144 Works

Posterior cervical brown fat and CXCL14 levels in the first year of life: sex differences and association with adiposity

Lourdes Ibanez & Francesc Villarroya
Context: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is particularly abundant in neonates but its association with measures of adiposity and metabolic health in early infancy is poorly delineated. Besides sustaining non-shivering thermogenesis, BAT secretes brown adipokines that act on systemic metabolism. The chemokine CXCL14 has been identified as a brown adipokine in experimental studies. Objective: To determine the relationships among BAT activity, adiposity and circulating CXCL14 levels in the first year of life in girls and boys....

Supplementary information for integrating sequence capture and restriction-site associated DNA sequencing to resolve recent radiations of Pelagic seabirds

Joan Ferrer-Obiol, Helen F. James, R. Terry Chesser, Vincent Bretagnolle, Jacob González-Solís, Julio Rozas, Marta Riutort & Andreanna J. Welch
The diversification of modern birds has been shaped by a number of radiations. Rapid diversification events make reconstructing the evolutionary relationships among taxa challenging due to the convoluted effects of incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and introgression. Phylogenomic datasets have the potential to detect patterns of phylogenetic incongruence, and to address their causes. However, the footprints of ILS and introgression on sequence data can vary between different phylogenomic markers at different phylogenetic scales depending on factors...

Data from: Insights into the origin and distribution of biodiversity in the Brazilian Atlantic forest hotspot: a statistical phylogeographic study using a low-dispersal organism

Marta Riutort, Marta Álvarez-Presas, Alejandro Sánchez-Gracia, Fernando Carbayo & Julio Rozas
The relative importance of the processes that generate and maintain biodiversity is a major and controversial topic in evolutionary biology with large implications for conservation management. The Atlantic Forest of Brazil, one of the world's richest biodiversity hotspots, is severely damaged by human activities. To carry out an efficient conservation policy, a good understanding of spatial and temporal biodiversity patterns and their underlying evolutionary mechanisms is required. With this aim, we performed a comprehensive phylogeographic...

Data from: Towards a common methodology for developing logistic tree mortality models based on ring-width data

Maxime Cailleret, Christof Bigler, Harald Bugmann, J. Julio Camarero, Katarina Cufar, Hendrik Davi, Ilona Mészáros, Francesco Minunno, Mikko Peltoniemi, Elisabeth Robert, María-Laura Suarez, Roberto Tognetti & Jordi Martinez-Vilalta
Tree mortality is a key process shaping forest dynamics. Thus, there is a growing need for indicators of the likelihood of tree death. During the last decades, an increasing number of tree-ring based studies have aimed to derive growth–mortality functions, mostly using logistic models. The results of these studies, however, are difficult to compare and synthesize due to the diversity of approaches used for the sampling strategy (number and characteristics of alive and death observations),...

Data from: Inferring the demographic history of Drosophila subobscura from nucleotide variation at regions not affected by chromosomal inversions

Roser Pratdesaba, Carmen Segarra & Montserrat Aguadé
Drosophila subobscura presents a rich and complex chromosomal inversion polymorphism. It can thus be considered a model system i) to study the mechanisms originating inversions and how inversions affect the levels and patterns of variation in the inverted regions, and ii) to study adaptation at both the single-gene and chromosomal inversion levels. It is therefore important to infer its demographic history since previous information indicated that its nucleotide variation is not at mutation-drift equilibrium. For...

Data from: Combining animal personalities with transcriptomics resolves individual variation within a wild-type zebrafish population and identifies underpinning molecular differences in brain function

Sonia Rey, Sebastian Boltana, Reynaldo Vargas, Nerea Roher & Simon MacKenzie
Resolving phenotype variation within a population in response to environmental perturbation is central to understanding biological adaptation. Relating meaningful adaptive changes at the level of the transcriptome requires the identification of processes that have a functional significance for the individual. This remains a major objective towards understanding the complex interactions between environmental demand and an individual's capacity to respond to such demands. The interpretation of such interactions and the significance of biological variation between individuals...

Data from: Abundance and morphometry changes across the high-mountain lake-size gradient in the tropical Andes of Southern Ecuador

Pablo V. Mosquera, Henrietta Hampel, Raúl F. Vázquez, Miguel Alonso & Jordi Catalan
The number, size, and shape of lakes are key determinants of the ecological functionality of a lake district. The lake area scaling relationships with lake number and volume enable upscaling biogeochemical processes and spatially considering organisms' metapopulation dynamics. These relationships vary regionally depending on the geomorphological context, particularly in the range of lake area <1 km2 and mountainous regions. The Cajas Massif (Southern Ecuador) holds a tropical mountain lake district with 5955 water bodies. The...

