148 Works

Development and evaluation of an in vitro model of exercise for studying AMPK signaling dynamics in skeletal muscle

Kyle Dumont
Exercise promotes AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling in skeletal muscle, where it functions to enhance the expression of fitness-promoting genes. The magnitude of the adaptations depends in part on the dynamics of AMPK signaling; however, the time course of AMPK signaling remains poorly characterized. The purpose of my thesis was to develop and evaluate electrical stimulation of cultured C2C12 myotubes as a method to study AMPK signaling dynamics. I confirmed that differentiation resulted in contractile...

Modeling empathy in embodied conversational agents

Özge Nilay Yalçın
Embodied conversational agents (ECAs) are designed with the goal of achieving natural and effortless interactions with humans by displaying the same communication channels we use in our daily interactions (e.g. gestures, gaze, facial expressions, verbal behaviors). With advances in computational power, these agents are increasingly equipped with social and emotional capabilities to improve interaction with the users. Recently, research efforts are focused on modeling empathy, which is a human trait that allows us to share...

Glacial History and Landform Genesis in the Lac de Gras Area, Northwest Territories

Anna Haiblen
The Quaternary geology of the Lac de Gras area was studied by 1:20 000 surficial geology mapping of 770 km2 and investigating the genesis of enigmatic landforms. Three distinct flow directions of the Laurentide Ice Sheet are recorded: flow to the southwest, then west, and finally to the west northwest. Digital mapping with high-resolution orthoimagery and a 30 cm lidar DEM provides insight into the deglacial history. ‘Subglacial meltwater corridors’ are prominent in the area....

Microfauna at Tse’K’wa: Paleoenvironmental reconstruction in the Peace River Region, Northeast British Columbia

Roxanne Alisha Pendleton
The transition from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene is known to have been a time of dramatic climatic and environmental changes, however there is still much that is not known about this period in North America. The Peace River Region of Northeast British Columbia is especially interesting because it is located in the hypothesized biogeographic corridor, allowing previously uninhabitable land to become open for colonization by plants, animals and humans at the end...

Data from: A genetic locus for paranoia

Bernard Crespi, Silven Read, Iiro Salminen & Peter Hurd
The psychological effects of brain-expressed imprinted genes in humans are virtually unknown. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurogenetic condition mediated by genomic imprinting, which involves high rates of psychosis characterized by hallucinations and paranoia, as well as autism. Altered expression of two brain-expressed imprinted genes, MAGEL2 and NDN, mediates a suite of PWS-related phenotypes, including behavior, from studies of mice. We phenotyped a large population of typical individuals for schizophrenia-spectrum and autism-spectrum traits, and genotyped...

Data from: Early bursts of body size and shape evolution are rare in comparative data

Luke J. Harmon, Jonathan B. Losos, T. Jonathan Davies, Rosemary G. Gillespie, John L. Gittleman, W. Bryan Jennings, Kenneth H. Kozak, Mark A. McPeek, Franck Moreno-Roark, Thomas J. Near, Andy Purvis, Robert E. Ricklefs, Dolph Schluter, , Ole Seehausen, Brian L. Sidlauskas, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Jason T. Weir & Arne Ø. Mooers
George Gaylord Simpson famously postulated that much of life's diversity originated as adaptive radiations—more or less simultaneous divergences of numerous lines from a single ancestral adaptive type. However, identifying adaptive radiations has proven difficult due to a lack of broad-scale comparative datasets. Here, we use phylogenetic comparative data on body size and shape in a diversity of animal clades to test a key model of adaptive radiation, in which initially rapid morphological evolution is followed...

Data from: Mid-winter temperatures, not spring temperatures, predict breeding phenology in the European starling Sturnus vulgaris

Tony D. Williams, Sophie Bourgeon, Allison Cornell, Laramie Ferguson, Melinda Fowler, Raime B. Fronstin & Oliver P. Love
In many species, empirical data suggest that temperatures less than 1 month before breeding strongly influence laying date, consistent with predictions that short lag times between cue and response are more reliable, decreasing the chance of mismatch with prey. Here we show in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that mid-winter temperature ca 50–90 days before laying (8 January–22 February) strongly (r2 = 0.89) predicts annual variation in laying date. Mid-winter temperature also correlated highly with relative...

Trans-generational viral transmission and immune priming are dose-dependent

Kenneth Wilson, David Grzywacz, Jenny Cory, Philip Donkersley & Robert Graham
It is becoming increasingly apparent that trans-generational immune priming (i.e. the transfer of the parental immunological experience to its progeny resulting in offspring protection from pathogens that persist across generations) is a common phenomenon not only in vertebrates, but also invertebrates. Likewise, it is known that covert pathogenic infections may become ‘triggered’ into an overt infection by various stimuli, including exposure to heterologous infections. Yet rarely have both phenomena been explored in parallel. Using as...

