134 Works

Increased typhoon activity in the Pacific deep tropics driven by Little Ice Age circulation changes

James Bramante, Murray Ford, Paul Kench, Andrew D. Ashton, Michael Toomey, Richard M. Sullivan, Kristopher B. Karnauskas, Caroline C. Ummenhofer & Jeffrey P. Donnelly
The instrumental record reveals that tropical cyclone activity is sensitive to oceanic and atmospheric variability on inter-annual and decadal scales. However, our understanding of climate’s influence on tropical cyclone behavior is restricted by the short historical record and sparse prehistorical reconstructions, particularly in the western North Pacific where coastal communities suffer loss of life and livelihood from typhoons annually. Here we reconstruct three millennia of deep tropical North Pacific cyclogenesis and compare with other records...

Finding my voice through the arts: Becoming wide-awake to the rhythms of my own drum

Nuri Yang
My thesis is an arts-based inquiry into discovering my voice through poetry, narrative, and Korean drum. My fundamental purpose is to examine what it means to reflect on my lived experiences and to bring my poetic voice onto the page, and into the world. I employ multiple methodologies, including poetic inquiry and embodied ways of inquiry in my exploration of identity. My thesis integrates theoretical and artistic elements which include poems, personal narratives, and a...

Glacial History and Landform Genesis in the Lac de Gras Area, Northwest Territories

Anna Haiblen
The Quaternary geology of the Lac de Gras area was studied by 1:20 000 surficial geology mapping of 770 km2 and investigating the genesis of enigmatic landforms. Three distinct flow directions of the Laurentide Ice Sheet are recorded: flow to the southwest, then west, and finally to the west northwest. Digital mapping with high-resolution orthoimagery and a 30 cm lidar DEM provides insight into the deglacial history. ‘Subglacial meltwater corridors’ are prominent in the area....

Performing identity at the arts edge: Developing radio memoir through the excavation of living inquiry

Elaine Harder
In this thesis, I explore how community radio is a pedagogical and artistic platform that fosters personal agency, memoir, transformation and the unfolding of identity. Within the forum of an arts-based radio program, I witness how music, lyrics, broadcasting and personal reflections merge to inspire the surfacing of life’s lost moments, a collection of personal memories. This discovery evolves into a narrative loop between broadcaster and self, which leads to the excavation and interweaving of...

Genetic variation at the species and population levels in the Rocky Mountain ridged mussel (Gonidea angulata) – Supplementary Material

James Walton, Karen E. Mock, Steven Brownlee, Jon H. Mageroy, Greg Wilson & Ian Walker
Freshwater mussels in western North America are threatened by water diversions, climate change, loss of required host fish, and other factors, and have experienced marked decline in the past several decades. All four of the primary lineages (potentially species) of freshwater mussels in the western U.S. and Canada are widespread and have somewhat generalist host fish requirements. Of these lineages, perhaps the most poorly understood and of greatest conservation concern is Gonidea angulata (Rocky Mountain...

Data from: A global perspective on the trophic geography of sharks

Christopher Stephen Bird, Ana Veríssimo, Sarah Magozzi, Kátya G. Abrantes, Alex Aguilar, Hassan Al-Reasi, Adam Barnett, Dana M. Bethea, Gérard Biais, Asuncion Borrell, Marc Bouchoucha, Mariah Boyle, Edward J. Brooks, Juerg Brunnschweiler, Paco Bustamante, Aaron Carlisle, Diana Catarino, Stéphane Caut, Yves Cherel, Tiphaine Chouvelon, Diana Churchill, Javier Ciancio, Julien Claes, Ana Colaço, Dean L. Courtney … & Clive N. Trueman
Sharks are a diverse group of mobile predators that forage across varied spatial scales and have the potential to influence food web dynamics. The ecological consequences of recent declines in shark biomass may extend across broader geographic ranges if shark taxa display common behavioural traits. By tracking the original site of photosynthetic fixation of carbon atoms that were ultimately assimilated into muscle tissues of 5,394 sharks from 114 species, we identify globally consistent biogeographic traits...