Data from: Hsp70 protein levels and thermotolerance in Drosophila subobscura: a reassessment of the thermal co-adaptation hypothesis

Gemma Calabria, Olga Dolgova, Carla Rego, Luís E. Castañeda, Enrico L. Rezende, Joan Balanyà, Marta Pascual, Jesper G. Sørensen, Volker Loeschcke & Mauro Santos
Theory predicts that geographic variation in traits and genes associated with climatic adaptation may be initially driven by the correlated evolution of thermal preference and thermal sensitivity. This assumes that an organism’s preferred body temperature corresponds with the thermal optimum in which performance is maximized; hence, shifts in thermal preferences affect the subsequent evolution of thermal-related traits. Drosophila subobscura evolved world-wide latitudinal clines in several traits including chromosome inversion frequencies, with some polymorphic inversions being...

Data from: Strategies of zooplanktivory shape dynamics and diversity of littoral plankton communities: a mesocosm approach

Laura K. Helenius, Anna Aymà Padros, Elina Leskinen, Hannu Lehtonen & Leena Nurminen
Planktivorous fish can exert strong top-down control on zooplankton communities. By incorporating different feeding strategies, from selective particulate feeding to cruising filter feeding, fish species target distinct prey. In this study, we investigated the effects of two species with different feeding strategies, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.)) and roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), on a low-diversity brackish water zooplankton community using a 16-day mesocosm experiment. The experiment was conducted on a small-bodied spring zooplankton community...

Data from: Strategies for understanding and reducing the Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale hypnozoite reservoir in Papua New Guinean children: a randomised placebo-controlled trial and mathematical model

Leanne J. Robinson, Rahel Wampfler, Inoni Betuela, Stephan Karl, Michael T. White, Connie S. N. Li Wai Suen, Natalie E. Hofmann, Benson Kiniboro, Andreea Waltmann, Jessica Brewster, Lina Lorry, Nandao Tarongka, Lornah Samol, Mariabeth Silkey, Quique Bassat, Peter M. Siba, Louis Schofield, Ingrid Felger, Ivo Mueller & Benson Kinboro
Background: The undetectable hypnozoite reservoir for relapsing Plasmodium vivax and P. ovale malarias presents a major challenge for malaria control and elimination in endemic countries. This study aims to directly determine the contribution of relapses to the burden of P. vivax and P. ovale infection, illness, and transmission in Papua New Guinean children. Methods and Findings: From 17 August 2009 to 20 May 2010, 524 children aged 5–10 y from East Sepik Province in Papua...

Data from: Nonlinear amplitude dynamics in flagellar beating

David Oriola, Hermes Gadêlha & Jaume Casademunt
The physical basis of flagellar and ciliary beating is a major problem in biology which is still far from completely understood. The fundamental cytoskeleton structure of cilia and flagella is the axoneme, a cylindrical array of microtubule doublets connected by passive cross-linkers and dynein motor proteins. The complex interplay of these elements leads to the generation of self-organized bending waves. Although many mathematical models have been proposed to understand this process, few attempts have been...

Data from: Genome of the pitcher plant Cephalotus reveals genetic changes associated with carnivory

Kenji Fukushima, Xiaodong Fang, David Alvarez-Ponce, Huimin Cai, Lorenzo Carretero-Paulet, Cui Chen, Tien-Hao Chang, Kimberley M. Farr, Tomomichi Fujita, Yuji Hiwatashi, Yoshikazu Hoshi, Takamasa Imai, Masahiro Kasahara, Pablo Librado, Likai Mao, Hitoshi Mori, Tomoaki Nishiyama, Masafumi Nozawa, Gergő Pálfalvi, Stephen T. Pollard, Julio Rozas, Alejandro Sánchez-Gracia, David Sankoff, Tomoko F. Shibata, Shuji Shigenobu … & Mitsuyasu Hasebe
Carnivorous plants exploit animals as a nutritional source and have inspired long-standing questions about the origin and evolution of carnivory-related traits. To investigate the molecular bases of carnivory, we sequenced the genome of the heterophyllous pitcher plant Cephalotus follicularis, in which we succeeded in regulating the developmental switch between carnivorous and non-carnivorous leaves. Transcriptome comparison of the two leaf types and gene repertoire analysis identified genetic changes associated with prey attraction, capture, digestion and nutrient...

