148 Works

Dataset: Resource limitation has a limited impact on the outcome of virus-fungus co-infection in an insect host

Pauline Deschodt & Jenny Cory
Infection by pathogens is strongly affected by the diet or condition of the prospective host. Studies that examine the impact of diet have mainly focussed on single pathogens; however, co-infections within a single host are thought to be common. Different pathogen groups might respond differently to resource availability and diverse infections could increase the costs of host defence, meaning the outcome of mixed infections under varying dietary regimes is likely to be hard to predict....

The role of adaptive behaviour in migratory counts of shorebirds

David Hope
Shorebird population status and trends are commonly generated from counts made at migratory stopovers, where large numbers are concentrated at few locations. Shorebirds migrate long distances, encountering changing and unpredictable conditions. The ability to respond with adjustments in behaviours such as site selection, timing and routing, is likely essential. In this thesis I examine how the adaptive behaviour of migrants affects the use of stopover sites, and hence how many shorebirds are counted. I develop...

Is Donald Trump a trendsetter for Canadians? The effect of Trump and national identity on support for immigration

Steven Nuss
Recent Canadian research highlights a tension. President Trump may be responsible for a potential weakening of the social norms surrounding Canadian identity. Trump’s effect, however, is mitigated when Canadian identity is salient. Given that research shows that Canadians have routinely defined themselves as welcoming of immigrants and multicultural, why Trump has this influence, and the further impact of either Trump himself or Canadian identity on reported support for immigration during the Trump presidency are both...

Is Donald Trump a Trendsetter for Canadians? The Effect of Trump and National Identity on Support for Immigration

Steven Nuss & Mark Pickup
Data includes demographic variables, as well as an imbedded experiment to see whether Trump can influence Canadians’ support for immigrants and if priming Canadian national identity using normative associations about immigration and multiculturalism reinforces or weakens support for immigrants. Data also includes variables to see if Canadians view Trump as trendsetter, and their current attitudes on desired levels of immigration. Full codebook is located in the appendix of Nuss (2020) "Is Donald Trump a Trendsetter...

Microfauna at Tse’K’wa: Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction in the Peace River Region, Northeast British Columbia

Roxanne Pendleton
The transition from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene is known to have been a time of dramatic climatic and environmental changes, however there is still much that is not known about this period in North America. The Peace River Region of Northeast British Columbia is especially interesting because it is located in the hypothesized biogeographic corridor, allowing previously uninhabitable land to become open for colonization by plants, animals and humans at the end...

Supplementary data for: Mosquito phytophagy – sources exploited, ecological function, and evolutionary transition to haematophagy

Daniel Peach & Gerhard Gries
This dataset consists of two files: Floral visitation records of mosquitoes Plant sugar, primarily in the form of floral nectar, is the ubiquitous basic food of adult mosquitoes. However, records of mosquito floral visitation are not usually the focus of research publications and, as such, are often reported as secondary parts of larger studies and are scattered throughout more than a century of scientific literature. Here we provide a summary of more than 500 recorded...

Ultrasound-derived changes in thickness of human ankle plantar flexor muscles during walking and running are not homogeneous along the muscle mid-belly region

Emma Hodson-Tole & Adrian Lai
Skeletal muscle thickness is a valuable indicator of several aspects of a muscle’s functional capabilities. We used computational analysis of ultrasound images, recorded from 10 humans walking and running at a range of speeds (0.7 – 5.0 m s-1), to quantify interactions in thickness change between three ankle plantar flexor muscles (soleus, medial and lateral gastrocnemius) and quantify thickness changes at multiple muscle sites within each image. Statistical analysis of thickness change as a function...

λ/4 Retarder Film Measurement from: Polarization of foliar reflectance – novel host plant cue for insect herbivores

Adam Blake, Matthew Go, Gina Hahn, Hayley Grey, Samuel Couture & Gerhard Gries
Insect herbivores exploit plant cues to discern host and non-host plants. Studies of visual plant cues have focused on color despite the inherent polarization sensitivity of insect photoreceptors and the information carried by polarization of foliar reflectance, most notably the degree of linear polarization (DoLP; 0-100%). The DoLP of foliar reflection was hypothesized to be a host plant cue for insects but was never experimentally tested. Here we show that cabbage white butterflies, Pieris rapae...

Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) fledglings use crop habitat more frequently in relation to its availability than pasture and other habitat types

Chloe Boynton
Populations of birds that forage on aerial insects have been declining across North America for several decades, but the main causes of and reasons for geographical variation in these declines remains unclear. We examined the habitat use and survival of post-fledging Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica), near Vancouver, BC, Canada using VHF radio telemetry. We predicted that fledgling Barn Swallows hatched in higher quality natal habitat (pasture) would fledge at higher quality, stay closest to the...