Data from: The costs of kleptoparasitism: a study of mixed-species seabird breeding colonies

Davide Gaglio, Richard B. Sherley, Timothée R. Cook, Peter G. Ryan & Tom Flower
Mixed-species assemblages are common in nature, providing mutual benefits to associating species including anti-predator advantages or resource facilitation. However, associating with other species may also impose costs through kleptoparasitism (food theft). Identification of these costs, and how they vary when different species breed alongside one another, is essential to understand the payoffs of mixed-species assemblages. We explore the costs of kleptoparasitism for greater crested terns Thalasseus bergii provisioning offspring at a single-species colony, where individuals...

Data from: Muscle shortening velocity depends on tissue inertia and level of activation during submaximal contractions

Stephanie A. Ross & James M. Wakeling
In order to perform external work, muscles must do additional internal work to deform their tissue, and in particular, to overcome the inertia due to their internal mass. However, the contribution of the internal mass within a muscle to the mechanical output of that muscle has only rarely been studied. Here, we use a dynamic, multi-element Hill-type muscle model to examine the effects of the inertial mass within muscle on its contractile performance. We find...

Data from: Shifting thresholds: rapid evolution of migratory life histories in steelhead/rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

Corey C. Phillis, Jonathan W. Moore, Mathieu Buoro, Sean A. Hayes, John Carlos Garza & Devon E. Pearse
Expression of phenotypic plasticity depends on reaction norms adapted to historic selective regimes; anthropogenic changes in these selection regimes necessitate contemporary evolution or declines in productivity and possibly extinction. Adaptation of conditional strategies following a change in the selection regime requires evolution of either the environmentally influenced cue (e.g., size-at-age) or the state (e.g., size threshold) at which an individual switches between alternative tactics. Using a population of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) introduced above a barrier...

Data from: Migratory constraints on yolk precursors limit yolk androgen deposition and underlie a brood reduction strategy in rockhopper penguins

Glenn T. Crossin, Maud Poisbleau, Laurent Demongin, Olivier Chastel, Tony D. Williams, Marcel Eens & Petra Quillfeldt
Hormonally mediated maternal effects link maternal phenotype and environmental conditions to offspring phenotype. The production of lipid-rich maternal yolk precursors may provide a mechanism by which lipophilic steroid hormones can be transported to developing yolks, thus predicting a positive correlation between yolk precursors in mothers and androgen levels in eggs. Using rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome), which produce a two-egg clutch characterized by extreme egg-size dimorphism, reversed hatching asynchrony and brood-reduction, we examined correlations between circulating...

Data from: From salmon to salmonberry: the effects of salmon-derived nutrients on the stomatal density of leaves of the nitriphillic shrub Rubus spectabilis

G.G. Van Den Top, John D. Reynolds, Herbert H.T. Prins, Jim Mattsson, David J. Green, Ronald C. Ydenberg, Gregory G. Van Den Top & Herbert H. T. Prins
Background and Aims: Nutrients derived from the carcasses of Pacific salmon have been shown to have wide-ranging effects on riparian systems. These include changes in community species composition and an increase in leaf nitrogen concentration, with the latter effect pronounced in the nitriphilic shrub Rubus spectabilis (salmonberry). Experimental work with other species has shown that leaf stomatal density increases in response to nitrogen fertilization. Therefore, we predicted that the stomatal density of salmonberry leaves would...

Data from: Ecology can inform genetics: disassortative mating contributes to MHC polymorphism in Leach’s storm-petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa)

Brian Hoover, Miguel Alcaide, Sarah Jennings, Simon Yung Wa Sin, Scott V. Edwards & Gabrielle A. Nevitt
Studies of MHC-based mate choice in wild populations generally test hypotheses by assuming female choice and male-male competition, whether or not mate choice dynamics have been previously determined for the species under study. Here we examined mate choice patterns in a small burrow-nesting seabird, the Leach’s storm-petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa), using the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). The life history and ecology of this species is extreme: both partners work together to fledge a single chick during...

