148 Works

Data from: Ecological legacies of anthropogenic burning in a British Columbia coastal temperate rain forest

Kira M. Hoffman, Ken P. Lertzman & Brian M. Starzomski
Aim Few long-term fire histories have been reconstructed in coastal temperate rain forests, and little is known regarding the spatial and temporal characteristics of lightning and human ignitions. We use a multidisciplinary approach to assess the impact, scale and ecological legacies of historic fires. Location We focus on perhumid temperate rain forests located on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada. Methods We reconstructed 700 years of temporal and spatial aspects of fire activity with...

Data from: Beauty in the eyes of the beholders: color vision is tuned to mate preference in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

Benjamin A. Sandkam, C. Megan Young, Felix Breden & Benjamin Sandkam
A broad range of animals use visual signals to assess potential mates, and the theory of sensory exploitation suggests variation in visual systems drives mate preference variation due to sensory bias. Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a classic system for studies of the evolution of female mate choice, provide a unique opportunity to test this theory by looking for co-variation in visual tuning, light environment, and mate preferences. Female preference co-evolves with male coloration, such that...

Data from: Genes underlying altruism

Graham J. Thompson, Peter L. Hurd & Bernard J. Crespi
William D. Hamilton postulated the existence of 'genes underlying altruism', under the rubric of inclusive fitness theory, a half-century ago. Such genes are now poised for discovery. In this article we develop a set of intuitive criteria for the recognition and analysis of genes for altruism, and describe the first candidates for altruism genes from social insects and humans. We also provide evidence from a human population for genetically-based tradeoffs, underlain by oxytocin-system polymorphisms, between...

Multimodal and multifunctional signaling? – web reduction courtship behavior in a North American population of the false black widow spider

Andreas Fischer, Jamie-Lynne Varney, Gerhard Gries, Adam Blake, Stephen Takács & Xiang Goh
Males of widow spiders courting on the web of females engage in web reduction behavior which entails excising a section of the web, bundling it up, and wrapping it with their silk. Males of the false black widow spider, Steatoda grossa , in European populations also produce stridulatory courtship sound which has not yet been studied in their invaded North American range. Working with a North American population of S. grossa , we tested the...

Spectral data and R modeling code from: Polarized light sensitivity in Pieris rapae is dependent on both color and intensity

Adam Blake, Gina S. Hahn, Hayley Grey, Shelby A. Kwok, Deby McIntosh & Gerhard Gries
This dataset provides supplementary spectral data and the R code underlying the spectral sensitivy moding of female Pieris rapae photoreceptors used in the manuscript "Polarized light sensitivity in Pieris rapae is dependent on both color and intensity".

Geographic homogenization but little net change in the local richness of Canadian butterflies

Jayme Lewthwaite & Arne Mooers
Aim: Recent studies have found that local-scale plots measured through time exhibit marked variation in the change in species richness. However, the overall effect often reveals no net change. Most studies thus far have been agnostic about the identities of the species lost/gained, as well as the processes that may lead to these changes. Generalist traits may be crucial in allowing species to colonize new plots or remain resilient in situ, whereas environmental filtering may...

Plant and pollinator interactions from British Columbia from Oak Savannah, Shrub-Steppe, and restored hedgerows

Laura Melissa Guzman, Scott Chamberlain & Elizabeth Elle
This dataset contains the data analyzed in "Guzman, L.M., Chamberlain, S. and Elle, E. (2021) Network robustness and structure depends on the phenological characteristics of plants and pollinators. Ecology and Evolution" The data comprises plant-pollinator interactions collected in three ecosystems (Oak Savannah, Shrub-Steppe and restored hedgerows) from British Columbia. These three vegetation types comprised three different studies. The average distance between sites within studies was 19km, 18km and 29km for the oak savannah, shrub-steppe and...

Using GBIF to Demonstrate Colonial Legacies on Biodiversity Data

Ryan S. Mohammed, Melissa Kemp, Michelle J. LeFebvre, Alexis M. Mychajliw, Grace Turner, Kelly Fowler, Michael Pateman, Maria A. Nieves-Colón, Lanya Fanovich, Siobhan B. Cooke, Liliana M. Dávalos, Scott M. Fitzpatrick, Christina M. Giovas, Myles Stokowski & Ashley A. Wrean
Biologists recognize the Caribbean archipelago as a biodiversity hotspot and employ it for their research as a “natural laboratory”, but do not always appreciate that these ecosystems are in fact palimpsests shaped by multiple human cultures over millennia. We discuss two case studies of the Caribbean’s fragmented natural history collections, the effects of differing legislation and governance by the region’s multiple nation states. We use digital natural history specimen data from GBIF to demonstrate how...