Data for: Nectar-dwelling microbes of common tansy are attractive to its mosquito pollinator, Culex pipiens

Daniel Peach, C. Carroll, S. Meraj, S. Gomes, E. Galloway, A. Balcita, H. Coatsworth, N. Young, Y. Uriel, R. Gries, C. Lowenberger, M. Moore & G. Gries
There is widespread interkingdom signalling between insects and microbes. For example, microbes found in floral nectar may modify its nutritional composition and produce odorants that alter the floral odor bouquet which may attract insect pollinators. Mosquitoes consume nectar and can pollinate flowers. We identified microbes isolated from nectar of common tansy, Tanacetum vulgare , identified the microbial odorants, and tested their effect on attracting the common house mosquito, Culex pipiens . Results We collected 19...

Salmonberry stomatal density

Ron Ydenberg
Triangle Island on Canada’s Pacific coast is home to a large, globally important seabird breeding colony. The shrub Salmonberry Rubus spectabilis and tussock-forming Tufted Hairgrass Deschampsia cespitosa together form ~70% of vegetation coverage, and contain the vast majority (~90%) of seabird nesting burrows. Salmonberry has in recent decades greatly expanded its coverage, while that of Tufted Hairgrass has receded. Seabirds prefer not to burrow under Salmonberry, making its ongoing expansion a potential conservation issue. We...

Sugar preferences of Camponotus modoc and Myrmica rubra

Asim Renyard, Regine Gries, Jan Lee, Jaime Chalissery, Sebastian Damin, Robert Britton & Gerhard Gries
A stable source of carbohydrates is essential for the longevity of ant colonies. Foraging ants must select among carbohydrate resources, such as aphid honeydew, that vary based on sugar type, volume and concentration. Using Western carpenter ants, Camponotus modoc, and European fire ants, Myrmica rubra as model species, we tested the hypothesis that ant foraging on aphid honeydew is driven by aphid-specific sugars (unique sugars biosynthesized by aphids) and that ants will selectively consume particular...

Inflation Expectations and Learning about Monetary Policy

David Andolfatto, Scott Hendry & Kevin Moran
Various measures indicate that inflation expectations evolve sluggishly relative to actual inflation. In addition, they often fail conventional tests of unbiasedness. These observations are sometimes interpreted as evidence against rational expectations. The authors embed, within a standard monetary dynamic stochastic general-equilibrium model, an information friction and a learning mechanism regarding the interest-rate-targeting rule that monetary policy authorities follow. The learning mechanism enables optimizing economic agents to distinguish between transitory shocks to the policy rule and...

Fostering Health Literacy and Social Media in a Higher Education Setting

Sandra Vamos & Paul Yeung

The role of adaptive behaviour in migratory counts of shorebirds

David Hope
Supplementary Data for Chapter 6 of thesis.

Finding My Voice in Art

Nuri Yang & Minkyung Bae
The performance, ‘Finding My Voice in Art’, is a part of my thesis in Arts Education at Simon Fraser University. Through my solo performance, I attempted to understand what it means to perform and share my lived experiences using poetry, narratives, and a Korean drum. In particular, I tried to identify what kinds of experiences made me feel like a puppet that has no voice. So, this performance is aimed to find my voice and...

Evaluating the effects of large marine predators on mobile prey behavior across subtropical reef ecosystems

Lindsay Phenix, Dana Tricarico, Mark Bond, Simon Brandl & Austin Gallagher
The indirect effect of predators on prey behavior, recruitment, and spatial relationships continues to attract considerable attention. However, top predators like sharks or large, mobile teleosts, which can have substantial top-down effects in ecosystems, are often difficult to study due to their large size and mobility. This has created a knowledge gap in understanding how they affect their prey through non-consumptive effects. Here we investigated how different functional groups of predators affected potential prey fish...

Temporally varying disruptive selection in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis).

Marc-Olivier Beausoleil, Luke Frishkoff, Leithen M'Gonigle, Joost Raeymaekers, Sarah Knutie, Luis De León, Sarah Huber, Jaime Chaves, Dale Clayton, Jennifer Koop, Jeffrey Podos, Diana Sharpe, Andrew Hendry & Rowan Barrett
Disruptive natural selection within populations exploiting different resources is considered to be a major driver of adaptive radiation and the production of biodiversity. Fitness functions, which describe the relationships between trait variation and fitness, can help to illuminate how this disruptive selection leads to population differentiation. However, a single fitness function represents only a particular selection regime over a single specified time period (often a single season or a year), and therefore might not capture...

Portfolio simplification arising from a century of change in population diversity and artificial production

Michael Price
1. Population and life-history diversity can buffer species from environmental variability and contribute to long-term stability through differing responses to varying conditions akin to the stabilizing effect of asset diversity on financial portfolios. While it is well known that many salmon populations have declined in abundance over the last century, we understand less about how different dimensions of diversity may have shifted. Specifically, how has diminished wild abundance and increased artificial production (i.e., enhancement) changed...

