Data from: Shifting thresholds: rapid evolution of migratory life histories in steelhead/rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykissCorey C. Phillis, Jonathan W. Moore, Mathieu Buoro, Sean A. Hayes, John Carlos Garza & Devon E. Pearse
Expression of phenotypic plasticity depends on reaction norms adapted to historic selective regimes; anthropogenic changes in these selection regimes necessitate contemporary evolution or declines in productivity and possibly extinction. Adaptation of conditional strategies following a change in the selection regime requires evolution of either the environmentally influenced cue (e.g., size-at-age) or the state (e.g., size threshold) at which an individual switches between alternative tactics. Using a population of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) introduced above a barrier...
Data from: Bayesian analysis of a morphological supermatrix sheds light on controversial fossil hominin relationshipsMana Dembo, Nicholas J. Matzke, Arne Ø. Mooers & Mark Collard
The phylogenetic relationships of several hominin species remain controversial. Two methodological issues contribute to the uncertainty—use of partial, inconsistent datasets and reliance on phylogenetic methods that are ill-suited to testing competing hypotheses. Here, we report a study designed to overcome these issues. We first compiled a supermatrix of craniodental characters for all widely accepted hominin species. We then took advantage of recently developed Bayesian methods for building trees of serially sampled tips to test among...
A sense of fairness plays a critical role in supporting human cooperation. Adult norms of fair resource sharing vary widely across societies, suggesting that culture shapes the acquisition of fairness behaviour during childhood. Here we examine how fairness behaviour develops in children from seven diverse societies, testing children from 4 to 15 years of age (n = 866 pairs) in a standardized resource decision task. We measured two key aspects of fairness decisions: disadvantageous inequity...
Data from: Limited influence of local and landscape factors on finescale gene flow in two pond-breeding amphibiansStephanie S. Coster, Kimberly J. Babbitt, Andrew Cooper & Adrienne I. Kovach
Dispersal and gene flow within animal populations are influenced by the composition and configuration of the landscape. In this study, we evaluated hypotheses about the impact of natural and anthropogenic factors on genetic differentiation in two amphibian species, the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) and the wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) in a commercial forest in central Maine. We conducted this analysis at two scales: a local level, focused on factors measured at each breeding pond and...
Data from: A molecular genetic time scale demonstrates Cretaceous origins and multiple diversification rate shifts within the order Galliformes (Aves)R. Will Stein, Joseph W. Brown & Arne Ø. Mooers
The phylogeny of Galliformes (landfowl) has been studied extensively; however, the associated chronologies have been criticized recently due to misplaced or misidentified fossil calibrations. As a consequence, it is unclear whether any crown-group lineages arose in the Cretaceous and survived the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg; 65.5 Ma) mass extinction. Using Bayesian phylogenetic inference on an alignment spanning 14,539 bp of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, four fossil calibrations, and a combination of uncorrelated lognormally distributed relaxed-clock...
Data from: Color vision varies more among populations than among species of live-bearing fish from South AmericaBenjamin A. Sandkam, C. Megan Young, Frances Margaret Walker Breden, Godfrey R. Bourne & Felix Breden
Background: Sensory Bias models for the evolution of mate preference place a great emphasis on the role of sensory system variation in mate preferences. However, the extent to which sensory systems vary across- versus within-species remains largely unknown. Here we assessed whether color vision varies in natural locations where guppies (Poecilia reticulata) and their two closest relatives, Poecilia parae and Poecilia picta, occur in extreme sympatry and school together. All three species base mate preferences...
Data from: Individual variation in parental workload and breeding productivity in female European starlings: is the effort worth it?Melinda A. Fowler & Tony D. Williams
We analyzed individual variation in work load (nest visit rate) during chick-rearing, and the consequences of this variation in terms of breeding productivity, in a highly synchronous breeder, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) focusing on female birds. There was marked (10- to 16-fold) variation in total, female and male nest visit rates, among individuals, but individual variation in female nest visit rate was independent of environment (rainfall, temperature) and metrics of individual quality (laying date,...
Data from: Injuries, death, and disability associated with 11 years of conflict in Baghdad, Iraq: a randomized household cluster surveyRiyadh Lafta, Sahar Al-Shatari, Megan Cherewick, Lindsay Galway, Charles Mock, Amy Hagopian, Abraham Flaxman, Tim Takaro, Anna Greer, Adam Kusner & Gilbert Burnham
Background: The objective of this study was to characterize injuries, deaths, and disabilities arising during 11 years of conflict in Baghdad. Methods: Using satellite imagery and administrative population estimated size for Baghdad, 30 clusters were selected, proportionate to population size estimates. Interviews were conducted during April and May 2014 in 900 households containing 5148 persons. Details about injuries and disabilities occurring from 2003 through May 2014 and resultant disabilities were recorded. Findings: There were 553...
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