Interactive effects of multiscale diversification practices on farmland bird stress

Elissa Olimpi, Hallie Daly, Karina Garcia, Victoria Glynn, David Gonthier, Claire Kremen & Leithen M'Gonigle
Farmland diversification practices (i.e., methods used to produce food sustainably by enhancing biodiversity in cropping systems) are sometimes considered beneficial to both agriculture and biodiversity, but most studies of these practices rely on species richness, diversity, or abundance as a proxy for habitat quality. Biodiversity assessments may miss early clues that populations are imperiled when species presence does not imply persistence. Physiological stress indicators may help identify low-quality habitats before population declines occur. We explored...

Epigenetic induction may speed up or slow down speciation with gene flow: code and data

Philip Greenspoon, Hamish Spencer & Leithen M'Gonigle
Speciation is less likely to occur when there is gene flow between nascent species. Natural selection can oppose gene flow and promote speciation if there is variation in ecological conditions among the nascent species' locations. Previous theory on ecological speciation with gene flow has focused primarily on the role of genetic variation in ecological traits, largely neglecting the role of non-genetic inheritance or transgenerational plasticity. Here we present the simulation code and data from models...

Disease-driven mass mortality event leads to widespread extirpation and variable recovery potential of a marine predator across the eastern Pacific

Sara Hamilton, Vienna Saccomanno, Walter Heady, Alyssa-Lois Gehman, Steve Lonhart, Rodrigo Beas-Luna, Fiona Francis, Lynn Lee, Laura Rogers-Bennett, Anne Salomon & Sarah Gravem
The prevalence of disease-driven mass mortality events is increasing, but our understanding of spatial variation in their magnitude, timing, and triggers are often poorly resolved. Here, we use a novel range-wide dataset comprised of 48,810 surveys to quantify how Sea Star Wasting Disease affected Pycnopodia helianthoides, the sunflower sea star, across its range from Baja California, Mexico to the Aleutian Islands, USA. We found that the outbreak occurred more rapidly, killed a greater percentage of...

Data from: The SETDB2 locus: evidence for a genetic link between handedness and atopic disease

Bernard Crespi, Silven Read & Peter Hurd
The gene SETDB2, which mediates aspects of laterality in animal model systems, has recently been linked with human handedness as measured continuously on a scale from strong left to strong right. By contrast, it was marginally associated with a left-right dichotomous measure, and it showed no evidence of association with absolute handedness strength independent of direction. We genotyped the SETDB2 handedness-associated single nucleotide polymorphism, rs4942830, in a large healthy population likewise phenotyped for continuous, absolute,...

Data from: Individual variation in parental workload and breeding productivity in female European starlings: is the effort worth it?

Melinda A. Fowler & Tony D. Williams
We analyzed individual variation in work load (nest visit rate) during chick-rearing, and the consequences of this variation in terms of breeding productivity, in a highly synchronous breeder, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) focusing on female birds. There was marked (10- to 16-fold) variation in total, female and male nest visit rates, among individuals, but individual variation in female nest visit rate was independent of environment (rainfall, temperature) and metrics of individual quality (laying date,...

Data from: Analysis of inbreeding depression in mixed-mating plants provides evidence for selective interference and stable mixed mating

Alice A Winn, Elizabeth Elle, Susan Kalisz, Pierre-Olivier Cheptou, Christopher G Eckert, Carol Goodwillie, Mark O. Johnston, David A Moeller, Richard H Ree, Risa D Sargent & Mario Vallejo-Marín
Hermaphroditic individuals can produce both selfed and outcrossed progeny, termed mixed mating. General theory predicts that mixed-mating populations should evolve quickly toward high rates of selfing, driven by rapid purging of genetic load and loss of inbreeding depression (ID), but the substantial number of mixed-mating species observed in nature calls this prediction into question. Greater average ID reported for selfing than for outcrossing populations is consistent with purging and suggests that mixed-mating taxa in evolutionary...

Data from: Local interactions and their group-level consequences in flocking jackdaws

Hangjian Ling, Guillam E. McIvor, Kasper Van Der Vaart, Richard T. Vaughan, Alex Thornton & Nicholas T. Ouellette
As one of nature’s most striking examples of collective behaviour, bird flocks have attracted extensive research. However, we still lack an understanding of the attractive and repulsive forces that govern interactions between individuals within flocks and how these forces influence neighbours’ relative positions and ultimately determine the shape of flocks. We address these issues by analysing the three-dimensional movements of wild jackdaws (Corvus monedula) in flocks containing 2 to 338 individuals. We quantify the social...

Data from: Injuries, death, and disability associated with 11 years of conflict in Baghdad, Iraq: a randomized household cluster survey

Riyadh Lafta, Sahar Al-Shatari, Megan Cherewick, Lindsay Galway, Charles Mock, Amy Hagopian, Abraham Flaxman, Tim Takaro, Anna Greer, Adam Kusner & Gilbert Burnham
Background: The objective of this study was to characterize injuries, deaths, and disabilities arising during 11 years of conflict in Baghdad. Methods: Using satellite imagery and administrative population estimated size for Baghdad, 30 clusters were selected, proportionate to population size estimates. Interviews were conducted during April and May 2014 in 900 households containing 5148 persons. Details about injuries and disabilities occurring from 2003 through May 2014 and resultant disabilities were recorded. Findings: There were 553...