Data from: Classifying three imaginary states of the same upper extremity using time-domain features

Mojgan Tavakolan, Zack Frehlick, Xinyi Yong & Carlo Menon
Brain-computer interface (BCI) allows collaboration between humans and machines. It translates the electrical activity of the brain to understandable commands to operate a machine or a device. In this study, we propose a method to improve the accuracy of a 3-class BCI using electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. This BCI discriminates rest against imaginary grasps and elbow movements of the same limb. This classification task is challenging because imaginary movements within the same limb have close spatial...

Data from: Candidate adaptive genes associated with lineage divergence: identifying SNPs via next-generation targeted resequencing in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus)

John H. Powell, Stephen J. Amish, Gwilym D. Haynes, Gordon Luikart & Emily K. Latch
Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) are an excellent nonmodel species for empirically testing hypotheses in landscape and population genomics due to their large population sizes (low genetic drift), relatively continuous distribution, diversity of occupied habitats and phenotypic variation. Because few genomic resources are currently available for this species, we used exon data from a cattle (Bos taurus) reference genome to direct targeted resequencing of 5935 genes in mule deer. We sequenced approximately 3.75 Mbp at minimum...

Data from: The ontogeny of fairness in seven societies

Peter R. Blake, Katherine McAuliffe, John Corbit, Tara C. Callaghan, Oumar Barry, Aleah Bowie, Lauren Kleutsch, Karen L. Kramer, Elizabeth Ross, Hurnan Vongsachang, Richard Wrangham & Felix Warneken
A sense of fairness plays a critical role in supporting human cooperation. Adult norms of fair resource sharing vary widely across societies, suggesting that culture shapes the acquisition of fairness behaviour during childhood. Here we examine how fairness behaviour develops in children from seven diverse societies, testing children from 4 to 15 years of age (n = 866 pairs) in a standardized resource decision task. We measured two key aspects of fairness decisions: disadvantageous inequity...

Data from: Species-area curve and distance-decay relationship indicate habitat thresholds of ectomycorrhizal fungi in an old-growth Pseudotsuga menziesii landscape

J.M. Kranabetter, S.M. Berch, J.A. MacKinnon, O. Ceska, D.E. Dunn, P.K. Ott, D. E. Dunn, J. A. MacKinnon, J. M. Kranabetter & P. K. Ott
Aim: Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) are a diverse and essential biota of forests that are vulnerable to species loss through reductions in late-seral habitat. We examined how the spatial ecology of this biota, particularly distance-decay and species-area relationships, could better inform habitat thresholds for EMF conservation planning. Location: Southeast Vancouver Island near Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Methods: Using a stratified sampling design, 11 plots (0.15 ha in size) were established at 0.05 to 17.5 km apart...

Data from: Assessing the ecosystem-level consequences of a small-scale artisanal kelp fishery within the context of climate-change

Kira A. Krumhansl, Jordanna N. Bergman & Anne K. Salomon
Coastal communities worldwide rely on small-scale artisanal fisheries as a means of increasing food security and alleviating poverty. Even small-scale fishing activities, however, are prone to resource depletion and environmental degradation, which can erode livelihoods in the long run. Thus, there is a pressing need to identify viable and resilient artisanal fisheries, and generate knowledge to support management within the context of a rapidly changing climate. We examined the ecosystem-level consequences of an artisanal kelp...

Data from: Neutral and selection-driven decay of sexual traits in asexual stick insects

Tanja Schwander, Bernard J. Crespi, Regine Gries & Gerhard Gries
Environmental shifts and lifestyle changes may result in formerly adaptive traits becoming non-functional or maladaptive. The subsequent decay of such traits highlights the importance of natural selection for adaptations, yet its causes have rarely been investigated. To study the fate of formerly adaptive traits after lifestyle changes, we evaluated sexual traits in five independently derived asexual lineages, including traits that are specific to males and therefore not exposed to selection. At least four of the...

Data from: Climate impacts on the ocean are making the Sustainable Development Goals a moving target traveling away from us

Gerald G. Singh, Nathalie Hilmi, Joey R. Bernhardt, Andres M. Cisneros Montemayor, Madeline Cashion, Yoshitaka Ota, Sevil Acar, Jason M. Brown, Richard Cottrell, Salpie Djoundourian, Pedro C. Gonzalez-Espinosa, Vicky Lam, Nadine Marshall, Barbara Neumann, Nicolas Pascal, Gabriel Reygondeau, Joacim Rocklov, Alain Safa, Laura R. Virto & William Cheung
1. Climate change is impacting marine ecosystems and their goods and services in diverse ways, which can directly hinder our ability to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, set out under the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. 2. Through expert elicitation and a literature review, we find that most climate change effects have a wide variety of negative consequences across marine ecosystem services, though most studies have highlighted impacts from warming and consequences to marine species....

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