31 Works

In Their Own Words

Patricia Nola Eugene Roberson, Gina Cortez, Laura H. Trull & Katherine Allison Lenger
Introduction: The opioid epidemic is ravaging people, families, and communities in Appalachia. However, limited research has examined how “everyday” people (e.g., not chronic pain patients, not medical professionals) living in these communities how opioids have impacted their lives. Objective: Identify the perception of the opioid epidemic on individuals, families, and communities from people living in region most impacted regions. Methods: Patients were recruited at Remote Area Medical clinics throughout Central and Southern Appalachia to complete...

Panmixia across elevation in thermally sensitive Andean dung beetles

Ethan Linck, Jorge Celi & Kimberly Sheldon
Janzen’s seasonality hypothesis predicts that organisms inhabiting environments with limited climatic variability will evolve a reduced thermal tolerance breadth compared with organisms experiencing greater climatic variability. In turn, narrow tolerance breadth may select against dispersal across strong temperature gradients, such as those found across elevation. This can result in narrow elevational ranges and generate a pattern of isolation-by-environment, or neutral genetic differentiation correlated with environmental variables that is independent of geographic distance. We tested for...

Evolution and development at the origin of a phylum

Bradley Deline, Jeffery Thompson, Nicholas Smith, Samuel Zamora, Imran Rahman, Sarah Sheffield, William Ausich, Thomas Kammer & Colin Sumrall
Quantifying morphological evolution is key to determining the patterns and processes underlying the origin of phyla. We constructed a hierarchical morphological character matrix to characterize the radiation and establishment of echinoderm body plans during the early Paleozoic. This showed that subphylum-level clades diverged gradually through the Cambrian, and the distinctiveness of the resulting body plans was amplified by the extinction of transitional forms and obscured by convergent evolution during the Ordovician. Higher-order characters that define...

Recent hybrids recapitulate ancient hybrid outcomes

Zachariah Gompert, Samridhi Chaturvedi, Lauren Lucas, C. Alex Buerkle, James Fordyce, Matthew Forister & Chris Nice
Genomic outcomes of hybridization depend on selection and recombination in hybrids. Whether these processes have similar effects on hybrid genome composition in contemporary hybrid zones versus ancient hybrid lineages is unknown. Here we show that patterns of introgression in a contemporary hybrid zone in Lycaeides butterflies predict patterns of ancestry in geographically adjacent, older hybrid populations. We find a particularly striking lack of ancestry from one of the hybridizing taxa, Lycaeides melissa, on the Z...

Data from: Data sharing, management, use, and reuse: practices and perceptions of scientists worldwide

Carol Tenopir, Natalie M. Rice, Suzie Allard, Lynn Baird, Josh Borycz, Lisa Christian, Mike Frame, Bruce Grant, Robert Olendorf, Robert Sandusky & Lisa Zolly
Background: With data becoming a centerpiece of modern scientific discovery, data sharing by scientists is now a crucial element of scientific progress. This article aims to provide an in-depth examination of the practices and perceptions of data management, including data storage, data sharing, and data use and reuse by scientists around the world. Methods: The Usability and Assessment Working Group of DataONE, an NSF-funded environmental cyberinfrastructure project, distributed a survey to a multinational and multidisciplinary...

Using naturalistic incubation temperatures to demonstrate how variation in the timing and continuity of heat wave exposure influences phenotype

Anthony Breitenbach, Amanda Carter, Ryan Paitz & Rachel Bowden
Most organisms are exposed to bouts of warm temperatures during development, yet we know little about how variation in the timing and continuity of heat exposure influences biological processes. If heat waves increase in frequency and duration as predicted, it is necessary to understand how these bouts could affect thermally sensitive species, including reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). In a multi-year study using fluctuating temperatures, we exposed Trachemys scripta embryos to cooler, male-producing temperatures...