Data from: Life-history diversity and its importance to population stability and persistence of a migratory fish: steelhead in two large North American watersheds

Jonathan W. Moore, Justin D. Yeakel, Dean Peard, Jeff Lough & Mark Beere
1. Life-history strategies can buffer individuals and populations from environmental variability. For instance, it is possible that asynchronous dynamics among different life-histories can stabilize populations through portfolio effects. 2. Here we examine life-history diversity and its importance to stability for an iconic migratory fish species. In particular, we examined steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), an anadromous and iteroparous salmonid, in two large, relatively pristine, watersheds, the Skeena and Nass, in northwestern British Columbia, Canada. We synthesized life-history...

Data from: Expanded consumer niche widths may signal an early response to spatial protection

Angeleen M. Olson, Rowan Trebilco & Anne K. Salomon
Marine management interventions are increasingly being implemented with the explicit goal of rebuilding ocean ecosystems, but early responses may begin with alterations in ecological interactions preceding detectable changes in population-level characteristics. To establish a baseline from which to monitor the effects of spatial protection on reef fish trophic ecology and track future ecosystem-level changes, we quantified temperate reef fish densities, size, biomass, diets and isotopic signatures at nine sites nested within two fished and one...

Data from: Trade-offs and mixed infections in an obligate-killing insect pathogen

Elizabeth M. Redman, Ken Wilson, Jenny S. Cory & Kenneth Wilson
Natural populations of pathogens are frequently composed of numerous interacting strains. Understanding what maintains this diversity remains a key focus of research in disease ecology. In addition, within-host pathogen dynamics can have a strong impact on both infection outcome and the evolution of pathogen virulence and thus understanding the impact of pathogen diversity is important for disease management. We compared eight genetically distinguishable variants from Spodoptera exempta nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpexNPV) isolated from the African armyworm, Spodoptera...

Data from: Allee effects may slow the spread of parasites in a coastal marine ecosystem

Martin Krkosĕk, Brendan M. Connors, Mark A. Lewis & Robert Poulin
Allee effects are thought to mediate the dynamics of population colonization, particularly for invasive species. However, Allee effects acting on parasites have rarely been considered in the analogous process of infectious disease establishment and spread. We studied the colonization of uninfected wild juvenile Pacific salmon populations by ectoparasitic salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) over four years. From a dataset of 67,896 fish, we observed 88 occurrences of pre-copular pair formation among 1258 pre-adult female and 611...

Data from: Attracting mutualists and antagonists: plant trait variation explains the distribution of specialist floral herbivores and pollinators on crops and wild gourds

N. Theis, N. A. Barber, S. D. Gillespie, R. V. Hazzard & L. S. Adler
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Floral traits play important roles in pollinator attraction and defense against floral herbivory. However, plants may experience trade-offs between conspicuousness to pollinators and herbivore attraction. Comparative studies provide an excellent framework to examine the role of multiple traits shaping mutualist and antagonist interactions. METHODS: To assess whether putative defensive and attractive traits predict species interactions, we grew 20 different Cucurbitaceae species and varieties in the field to measure interactions with pollinators...

Data from: Does parasitoid pressure elicit defensive polyphenism in the green peach aphid?

Yonathan Uriel
Aphids are capable of adapting to parasitoid pressure in the absence of sexual reproduction using epigenetically controlled polyphenism. Asexual lineages of aphids could thus become resistant to parasitoids over time and with repeated exposure, hampering biocontrol efforts that rely on parasitoid wasps. Prior to this study, wing polyphenism and reproductive polyphenism had been reported as parasitoid-adaptive responses in asexual lineages of at least two species of aphids, but it remained unclear whether parasitoid exposure could...

