca & Nina H. Fefferman
Vector-borne disease transmission is often typified by highly focal transmission and influenced by movement of hosts and vectors across different scales. The ecological and environmental conditions (including those created by humans through vector control programmes) that result in metapopulation dynamics remain poorly understood. The development of control strategies that would most effectively limit outbreaks given such dynamics is particularly urgent given the recent epidemics of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. We developed a stochastic, spatial...

Data from: A re‐interpretation of the ambulacral system of Eumorphocystis (Blastozoa, Echinodermata) and its bearing on the evolution of early crinoids

Sarah L. Sheffield & Colin D. Sumrall
Recent debates over the evolutionary relationships of early echinoderms have relied heavily on morphological evidence from the feeding ambulacral system. Eumorphocystis, a Late Ordovician diploporitan, has been a focus in these debates because it bears ambulacral features that show strong morphological similarity to early crinoid arms. Undescribed and well‐preserved specimens of Eumorphocystis from the Bromide Formation (Oklahoma, USA) provide new data illustrating that composite arms supported by a radial plate that bear a triserial arrangement...

Data from: Shifts to earlier selfing in sympatry may reduce costs of pollinator sharing

April M. Randle, Rachel B. Spigler & Susan Kalisz
Coexisting plant congeners often experience strong competition for resources. Competition for pollinators can result in direct fitness costs via reduced seed set or indirect costs via heterospecific pollen transfer (HPT), causing subsequent gamete loss and unfit hybrid offspring production. Autonomous selfing may alleviate these costs, but to preempt HPT, selfing should occur early, before opportunities for HPT occur (i.e. “preemptive selfing hypothesis”). We evaluated conditions for this hypothesis in Collinsia sister species, C. linearis and...

Data from: The origin of the odorant receptor gene family in insects

Philipp Brand, Hugh M. Robertson, Wei Lin, Ratnasri Pothula, William E. Klingeman, Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes & Brian R. Johnson
The origin of the insect odorant receptor (OR) gene family has been hypothesized to have coincided with the evolution of terrestriality in insects. Missbach et al. (2014) suggested that ORs instead evolved with an ancestral OR co-receptor (Orco) after the origin of terrestriality and the OR/Orco system is an adaptation to winged flight in insects. We investigated genomes of the Collembola, Diplura, Archaeognatha, Zygentoma, Odonata, and Ephemeroptera, and find ORs present in all insect genomes...

Data from: The predictability of genomic changes underlying a recent host shift in Melissa blue butterflies

Samridhi Chaturvedi, Lauren K. Lucas, Chris C. Nice, James A. Fordyce, Matt L. Forister, Zachariah Gompert & Matthew L. Forister
Despite accumulating evidence that evolution can be predictable, studies quantifying the predictability of evolution remain rare. Here, we measured the predictability of genome-wide evolutionary changes associated with a recent host shift in the Melissa blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa). We asked whether and to what extent genome-wide patterns of evolutionary change in nature could be predicted (1) by comparisons among instances of repeated evolution, and (2) from SNP $\times$ performance associations in a lab experiment. We...

Data from: Integrative identification of incipient lineages in Heuchera longiflora (Saxifragaceae)

Ryan F. Folk, Julian C. Ginori, Douglas E. Soltis & Aaron J. Floden
Following on emerging understanding of the diversification process, many recent workers have considered infraspecific taxa as valuable for formally recognizing incompletely speciated entities. The distinction between a species and an infraspecific taxon represents a fundamentally subjective weighting of evidence, yet this points further to the need for an evidential basis for these decisions. We explore these concepts in Heuchera longiflora (Saxifragaceae), which is morphologically variable and has a disjunct range across several physiographic provinces in...

Data from: Statistically testing the role of individual learning and decision-making in trapline foraging

Carolyn A. Ayers, Paul R. Armsworth & Berry J. Brosi
Trapline foraging, a behavior consisting of repeated visitation to spatially fixed resources in a predictable sequence, has been observed over diverse taxa and is important ecologically for efficient resource gathering. Despite this, few null models exist to test the significance of suspected traplines, particularly for studies interested in the role of individual decision-making in the formation of traplines versus the role of resource layouts and random movement patterns. Here we present a spatially explicit, individual-based...

Data from: Vertical differentiation in tropical forest butterflies: a novel mechanism generating insect diversity?

Chris C. Nice, James A. Fordyce, Katherine L. Bell, Matthew L. Forister, Zachariah Gompert & Phil J. DeVries
Many tropical fruit-feeding nymphalid butterflies are associated with either the forest canopy or the understory, however, the exceptions offer insights into the origins of tropical diversity. As it occurs in both habitats of tropical forests in Ecuador and Peru, Archaeoprepona demophon is one such exception. We compared patterns of occurrence of A. demophon in the canopy and understory and population genomic variation for evidence of ecological and genetic differentiation between habitats. We found that butterfly...

Data from: Soil fungi underlie a phylogenetic pattern in plant growth responses to nitrogen enrichment

Rachel C. Wooliver, John K. Senior, Brad M. Potts, Michael E. Van Nuland, Joseph K. Bailey & Jennifer A. Schweitzer
1. Under increasing anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition, some plant species will thrive while others will not. Previous work has shown that plant phylogeny can predict these responses, and that interactions with mycorrhizal fungi are a mechanism that drives variation in plant responses to N enrichment. Yet, much of this work has ignored the roles of other root-associated fungi and whole soil fungal communities in driving these responses. 2. We tested whether soil fungi mediate responses...

Data from: Experimental evidence of frequency-dependent selection on group behaviour

Jonathan N. Pruitt, Brendan L. McEwen, Steven T. Cassidy, Gabriella M. Najm & Noa Pinter-Wollman
Evolutionary ecologists often seek to identify the mechanisms maintaining intraspecific variation. In social animals, whole groups can exhibit between-group differences in their collective traits. We examined whether negative frequency-dependent selection (i.e., a rare-type advantage) could help to maintain between-group variation. We engineered neighborhoods of social spider colonies bearing bold or shy foraging phenotypes and monitored their fecundity in situ. We found that bold colonies enjoyed a rare-type advantage that is lost as the frequency of...

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