16 Works

Data from: Comparative limb bone loading in the humerus and femur of the tiger salamander: testing the ‘mixed-chain’ hypothesis for skeletal safety factors

Sandy M. Kawano, D. Ross Economy, Marian S. Kennedy, Delphine Dean & Richard W. Blob
Locomotion imposes some of the highest loads upon the skeleton, and diverse bone designs have evolved to withstand these demands. Excessive loads can fatally injure organisms; however, bones have a margin of extra protection, called a ‘safety factor’ (SF), to accommodate loads that are higher than normal. The extent to which SFs might vary amongst an animal's limb bones is unclear. If the limbs are likened to a chain composed of bones as ‘links’, then...

Data from: Micromphale sect. Perforantia (Agaricales, Basidiomycetes); expansion and phylogenetic placement

Ronald H. Petersen & Karen W. Hughes
DNA sequences show that the traditional genus Micromphale appears to be polyphyletic. Nuclear ribosomal LSU and ITS DNA sequences place Micromphale sect. Perforantia Singer (typus sect. M. perforans) within Gymnopus, comprising a clade sister to a mixture of traditional Gymnopus taxa including G. fusipes (typus generis) plus traditional Marasmius sect. Androsacei. This study enlarges sect. Perforantia and shows that sect. Perforantia is a clade separate from those including Micromphale sect. Micromphale and sect. Rhizomorphigena. A...

Data from: Replicated divergence in cichlid radiations mirrors a major vertebrate innovation

Matthew D. McGee, Brant C. Faircloth, Samuel R. Borstein, Jimmy Zheng, Christopher Darrin Hulsey, Peter C. Wainwright & Michael E. Alfaro
Decoupling of the upper jaw bones—jaw kinesis—is a distinctive feature of the ray-finned fishes, but it is not clear how the innovation is related to the extraordinary diversity of feeding behaviours and feeding ecology in this group. We address this issue in a lineage of ray-finned fishes that is well known for its ecological and functional diversity—African rift lake cichlids. We sequenced ultraconserved elements to generate a phylogenomic tree of the Lake Tanganyika and Lake...

Data from: Female dietary bias towards large migratory moths in the European free-tailed bat (Tadarida teniotis)

Vanessa A. Mata, Francisco Amorim, Martin F. V. Corley, Gary F. McCracken, Hugo Rebelo & Pedro Beja
In bats, sexual segregation has been described in relation to differential use of roosting and foraging habitats. It is possible that variation may also exist between genders in the use of different prey types. However, until recently this idea was difficult to test owing to poorly resolved taxonomy of dietary studies. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing to describe gender-related variation in diet composition of the European free-tailed bat (Tadarida teniotis), while controlling for effects of...

Data from: Systematics and taxonomy of the Snubnose Darter, Etheostoma simoterum (Cope)

Thomas J. Near, Ethan D. France, Benjamin P. Keck & Richard C. Harrington
A taxonomic revision of Etheostoma simoterum (Cope) published in 2007 resulted in the recognition of six species, with two species distributed in the Tennessee River system. A newly defined Etheostoma simoterum was restricted to populations in the Holston River above the confluence of the North and South Forks, and the Russell Fork system of the Ohio River drainage. A newly described species, Etheostoma tennesseense Powers & Mayden, included all other populations historically considered Etheostoma simoterum...

Data from: Ancient, but not recent, population declines have had a genetic impact on alpine yellow-bellied toad populations, suggesting potential for complete recovery

Luca Cornetti, Andrea Benazzo, Sean M. Hoban, Cristiano Vernesi, Giorgio Bertorelle & Sean Hoban
Reduction in population size and local extinctions have been reported for the yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata, but the genetic impact of this is not yet known. In this study, we genotyped 200 individuals, using mtDNA cytochrome b and 11 nuclear microsatellites. We investigated fine-scale population structure and tested for genetic signatures of historical and recent population decline, using several statistical approaches, including likelihood methods and approximate Bayesian computation. Five major genetically divergent groups were found,...

Data from: A combined morphometric and phylogenetic revision of the late Ordovician brachiopod genera Eochonetes and Thaerodonta

Jennifer E. Bauer & Alycia L. Stigall
Systematic revision of the Late Ordovician brachiopod genera Eochonetes Reed, 1917 and Thaerodonta Wang, 1949 was conducted utilizing specimen-based morphometric and species-level phylogenetic analyses. Previous studies had recognized Thaerodonta and Eochonetes as either distinct taxonomic entities or synonyms. New multivariate and phylogenetic analyses confirm the synonymy of Thaerodonta with Eochonetes and provide a framework to assess evolutionary and ecological patterns within the clade. Multivariate analyses were employed to delineate species in morphospace and provided information...

Data from: Xianella: a new mat-forming calcified cyanobacterium from the Middle–Late Ordovician of North China

Jeong-Hyun Lee & Robert Riding
Xianella hongii gen. et sp. nov. is described from the Middle–Late Ordovician of Shaanxi, China and interpreted as a calcified cyanobacterial sheath. Xianella filaments formed cable-like strands that constructed thick fenestral layers. The specimens occur in metre-sized limestone blocks, possibly derived from local collapse of a reefal platform margin. In combination with micrite, some of which is intraclastic and peloidal, Xianella created thick and extensive stacks of layered calcified fenestral fabric that appear to be...