Data from: Quantification of gene expression patterns to reveal the origins of abnormal morphogenesis

Neus Martinez-Abadias, Roger Mateu Estivill, Jaume Sastre Tomas, Susan Motch Perrine, Melissa Yoon, Alex Robert-Moreno, Jim Swoger, Lucia Russo, Kazuhiko Kawasaki, Joan Richtsmeier, James Sharpe & Alexandre Robert-Moreno
The earliest developmental origins of dysmorphologies are poorly understood in many congenital diseases. They often remain elusive because the first signs of genetic misregulation may initiate as subtle changes in gene expression, which are hard to detect and can be obscured later in development by secondary effects. Here, we develop a method to trace the origins of phenotypic abnormalities by accurately quantifying the 3D spatial distribution of gene expression domains in developing organs. By applying...

Data from: Latitudinal variation in seagrass herbivory: global patterns and explanatory mechanisms

Adriana Vergés, Christopher Doropoulos, Rob Czarnik, Kathryn McMahon, Nil Llonch & Alistair G. B. Poore
Aim: The aim was to quantify latitudinal patterns in seagrass–herbivore interactions in the context of a warming climate. Location: We carried out a global meta‐analysis combined with a field experiment across 1,700 km and 12° of latitude in Western Australia. Time period: 1984–2014. Major taxa studied: Seagrasses. Methods: We first synthesized the global literature on herbivore exclusion experiments in seagrasses to test whether differences in herbivore impacts are related to latitude and sea surface temperature....

Data from: Longevity, body dimension and reproductive mode drive differences in aquatic versus terrestrial life history strategies

Pol Capdevila, Maria Beger, Simone Blomberg, Bernat Hereu, Cristina Linares & Roberto Salguero-Gómez
1. Aquatic and terrestrial environments display stark differences in key environmental factors and phylogenetic composition but their consequences for the evolution of species’ life history strategies remain poorly understood. 2. Here, we examine whether and how life history strategies vary between terrestrial and aquatic species. We use demographic information for 685 terrestrial and 122 aquatic animal and plant species to estimate key life history traits. We then use phylogenetically corrected least squares regression to explore...

Data from: Outstanding intraindividual genetic diversity in fissiparous planarians (Dugesia, Platyhelminthes) with facultative sex

Laia Leria, Miquel Vila-Farré, Eduard Solà & Marta Riutort
Background: Predicted genetic consequences of asexuality include high intraindividual genetic diversity (i.e., the Meselson effect) and accumulation of deleterious mutations (i.e., Muller’s Ratchet), among others. These consequences have been largely studied in parthenogenetic organisms, but studies on fissiparous species are scarce. Differing from parthenogens, fissiparous organisms inherit part of the soma of the progenitor, including somatic mutations. Thus, in the long term, fissiparous reproduction may also result in genetic mosaicism, besides the presence of the...

Data from: Fallow management increases habitat suitability for endangered steppe bird species through changes in vegetation structure

Ana Sanz-Pérez, David Giralt, Irene Robleño, Gerard Bota, Cyril Milleret, Santi Manosa & Francesc Sardà-Palomera
In the face of the dramatic worldwide decline of farmland bird populations, the preservation of fallow fields is a conservation measure encouraged through subsidies (e.g. agri‐environmental schemes, AES). Beyond the general benefits of increasing fallow availability for endangered steppe bird populations, there is a lack of knowledge on how fallow management can contribute to meeting species‐specific habitat requirements. We used occurrence data from three steppe bird species protected at the EU level (Stone Curlew Burhinus...

Energy limitation or sensitive predators? Trophic and non-trophic impacts of wastewater pollution on stream food webs

Jordi-René Mor, Isabel Muñoz, Sergi Sabater, Lluís Zamora & Albert Ruhi
Impacts of environmental stressors on food webs are often difficult to predict because trophic levels can respond in divergent ways, and biotic interactions may dampen or amplify responses. Here we studied food-web level impacts of urban wastewater pollution, a widespread source of degradation that can alter stream food webs via top-down and bottom-up processes. We selected ten pairs of sampling locations (i.e., twenty sites total) in ten small-to-medium tributaries of the Ebro River (NE Iberian...

Forest resilience to global warming is strongly modulated by local-scale topographic, microclimatic and biotic conditions

Jofre Carnicer
Resilience of endangered rear edge populations of cold-adapted forests in the Mediterranean basin is increasingly altered by extreme heatwave and drought pressures. It remains unknown, however, whether microclimatic variation in these isolated forests could ultimately result in large intra-population variability in the demographic responses, allowing the coexistence of contrasting declining and resilient trends across small topographic gradients. Multiple key drivers promoting spatial variability in the resilience of rear edge forests remain largely unassessed, including amplified...