Custom MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometric Database for identification of environmental Burkholderia and related genera

Roger Linington
Success of microbial natural products discovery programs is dependent on quick and concise discrimination between isolates from diverse environments. However, laboratory isolation and identification of priority genera using current 16S rRNA PCR-based methods is both challenging and time-consuming. In clinical settings, MALDI-TOF MS is used to rapidly identify unknown bacterial pathogens, yet this has not been widely adapted for isolation of environmental bacteria. To expedite isolation of Gram-negative proteobacterial order Burkholderiales, we have created a...

rhinoceros auklet microsatellite data

Theresa Burg, Marie Prill, Katharine Studholme, Alice Domalik, Strahan Tucker, Catherine Jardine, Mark Maftei, Kenneth Wright, Jesse Beck, Russell Bradley, Ryan Carle, Thomas Good, Scott Hatch, Peter Hodum, Motohiro Ito, Scott Pearson, Nora Rojek, Leslie Slater, Yutaka Watanuki, Alexis Will, Aidan Bindoff, Glenn Crossin, Mark Drever & Mark Hipfner
We tested the hypothesis that segregation in wintering areas promotes population differentiation in a sentinel North Pacific seabird, the rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata). We collected tissue samples for genetic analyses on five breeding colonies in the western Pacific Ocean (Japan) and 13 in the eastern Pacific Ocean (California to Alaska), and deployed light-level geologgers on 12 eastern Pacific colonies to delineate wintering areas. Loggers were deployed previously on one colony in Japan. There was strong...

Marbled Murrelets prefer stratified waters close to freshwater inputs in Haida Gwaii, BC, Canada

Sonya Pastran, Mark Drever & David Lank
The Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) is a small seabird that is currently listed as threatened in Canada. Understanding this species’ marine habitat preferences plays a vital role in our ability to focus conservation planning. We used the longest-running at-sea survey dataset available in British Columbia to examine hotspot persistence and habitat use at Laskeek Bay, Haida Gwaii, BC. The Laskeek Bay Conservation Society has been conducting spring and summer surveys along fixed transect routes in...

Climate and conspecific density inform phenotypic forecasting of juvenile Pacific salmon body size

Marta Ulaski, Heather Finkle, Anne Beaudreau & Peter Westley
1. Predicting effects of climate on fitness-linked phenotypic traits, such as body size, is important for the management and conservation of species in the face of global change. During sensitive life stages, small changes in mean trait values can have large effects on survival and population productivity. 2. The transition from freshwater to saltwater by migrating anadromous fishes such as Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) is a critical life history transition, where survival is mediated by...

A deglacial hazard cascade exemplified by the landslide, tsunami and outburst flood at Elliot Creek, Southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia, Canada

Marten Geertsema, Brian Menounos, Gemma Bullard, Jonathan Carrivick, John Clague, Chunli Dai, Davide Donati, Goran Ekstrom, Jennifer Jackson, Patrick Lynett, Manuele Pichierri, Andy Pon, Dan Shugar, Doug Stead, Justin Del Bel Belluz, Pierre Friele, Ian Giesbrecht, Derek Heathfield, Tom Millard, Sasha Nasonova, Andrew Schaeffer, Brent Ward, Darren Blaney, Erik Blaney, Camille Brillon … & Meghan Sharp
We describe and model the evolution of a recent landslide and outburst flood in the southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia, Canada. About 18 Mm3 of rock descended 1000 m from a steep valley wall and traveled across the toe of a glacier before entering a 0.6 km2 glacier lake and producing a >100-m high wave. Water overtopped the lake outlet and scoured a 10-km long channel before depositing debris on a 2 km2 fan below...

Predicting the effects of reservoir water level management on the reproductive output of a riparian songbird

David Green
Yellow warblers were monitored in Revelstoke, British Columbia, Canada for 12 breeding seasons spanning 2005 to 2017. Data on the breeding biology of individually marked warblers was used to construct an individual-based model describing the effects of reservoir operations on the reproductive output of yellow warblers. This model was parameterised using data on the breeding biology of approximately 30 breeding pairs per year that a provided data on nest sites (ground elevation and nest height),...

Data from: Watershed classification predicts streamflow regime and organic carbon dynamics in the Northeast Pacific Coastal Temperate Rainforest

Ian Giesbrecht, Suzanne Tank, Gordon Frazer, Eran Hood, Santiago Gonzalez Arriola, David Butman, Dave D'Amore, David Hutchinson, Allison Bidlack & Ken Lertzman
Watershed classification has long been a key tool in the hydrological sciences, but few studies have been extended to biogeochemistry. We developed a combined hydro-biogeochemical classification for watersheds draining to the coastal margin of the Northeast Pacific coastal temperate rainforest (1,443,062 km2), including 2,695 small coastal rivers (SCR) and 10 large continental watersheds. We used cluster analysis to group SCR watersheds into 12 types, based on watershed properties. The most important variables for distinguishing SCR...

Physiological maturity at a critical life‐history transition and flight ability at fledging

Allison Cornell, Kate F. Gibson & Tony D. Williams
Developmental maturity (e.g. body condition, body mass) at major life-history transitions is known to affect fitness across a wide range of taxa. Fledging (leaving the nest), a major life-history transition in birds, is associated with high post-fledging mortality and is widely assumed to be related to poor initial flight ability of fledglings, which, in turn, might be related to developmental maturity at fledging. We investigated individual variation in developmental maturity of both somatic and physiological...