Data from: Crop production in the USA is frequently limited by a lack of pollinators

James Reilly, Derek Artz, David Biddinger, Kyle Bobiwash, Natalie Boyle, Claire Brittain, Julia Brokaw, Josh Campbell, Jaret Daniels, Elizabeth Elle, Jamie Ellis, Shelby Fleischer, Jason Gibbs, Robert Gillespie, Knute Gundersen, Larry Gut, George Hoffman, Neelendra Joshi, Ola Lundin, Keith Mason, Carley McGrady, Steve Peterson, Theresa Pitts-Singer, Sujaya Rao, Nikki Rothwell … & Rachael Winfree
Most of the world’s crops depend on pollinators, so declines in both managed and wild bees raise concerns about food security. However, the degree to which insect pollination is actually limiting current crop production is poorly understood, as is the role of wild species (as opposed to managed honey bees) in pollinating crops, particularly in intensive production areas. We established a nation-wide study to assess the extent of pollinator limitation in seven crops at 131...

Maternal investment, ecological lifestyle, and brain evolution in sharks and rays

Christopher Mull, Kara Yopak & Nicholas Dulvy
Across vertebrates increased maternal investment (via increased pre- and postnatal provisioning) is associated with larger relative brain size, yet it remains unclear how brain organization is shaped by life history and ecology. Here, we tested whether maternal investment and ecological lifestyle are related to variation in brain size and organization across 100 chondrichthyans. We hypothesized that brain size and organization would vary with level of maternal investment and habitat depth and complexity. We found that...

Data from: The role of behavioural flexibility in primate diversification

Maria Creighton, Dan Greenberg, Simon Reader & Arne Mooers
Identifying the factors that influence species diversification is fundamental to our understanding of the evolutionary processes underlying extant biodiversity. Behavioural innovation, coupled with the social transmission of new behaviours, has been proposed to increase rates of evolutionary diversification, as novel behaviours expose populations to new selective regimes. Thus, it is believed that behavioural flexibility may be important in driving evolutionary diversification across animals. We test this hypothesis within the primates, a taxonomic group with considerable...

Parental population range expansion before secondary contact promotes heterosis

Ailene MacPherson, Silu Wang, Ryo Yamaguchi, Loren Rieseberg & Sarah Otto
Population genomic analysis of hybrid zones is instrumental to our understanding of the evolution of reproductive isolation. Many temperate hybrid zones are formed by the secondary contact between two parental populations that have undergone post-glacial range expansion. Here we show that explicitly accounting for historical parental isolation followed by range expansion prior to secondary contact is fundamental for explaining genetic and fitness patterns in these hybrid zones. Specifically, ancestral population expansion can result in allele...

The role of adaptive behaviour in migratory counts of shorebirds

David Hope
Shorebird population status and trends are commonly generated from counts made at migratory stopovers, where large numbers are concentrated at few locations. Shorebirds migrate long distances, encountering changing and unpredictable conditions. The ability to respond with adjustments in behaviours such as site selection, timing and routing, is likely essential. In this thesis I examine how the adaptive behaviour of migrants affects the use of stopover sites, and hence how many shorebirds are counted. I develop...

Is Donald Trump a trendsetter for Canadians? The effect of Trump and national identity on support for immigration

Steven Nuss
Recent Canadian research highlights a tension. President Trump may be responsible for a potential weakening of the social norms surrounding Canadian identity. Trump’s effect, however, is mitigated when Canadian identity is salient. Given that research shows that Canadians have routinely defined themselves as welcoming of immigrants and multicultural, why Trump has this influence, and the further impact of either Trump himself or Canadian identity on reported support for immigration during the Trump presidency are both...

Is Donald Trump a Trendsetter for Canadians? The Effect of Trump and National Identity on Support for Immigration

Steven Nuss & Mark Pickup
Data includes demographic variables, as well as an imbedded experiment to see whether Trump can influence Canadians’ support for immigrants and if priming Canadian national identity using normative associations about immigration and multiculturalism reinforces or weakens support for immigrants. Data also includes variables to see if Canadians view Trump as trendsetter, and their current attitudes on desired levels of immigration. Full codebook is located in the appendix of Nuss (2020) "Is Donald Trump a Trendsetter...

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