Protected area, easement, and rental contract data reveal five communities of land protection in the United States

Heather Bird Jackson, Kailin Kroetz, James Sanchirico, Alexandra Thompson & Paul Armsworth
Land protection efforts represent large societal investments and are critical to biodiversity conservation. Land protection involves a complex mosaic of areas managed by multiple organizations, using a variety of mechanisms to achieve different levels of protection. We develop an approach to synthesize, describe, and map this land protection diversity over large spatial scales. We use cluster analysis to find distinct “communities” of land protection based on the organizations involved, the strictness of land protection, and...

Changes in taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity in the Anthropocene

Daijiang Li, Julian Olden, Julie Lockwood, Sydne Record, Michael McKinney & Benjamin Baiser
To better understand how ecosystems are changing, a multifaceted approach to measuring biodiversity that considers species richness and evolutionary history across spatial scales is needed. Here we compiled 162 datasets for fish, bird, and plant assemblages across the globe and measured how taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity changed at different spatial scales (within site α diversity and between sites spatial β diversity). Biodiversity change is measured from these datasets in three ways: across land use gradients,...

Data from: Habitat suitability and connectivity modeling reveal priority areas for Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) conservation in a complex habitat mosaic

Ashleigh Cable, Joy O'Keefe, Jill Deppe, Tara Hohoff, Steven Taylor & Mark Davis
Context Conservation for the Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis), a federally endangered species in the United States of America, is typically focused on local maternity sites; however, the species is a regional migrant, interacting with the environment at multiple spatial scales. Hierarchical levels of management may be necessary, but we have limited knowledge of landscape-level ecology, distribution, and connectivity of suitable areas in complex landscapes. Objectives We sought to 1) identify factors influencing M. sodalis maternity...

Increasing agricultural habitat reduces solitary bee offspring number and weight in apple orchards through reduced floral diet diversity and increased fungicide risk

Mary Centrella, Laura Russo, Natalia Moreno-Ramirez, Brian Eitzer, Maria Van Dyke, Bryan Danforth & Katja Poveda
1. Threats to bee pollinators such as land use change, high pesticide risk, and reduced floral diet diversity are usually assessed independently, even though they often co-occur to impact bees in agroecosystems. 2. We established populations of the non-native mason bee O. cornifrons at 17 NY apple orchards varying in proportion of surrounding agriculture and measured floral diet diversity and pesticide risk levels in the pollen provisions they produced. We used path analysis to test...

Data from: Impact of agricultural weathering on physicochemical properties of biodegradable plastic mulch films: comparison of two diverse climates over four successive years

Douglas Hayes
Biodegradable plastic mulch films (BDMs) are essential in the production of vegetable and specialty crops due to their promotion of increased crop yield and quality. Unlike conventional polyethylene (PE) mulches, BDMs can be tilled into the soil after crop harvest to undergo biodegradation, thereby leading to minimal environmental impact. Agricultural weathering impacts both the performance of BDMs during crop production as a barrier to weeds and biodegradability of BDMs in the soil. To better understand...

Data from: Effects of soil particles and convective transport on dispersion and aggregation of nanoplastics via small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra SANS (USANS)

Douglas Hayes, Sai Pingali, Anton Astner, Volker Urban, Hugh O'Neill, Kenneth Littrell & Barbara Evans
Terrestrial nanoplastics (NPs) pose a serious threat to agricultural food production systems due to the potential harm of soil-born micro- and macroorganisms that promote soil fertility and ability of NPs to adsorb onto and penetrate into vegetables and other crops. Very little is known about the dispersion, fate and transport of NPs in soils. This is because of the challenges of analyzing terrestrial NPs by conventional microscopic techniques due to the low concentrations of NPs...