Data from: Tree genetics strongly affect forest productivity, but intraspecific diversity-productivity relationships do not

Dylan G. Fischer, Gina M. Wimp, Erika Hersch-Green, Randy K. Bangert, Carri J. LeRoy, Joseph K. Bailey, Jennifer A. Schweitzer, Clarissa Dirks, Stephen C. Hart, Gerard J. Allan & Thomas G. Whitham
Numerous studies have demonstrated biodiversity–productivity relationships in plant communities, and analogous genetic diversity–productivity studies using genotype mixtures of single species may show similar patterns. Alternatively, competing individuals among genotypes within a species are less likely to exhibit resource-use complementarity, even when they exhibit large differences in their effects on ecosystem function. In this study, we test the impact of genotype diversity and genetic identity on ecosystem function using an ecosystem-scale common garden experiment. Distinct tree...

Data from: Non-equilibrium dynamics and floral trait interactions shape extant angiosperm diversity

Brian C. O'Meara, Stacey D. Smith, W. Scott Armbruster, Lawrence D. Harder, Christopher R. Hardy, Lena C. Hileman, Larry Hufford, Amy Litt, Susana Magallon, Stephen A. Smith, Peter F. Stevens, Charles B. Fenster & Pamela K. Diggle
Why are some traits and trait combinations exceptionally common across the tree of life, whereas others are vanishingly rare? The distribution of trait diversity across a clade at any time depends on the ancestral state of the clade, the rate at which new phenotypes evolve, the differences in speciation and extinction rates across lineages, and whether an equilibrium has been reached. Here we examine the role of transition rates, differential diversification (speciation minus extinction), and...

Data from: Revisiting the measurement of anomie

Ali Teymoori, Jolanda Jetten, Brock Bastian, Amarina Ariyanto, Frédérique Autin, Nadia Ayub, Constantina Badea, Tomasz Besta, Fabrizio Butera, Rui Costa-Lopes, Lijuan Cui, Carole Fantini, Gillian Finchilesc, Lowell Gaertner, Mario Gollwitzer, Ángel Gómez, Roberto González, Ying Yi Hong, Dorthe Høj Jensen, Minoru Karasawa, Thomas Kessler, Olivier Klein, Marcus Lima, Tuuli Anna Mähönen, Laura Megevand … & Gillian Finchilescu
Sociologists coined the term "anomie" to describe societies that are characterized by disintegration and deregulation. Extending beyond conceptualizations of anomie that conflate the measurements of anomie as 'a state of society' and as a 'state of mind', we disentangle these conceptualizations and develop an analysis and measure of this phenomenon focusing on anomie as a perception of the 'state of society'. We propose that anomie encompasses two dimensions: a perceived breakdown in social fabric (i.e.,...

Data from: Is the switch to an ectomycorrhizal state an evolutionary key innovation in mushroom-forming fungi? a case study in the tricholomatineae (agaricales)

Marisol Sanchez-Garcia & Patrick Brandon Matheny
Although fungi are one of the most diverse groups of organisms, little is known about the processes that shape their high taxonomic diversity. This study focuses on evolution of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mushroom-forming fungi, symbiotic associates of many trees and shrubs, in the suborder Tricholomatineae of the Agaricales. We used the BiSSE model and BAMM to test the hypothesis that the ECM habit represents an evolutionary key innovation that allowed the colonization of new niches followed...

Data from: The many dimensions of diet breadth: phytochemical, genetic, behavioral, and physiological perspectives on the interaction between a native herbivore and an exotic host

Joshua G. Harrison, Zachariah Gompert, James A. Fordyce, C. Alex Buerkle, Rachel Grinstead, Joshua P. Jahner, Scott Mikel, Christopher C. Nice, Aldrin Santamaria & Matthew L. Forister
From the perspective of an herbivorous insect, conspecific host plants are not identical, and intraspecific variation in host nutritional quality or defensive capacity might mediate spatially variable outcomes in plant-insect interactions. Here we explore this possibility in the context of an ongoing host breadth expansion of a native butterfly (the Melissa blue, Lycaeides melissa) onto an exotic host plant (alfalfa, Medicago sativa). We examine variation among seven alfalfa populations that differed in terms of colonization...

Data from: Nonlandmark classification in paleobiology: computational geometry as a tool for species discrimination

Joshua Mike, Colin Sumrall, Vasileios Maroulas & Fernando Schwartz
One important and sometimes contentious challenge in paleobiology is discriminating between species, which is increasingly accomplished by comparing specimen shape. While lengths and proportions are needed to achieve this task, finer geometric information, such as concavity, convexity, and curvature, plays a crucial role in the undertaking. Nonetheless, standard morphometric methodologies such as landmark analysis are not able to capture in a quantitative way these features and other important fine-scale geometric notions. Here we develop and...

Data from: Hydrospire morphology and implications for blastoid phylogeny

Jennifer E. Bauer, Colin D. Sumrall & Johnny A. Waters
The external expression of hydrospires in blastoids has provided a basis for major and minor group classification in the clade for over a century. Unfortunately, the complete anatomy of the hydrospires has never been comprehensively studied. This study examined and described the internal hydrospires of six spiraculate species by digitally extracting hydrospire data from a legacy data set of serial acetate peels. Although only six models have been currently generated, hydrospire morphology is variable both...

Data from: Greater host breadth still not associated with increased diversification rate in the Nymphalidae – a response to Janz et al

Christopher Alan Hamm & James Andrew Fordyce
In their technical comment, Janz et al. take issue with our recent study examining the association between host breadth and diversification rates in the brush footed butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) (Hamm and Fordyce 2015). Specifically, they are concerned that we misrepresent their “oscillation hypothesis” (OH) (Janz et al. 2016; Janz and Nylin 2008) and that one of our models was inadequate to test hypotheses regarding host breadth and diversification rate. Given our mutual interests in the...

Registration Year

  • 2016

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Tennessee at Knoxville
  • University of Kansas
  • Michigan Technological University
  • National University of Malaysia
  • Utah State University
  • Federal University of Paraíba
  • University of Queensland
  • University of Indonesia
  • University of Gdańsk
  • University of Groningen