The concurrent assessment of agronomic, ecological, and environmental variables enables better choice of agroecological service crop termination management

David Navarro-Miró, José M. Blanco-Moreno, Corrado Ciaccia, Elena Testani, Ileana Iocola, Laura Depalo, Giovanni Burgio, Hanne Lakkenborg Kristensen, Margita Hefner, Kalvi Tamm, Ingrid Bender, Alessandro Persiani, Mariangela Diacono, Francesco Montemurro, Koen Willekens, Hélène Védie, Martina Bavec, Martina Robačer, Donatienne Arlotti, Pauline Deltour, Stefaan De Neve, Mesfin Tsegaye Gebremikael, Lourdes Chamorro, Berta Caballero-López, Alejandro Pérez-Ferrer … & F. Xavier Sans
1. Although organic farming was originally promoted as an alternative farming system to address agronomic, environmental, and ecological issues, its conventionalisation has led to an intensification and specialisation of production. In light of this, several studies have questioned the environmental benefits of organic farming as well as its agronomic viability. Thus, there is a need to improve organic vegetable systems to reduce their environmental impact without affecting their productivity. To tackle this challenge, European farmers...

Changing diets over time: knock-on effects of marine megafauna overexploitation on their competitors in the South-Western Atlantic Ocean

Maria Bas, Angélica M. Tivoli, Ivan Briz I Godino, Mónica Salemme, Fernando Santiago, Juan Bautista Belardi, Florencia Borella, Damián G. Vales, Enrique A. Crespo & Luis Cardona
This study compares the δ15N values and the trophic position of two seabird species throughout the Late Holocene in three regions in the South-Western Atlantic Ocean to assess the hypothesis that the decimation of megafauna lead to changes in the trophic position of mesopredators. Modern and ancient mollusc shells were also analysed to account for changes in the isotopic baseline through time. Results revealed that modern Magellanic penguins have higher δ15N values than their ancient...

Data from: Postglacial climate changes and rise of three ecotypes of harbor porpoises, Phocoena phocoena, in western Palearctic waters

Michaël C. Fontaine, Kathleen Roland, Isabelle Calves, Frederic Austerlitz, Friso P. Palstra, Krystal A. Tolley, Sean Ryan, Marisa Ferreira, Thierry Jauniaux, Angela Llavona, Bayram Öztürk, Ayaka A. Öztürk, Vincent Ridoux, Emer Rogan, Ursula Siebert, Marina Sequeira, Gísli A. Vikingsson, Asunción Borrell, Johan R. Michaux & Alex Aguilar
Despite no obvious barriers to gene flow in the marine realm, environmental variation and ecological specializations can lead to genetic differentiation in highly mobile predators. Here, we investigated the genetic structure of the harbor porpoise over the entire species distribution range in western Palearctic waters. Combined analyses of ten microsatellite loci and a 5,085 bases-pairs portion of the mitochondrial genome revealed the existence of three ecotypes, equally divergent at the mitochondrial genome, distributed in the...

Data from: Encroachment of shrubs into subalpine grasslands in the Pyrenees modifies the structure of soil fungal communities and soil properties.

Oriol Grau, Karita Saravesi, Josep M. Ninot, József Geml, Annamari Markkola, Saija H.K. Ahonen & Josep Peñuelas
The encroachment of shrubs into grasslands is common in terrestrial ecosystems dominated by grass. Land abandonment and favourable climatic trends in recent decades have favoured the expansion of shrubs into subalpine grasslands in many mountainous regions across Europe. The advance of the succession from grassland to shrubland is expected to have a major impact on ecosystem functioning. We used DNA metabarcoding to assess whether the structure of soil fungal communities varied along the succession from...

Data from: Marine protected areas enhance structural complexity but do not buffer the consequences of ocean warming for an overexploited precious coral

Ignasi Montero-Serra, Joaquim Garrabou, Daniel F. Doak, Jean-Baptiste Ledoux & Cristina Linares
1. Global warming and overexploitation both threaten the integrity and resilience of marine ecosystems. Many calls have been made to at least partially offset climate change impacts through local conservation management. However, a mechanistic understanding of the interactions of multiple stressors is generally lacking for habitat-forming species; preventing the development of sound conservation strategies. 2. We examined the effectiveness of no-take marine protected areas (MPAs) at enhancing structural complexity and resilience to climate change on...

Data from: Deep-sea, deep-sequencing: metabarcoding extracellular DNA from sediments of marine canyons

Magdalena Guardiola, María Jesús Uriz, Pierre Taberlet, Eric Coissac, Owen Simon Wangensteen & Xavier Turon
Marine sediments are home to one of the richest species pools on Earth, but logistics and a dearth of taxonomic work-force hinders the knowledge of their biodiversity. We characterized α- and β-diversity of deep-sea assemblages from submarine canyons in the western Mediterranean using an environmental DNA metabarcoding. We used a new primer set targeting a short eukaryotic 18S sequence (ca. 110 bp). We applied a protocol designed to obtain extractions enriched in extracellular DNA from...

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