14 Works

Data from: Muscle shortening velocity depends on tissue inertia and level of activation during submaximal contractions

Stephanie A. Ross & James M. Wakeling
In order to perform external work, muscles must do additional internal work to deform their tissue, and in particular, to overcome the inertia due to their internal mass. However, the contribution of the internal mass within a muscle to the mechanical output of that muscle has only rarely been studied. Here, we use a dynamic, multi-element Hill-type muscle model to examine the effects of the inertial mass within muscle on its contractile performance. We find...

Data from: Trade-offs and mixed infections in an obligate-killing insect pathogen

Elizabeth M. Redman, Ken Wilson, Jenny S. Cory & Kenneth Wilson
Natural populations of pathogens are frequently composed of numerous interacting strains. Understanding what maintains this diversity remains a key focus of research in disease ecology. In addition, within-host pathogen dynamics can have a strong impact on both infection outcome and the evolution of pathogen virulence and thus understanding the impact of pathogen diversity is important for disease management. We compared eight genetically distinguishable variants from Spodoptera exempta nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpexNPV) isolated from the African armyworm, Spodoptera...

Data from: Attracting mutualists and antagonists: plant trait variation explains the distribution of specialist floral herbivores and pollinators on crops and wild gourds

N. Theis, N. A. Barber, S. D. Gillespie, R. V. Hazzard & L. S. Adler
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Floral traits play important roles in pollinator attraction and defense against floral herbivory. However, plants may experience trade-offs between conspicuousness to pollinators and herbivore attraction. Comparative studies provide an excellent framework to examine the role of multiple traits shaping mutualist and antagonist interactions. METHODS: To assess whether putative defensive and attractive traits predict species interactions, we grew 20 different Cucurbitaceae species and varieties in the field to measure interactions with pollinators...

Data from: Field crickets compensate for unattractive static long-distance call components by increasing dynamic signalling effort

Emily M. McAuley & Susan M. Bertram
The evolution of multiple sexual signals presents a dilemma since individuals selecting a mate should pay attention to the most honest signal and ignore the rest; however, multiple signals may evolve if, together, they provide more information to the receiver than either one would alone. Static and dynamic signals, for instance, can act as multiple messages, providing information on different aspects of signaller quality that reflect condition at different time scales. While the nature of...

Physiological maturity at a critical life‐history transition and flight ability at fledging

Allison Cornell, Kate F. Gibson & Tony D. Williams
Developmental maturity (e.g. body condition, body mass) at major life-history transitions is known to affect fitness across a wide range of taxa. Fledging (leaving the nest), a major life-history transition in birds, is associated with high post-fledging mortality and is widely assumed to be related to poor initial flight ability of fledglings, which, in turn, might be related to developmental maturity at fledging. We investigated individual variation in developmental maturity of both somatic and physiological...

Data from: Candidate adaptive genes associated with lineage divergence: identifying SNPs via next-generation targeted resequencing in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus)

John H. Powell, Stephen J. Amish, Gwilym D. Haynes, Gordon Luikart & Emily K. Latch
Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) are an excellent nonmodel species for empirically testing hypotheses in landscape and population genomics due to their large population sizes (low genetic drift), relatively continuous distribution, diversity of occupied habitats and phenotypic variation. Because few genomic resources are currently available for this species, we used exon data from a cattle (Bos taurus) reference genome to direct targeted resequencing of 5935 genes in mule deer. We sequenced approximately 3.75 Mbp at minimum...

Data from: Assessing the ecosystem-level consequences of a small-scale artisanal kelp fishery within the context of climate-change

Kira A. Krumhansl, Jordanna N. Bergman & Anne K. Salomon
Coastal communities worldwide rely on small-scale artisanal fisheries as a means of increasing food security and alleviating poverty. Even small-scale fishing activities, however, are prone to resource depletion and environmental degradation, which can erode livelihoods in the long run. Thus, there is a pressing need to identify viable and resilient artisanal fisheries, and generate knowledge to support management within the context of a rapidly changing climate. We examined the ecosystem-level consequences of an artisanal kelp...