Multiple phenotypes conferred by a single insect symbiont are independent

Ailsa McLean, Jan Hrček, Benjamin Parker, Hugo Mathé-Hubert, Heidi Kaech, Chantal Paine & Charles Godfray
Many microbial symbionts have multiple phenotypic consequences for their animal hosts. However, the ways in which different symbiont-mediated phenotypes combine to affect fitness are not well understood. We investigated whether there are correlations between different symbiont-mediated phenotypes. We used the symbiont Spiroplasma, a striking example of a bacterial symbiont conferring diverse phenotypes on insect hosts. We took 11 strains of Spiroplasma infecting pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) and assessed their ability to provide protection against the...

Data from: More than meets the eye? the role of annual ornamental flowers in supporting pollinators

Emily Erickson, S Adam, L Russo, V Wojcik, H M Patch & C M Grozinger
Ornamental flowers are commonly planted in urban and suburban areas to provide foraging resources for pollinator populations. However, their role in supporting broad pollinator biodiversity is not well established as previous studies have been conducted in urban landscapes with pollinator communities that are distinct from those in natural systems. We observed pollinator visitation patterns to five ornamental annual plant genera and their cultivars over multiple years at two semi-natural sites in Pennsylvania to understand their...

Can Farmers and Bats Co-exist? Farmer Attitudes, Knowledge, and Experiences with Bats in Belize

Hannah G. Shapiro, Adam S. Wilcox, Mallory Tate & Emma V. Willcox
Bats (Chiroptera) are often viewed negatively by the public. Negative public perceptions of bats may hinder efforts to conserve declining populations. In Belize, the presence of vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus and Diphylla ecaudata) exacerbates the potential for conflicts with humans because of the increased rabies transmission risks. To mitigate these risks, the Belize government provides farmers with assistance to trap and remove vampire bats. In June 2018, we surveyed farmers (n = 44) in and...

Data from: Use of a pressure-sensing walkway system for biometric assessment of gait characteristics in goats

Rebecca E. Rifkin, Remigiusz M. Grzeskowiak, Pierre-Yves Mulon, H. Steve Adair, Alexandru S. Biris, Madhu Dhar & David E. Anderson
The purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess gait characteristics and weight-bearing forces during ambulation in healthy goats using a pressure-sensing walkway as a biometric tool for stride, gait, and force analysis. Forty-six healthy adult goats ranging in age from 5 to 6 years, mixed-breeds, and with a mean body weight of 52 ± 7.1 kgs were used. Goats were trained to walk over a pressure-sensing walkway. Data for analysis was collected on 2...

Research Data Services in Academic Libraries: A Survey of North American Academic Libraries in 2019

Carol Tenopir, Jordan Kaufman, Robert J. Sandusky & Danielle Pollock
To determine the extent to which research data services (RDS) are supported in academic libraries and how that has changed over a decade, in 2019 a research team led by Carol Tenopir at the University of Tennessee Center for Information and Communication Studies, in collaboration with ACRL-Choice, surveyed academic library directors in the United States and Canada. This survey allowed us to compare results with a similar survey conducted in 2012. The goal of both...

Allocating resources for land protection using continuous optimization: an application to US biodiversity conservation

Paul Armsworth, Amy Benefield, Bistra Dilkina, Rachel Fovargue, Heather Jackson, Diane Le Bouille & Christoph Nolte
Spatial optimization approaches that were originally developed to help conservation organizations determine protection decisions over small spatial scales are now used to inform global or continental scale priority setting. However, the different decision contexts involved in large-scale resource allocation need to be considered. We present a continuous optimization approach in which a decision-maker allocates funding to regional offices. Local decision-makers then use these funds to implement habitat protection efforts with varying effectiveness when evaluated in...

Behavioural responses to warming differentially impact survival in introduced and native dung beetles

Margaret Mamantov & Kimberly Sheldon
Background: Anthropogenic changes are often studied in isolation but may interact to affect biodiversity. For example, climate change could exacerbate the impacts of biological invasions if climate change differentially affects invasive and native species. Behavioural plasticity may mitigate some of the impacts of climate change, but species vary in their degree of behavioural plasticity. In particular, invasive species may have greater behavioural plasticity than native species since plasticity helps invasive species establish and spread in...