Data from: Geometric models to explore mechanisms of dynamic shape change in skeletal muscle

Taylor J.M. Dick, James M. Wakeling & Taylor J. M. Dick
Skeletal muscle bulges when it contracts. These 3-dimensional (3D) dynamic shape changes play an important role in muscle performance by altering the range of fascicle velocities over which a muscle operates. However traditional muscle models are 1D and cannot fully explain in vivo shape changes. In this study we compared medial gastrocnemius behaviour during human cycling (fascicle length changes and rotations) predicted by a traditional 1D Hill-type model and by models that incorporate 2D and...

Data from: Maintenance costs of male dominance and sexually antagonistic selection in the wild

Zbyszek Boratynski, Esa Koskela, Tapio Mappes, Suzanne C. Mills & Mikael Mokkonen
1. Variation in dominance status determines male mating and reproductive success, but natural selection for male dominance can be detrimental or antagonistic for female performance, and ultimately their fitness. Attaining and maintaining a high dominance status in a population of competing individuals is physiologically costly for males. But how male dominance status is mediated by maintenance energetics is currently not well understood, nor are the correlational effects of male energetics on his sisters recognized. 2....

Data from: Genomic predictions and genome-wide association study of resistance against Piscirickettsia salmonis in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) using ddRAD sequencing

Agustin Barría, Kris A. Christensen, Grazyella M. Yoshida, Katharina Correa, Ana Jedlicki, Jean Paul Lhorente, William S. Davidson & José Manuel Yáñez
Piscirickettsia salmonis is one of the main infectious diseases affecting coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) farming, and current treatments have been ineffective for the control of this disease. Genetic improvement for P. salmonis resistance has been proposed as a feasible alternative for the control of this infectious disease in farmed fish. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) strategies allow genotyping of hundreds of individuals with thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which can be used to perform genome...

Data from: Sudden collapse of a mesopredator reveals its complementary role in mediating rocky reef regime shifts

Jenn M. Burt, Tim M. Tinker, Daniel K. Okamoto, Kyle W. Demes, Keith Holmes & Anne K. Salomon
While changes in the abundance of keystone predators can have cascading effects resulting in regime shifts, the role of mesopredators in these processes remains underexplored. We conducted annual surveys of rocky reef communities that varied in the recovery of a keystone predator (sea otters Enhydra lutris) and the mass mortality of a mesopredator (sunflower sea star Pycnopodia helianthoides) due to an infectious wasting disease. By fitting a population model to empirical data, we show that...

Data from: Higher rates of pre‐breeding condition gain positively impacts clutch size: a mechanistic test of the condition‐dependent individual optimization model

Holly L. Hennin, Cody J. Dey, Joel Bety, H. Grant Gilchrist, Pierre Legagneux, Tony D. Williams & Oliver P. Love
1. A combination of timing of and body condition (i.e., mass) at arrival on the breeding grounds interact to influence the optimal combination of the timing of reproduction and clutch size in migratory species. This relationship has been formalized by Rowe et al. in a condition-dependent individual optimization model (American Naturalist, 1994, 143, 689-722), which has been empirically tested and validated in avian species with a capital-based breeding strategy. 2. This model makes a key,...

Data from: Hydrocarbon divergence and reproductive isolation in Timema stick insects

Tanja Schwander, Devin Arbuthnott, Regine Gries, Gerhard Gries, Patrik Nosil & Bernard J. Crespi
Background: Individuals commonly prefer certain trait values over others when choosing their mates. If such preferences diverge between populations, they can generate behavioral reproductive isolation and thereby contribute to speciation. Reproductive isolation in insects often involves chemical communication, and cuticular hydrocarbons, in particular, serve as mate recognition signals in many species. We combined data on female cuticular hydrocarbons, interspecific mating propensity, and phylogenetics to evaluate the role of cuticular hydrocarbons in diversification of Timema walking-sticks....

Data from:Physiological effects of increased foraging effort in a small passerine

Kang Nian Yap, Oh Run Kim, Karilyn C Harris & Tony D Williams
Foraging to obtain food, either for self-maintenance or at presumably elevated rates to provision offspring, is thought to be an energetically demanding activity but one that is essential for fitness (higher reproductive success and survival). Nevertheless, the physiological mechanisms that allow some individuals to support higher foraging performance, and the mechanisms underlying costs of high workload, remain poorly understood. We experimentally manipulated foraging behaviour in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) using the technique described by Koetsier...

Data from: Testosterone reduces the threat premium in competitive resource division

Shawn N. Geniole, Valentina Proietti, Brian M. Bird, Triana L. Ortiz, Pierre L. Bonin, Bernard Goldfarb, Neil V. Watson & Justin M. Carré
Like other animals, humans are sensitive to facial cues of threat. Recent evidence suggests that we use this information to dynamically calibrate competitive decision-making over resources, ceding more to high threat individuals (who appear more willing/able to retaliate) and keeping more from low threat individuals. Little is known, however, about the biological factors that support such threat assessment and decision-making systems. In a pre-registered, placebo-controlled, cross-over testosterone administration study (n = 118 men), we show...

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