Data from: Exploring visual plasticity: dietary carotenoids can change color vision in guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

Benjamin A. Sandkam, Kerry A. Deere-Machemer, Ashley M. Johnson, Gregory F. Grether, F. Helen Rodd & Rebecca C. Fuller
Differences in color vision can play a key role in an organism’s ability to perceive and interact with the environment across a broad range of taxa. Recently, species have been shown to vary in color vision across populations as a result of differences in regulatory sequence and/or plasticity of opsin gene expression. For decades, biologists have been intrigued by among-population variation in color-based mate preferences of female Trinidadian guppies. We proposed that some of this...

Data from: Mandated data archiving greatly improves access to research data

Timothy H. Vines, Rose L. Andrew, Dan G. Bock, Michelle T. Franklin, Kimberly J. Gilbert, Nolan C. Kane, Jean-Sébastien Moore, Brook T. Moyers, Sébastien Renaut, Diana J. Rennison, Thor Veen & Sam Yeaman
The data underlying scientific papers should be accessible to researchers both now and in the future, but how best can we ensure that these data are available? Here we examine the effectiveness of four approaches to data archiving: no stated archiving policy, recommending (but not requiring) archiving, and two versions of mandating data deposition at acceptance. We control for differences between data types by trying to obtain data from papers that use a single, widespread...

Data from: Costs of reproduction explain the correlated evolution of semelparity and egg size: theory and a test with salmon

Douglas C. Braun, Holly K. Kindsvater, Sarah P. Otto & John D. Reynolds
Species’ life history traits, including maturation age, number of reproductive bouts, offspring size and number, reflect adaptations to diverse biotic and abiotic selection pressures. A striking example of divergent life histories is the evolution of either iteroparity (breeding multiple times) or semelparity (breed once and die). We analysed published data on salmonid fishes and found that semelparous species produce larger eggs, that egg size and number increase with salmonid body size among populations and species...

Data from: Targeting global conservation funding to limit immediate biodiversity declines

Anthony Waldron, Arne O. Mooers, Daniel C. Miller, Nate Nibbelink, David Redding, Tyler S. Kuhn, J. Timmons Roberts & John L. Gittleman
Inadequate funding levels are a major impediment to effective global biodiversity conservation and are likely associated with recent failures to meet United Nations biodiversity targets. Some countries are more severely underfunded than others and therefore represent urgent financial priorities. However, attempts to identify these highly underfunded countries have been hampered for decades by poor and incomplete data on actual spending, coupled with uncertainty and lack of consensus over the relative size of spending gaps. Here,...

Data from: Success despite the stress: violet-green swallows increase glucocorticoids and maintain reproductive output despite experimental increases in flight costs

James W. Rivers, Gretchen N. Newberry, Carl J. Schwarz & Daniel R. Ardia
Glucocorticoid steroid hormones play a central role in regulating the metabolic state of animals, especially when they cope with unanticipated stressors in their environment. The cort-adaptation hypothesis predicts that baseline concentrations of glucocorticoids are adjusted upward to match energetic needs and promote fitness when individuals are faced with physiological challenges, including those associated with reproduction. We tested the cort-adaptation hypothesis in the violet-green swallow (Tachycineta thalassina) by experimentally increasing flight costs during the offspring rearing...

Data from: Color vision varies more among populations than among species of live-bearing fish from South America

Benjamin A. Sandkam, C. Megan Young, Frances Margaret Walker Breden, Godfrey R. Bourne & Felix Breden
Background: Sensory Bias models for the evolution of mate preference place a great emphasis on the role of sensory system variation in mate preferences. However, the extent to which sensory systems vary across- versus within-species remains largely unknown. Here we assessed whether color vision varies in natural locations where guppies (Poecilia reticulata) and their two closest relatives, Poecilia parae and Poecilia picta, occur in extreme sympatry and school together. All three species base mate preferences...

Data from: Analysis of inbreeding depression in mixed-mating plants provides evidence for selective interference and stable mixed mating

Alice A Winn, Elizabeth Elle, Susan Kalisz, Pierre-Olivier Cheptou, Christopher G Eckert, Carol Goodwillie, Mark O. Johnston, David A Moeller, Richard H Ree, Risa D Sargent & Mario Vallejo-Marín
Hermaphroditic individuals can produce both selfed and outcrossed progeny, termed mixed mating. General theory predicts that mixed-mating populations should evolve quickly toward high rates of selfing, driven by rapid purging of genetic load and loss of inbreeding depression (ID), but the substantial number of mixed-mating species observed in nature calls this prediction into question. Greater average ID reported for selfing than for outcrossing populations is consistent with purging and suggests that mixed-mating taxa in evolutionary...

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