Adorno’s Critique of the New Right-Wing Extremism

Harry F. Dahms
This paper serves three purposes relating to a lecture Adorno gave in 1967 on “the new right-wing extremism” that was on the rise then in West Germany; in 2019, the lecture was published in print for the first time in German, to wide acclaim, followed by an English translation that appeared in 2020. First, it is important to situate the lecture in its historical and political context, and to relate it to Adorno’s status as...

A new species of bridled darter endemic to the Etowah River system in Georgia (Percidae: Etheostomatinae: Percina)

Thomas Near, Daniel MacGuigan, Emily Boring, Jeffrey Simmons, Brett Albanese, Benjamin Keck, Richard Harrington & Gerald Dinkins
Percina freemanorum, the Etowah Bridled Darter, is described as a new species endemic to the Etowah River system in Georgia, specifically in Long Swamp Creek, Amicalola Creek, and the upper portion of the Etowah River. The earliest collection records for Percina freemanorum date to 1948 and in 2007 the species was delimited as populations of Percina kusha. Our investigation into the systematics of Percina kusha is motivated by the uncertain status of populations in the...

Data from: Female zebra finches prefer the songs of males who quickly solve a novel foraging task to the songs of males unable to solve the task

Clara Howell, Rindy Anderson & Elizabeth Derryberry
Correlative evidence suggests that high problem-solving and foraging abilities in a mate are associated with direct fitness advantages, so it would benefit females to prefer problem-solving males. Recent work has also shown that females of several bird species who directly observe males prefer those that can solve a novel foraging task over those that cannot. In addition to or instead of direct observation of cognitive skills, many species utilize assessment signals when choosing a mate....

Global mycorrhizal fungal range sizes vary within and among mycorrhizal guilds but are not correlated with dispersal traits

Stephanie Kivlin
Aim: Mycorrhizal fungi associate with the majority of plant species with large consequences on ecosystem nutrient, carbon, and water cycling. Two main types of mycorrhizal fungi, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, dominate terrestrial ecosystems. Most global distribution modeling of AM and EM mycorrhizal associations describe the distribution of AM and EM plants, and not fungi directly. However, significant functional trait variation occurs within AM and EM fungal guilds. Therefore, modeling range sizes...

Assessing the effects of elephant foraging on the structure and diversity of an Afrotropical forest

Cooper Rosin, Kendall Beals, Michael Belovitch, Ruby Harrison, Megan Pendred, Megan Sullivan, Nicolas Yao & John Poulsen
African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) are ecosystem engineers that browse and damage large quantities of vegetation during their foraging and movement. Though elephant trail networks and clearings are conspicuous features of many African forests, the consequences of elephant foraging for forest structure and diversity are poorly documented. In this study in northeastern Gabon, we compare stem size, stem density, proportional damage, species diversity, and species relative abundance of seedlings and saplings in the vicinity of...

Effect of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity and differentiation: fine- scale population structure of Cercis canadensis (Eastern Redbud)

Meher Ony, Marcin Nowicki, Sarah Boggess, William Klingeman, John Zobel, Robert Trigiano & Denita Hadziabdic
Forest fragmentation may negatively affect plants through reduced genetic diversity and increased population structure due to habitat isolation, decreased population size, and disturbance of pollen‐seed dispersal mechanisms. However, in the case of tree species, effective pollen‐seed dispersal, mating system, and ecological dynamics may help the species overcome the negative effect of forest fragmentation. A fine‐scale population genetics study can shed light on the postfragmentation genetic diversity and structure of a species. Here, we present the...

Registration Year

  • 2020

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  • University of Tennessee at Knoxville
  • University of California, Davis
  • Yale University
  • University of Alabama at Birmingham
  • University of Washington
  • Utah State University
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
  • Duke University
  • University of Georgia
  • West Virginia University