Data from: The evolutionary relationships and age of Homo naledi: an assessment using dated Bayesian phylogenetic methods

Mana Dembo, Davorka Radovčić, Heather M. Garvin, Myra F. Laird, Lauren Schroeder, Jill E. Scott, Juliet Brophy, Rebecca R. Ackermann, Charles M. Musiba, Darryl J. De Ruiter, Arne Ø. Mooers, Mark Collard & Chares M. Musiba
Homo naledi is a recently discovered species of fossil hominin from South Africa. A considerable amount is already known about H. naledi but some important questions remain unanswered. Here we report a study that addressed two of them: “Where does H. naledi fit in the hominin evolutionary tree?” and “How old is it?” We used a large supermatrix of craniodental characters for both early and late hominin species and Bayesian phylogenetic techniques to carry out...

Data from: Costs of reproduction explain the correlated evolution of semelparity and egg size: theory and a test with salmon

Douglas C. Braun, Holly K. Kindsvater, Sarah P. Otto & John D. Reynolds
Species’ life history traits, including maturation age, number of reproductive bouts, offspring size and number, reflect adaptations to diverse biotic and abiotic selection pressures. A striking example of divergent life histories is the evolution of either iteroparity (breeding multiple times) or semelparity (breed once and die). We analysed published data on salmonid fishes and found that semelparous species produce larger eggs, that egg size and number increase with salmonid body size among populations and species...

Data from: Success despite the stress: violet-green swallows increase glucocorticoids and maintain reproductive output despite experimental increases in flight costs

James W. Rivers, Gretchen N. Newberry, Carl J. Schwarz & Daniel R. Ardia
Glucocorticoid steroid hormones play a central role in regulating the metabolic state of animals, especially when they cope with unanticipated stressors in their environment. The cort-adaptation hypothesis predicts that baseline concentrations of glucocorticoids are adjusted upward to match energetic needs and promote fitness when individuals are faced with physiological challenges, including those associated with reproduction. We tested the cort-adaptation hypothesis in the violet-green swallow (Tachycineta thalassina) by experimentally increasing flight costs during the offspring rearing...

Data from: Exploring visual plasticity: dietary carotenoids can change color vision in guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

Benjamin A. Sandkam, Kerry A. Deere-Machemer, Ashley M. Johnson, Gregory F. Grether, F. Helen Rodd & Rebecca C. Fuller
Differences in color vision can play a key role in an organism’s ability to perceive and interact with the environment across a broad range of taxa. Recently, species have been shown to vary in color vision across populations as a result of differences in regulatory sequence and/or plasticity of opsin gene expression. For decades, biologists have been intrigued by among-population variation in color-based mate preferences of female Trinidadian guppies. We proposed that some of this...

Data from: State dependence, personality, and plants: light-foraging decisions in Mimosa pudica (L.)

Franz W. Simon, Christina N. Hodson & Bernard R. Roitberg
Plants make foraging decisions that are dependent on ecological conditions, such as resource availability and distribution. Despite the field of plant behavioral ecology gaining momentum, ecologists still know little about what factors impact plant behavior, especially light-foraging behavior. We made use of the behavioral reaction norm approach to investigate light foraging in a plant species that exhibits rapid movement: Mimosa pudica. We explored how herbivore avoidance behavior in M. pudica (which closes its leaflets temporarily...

Data from: Species and population diversity in Pacific salmon fisheries underpin indigenous food security

Holly K. Nesbitt & Jonathan W. Moore
Indigenous people are considered to be among the most vulnerable to food insecurity and biodiversity loss. Biodiversity is cited as a key component of indigenous food security; however, quantitative examples of this linkage are limited. We examined how species and population diversity influence the food security of indigenous fisheries for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus species). We compared two dimensions of food security – catch stability (interannual variability) and access (season length) – across a salmon diversity...

Data from: Unpredictable perturbation reduces breeding propensity regardless of pre-laying reproductive readiness in a partial capital breeder

Pierre Legagneux, Holly L. Hennin, H. Grant Gilchrist, Tony D. Williams, Oliver P. Love & Joël Bêty
Theoretically, individuals of migratory species should optimize reproductive investment based on a combination of timing of and body condition at arrival on the breeding grounds. A minimum threshold body mass is required to initiate reproduction, and the timing of reaching this threshold is critical because of the trade-off between delaying breeding to gain in condition against the declining value of offspring with later reproductive timing. Long-lived species have the flexibility within their life history to...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    14

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    14

Affiliations

  • Simon Fraser University
    14
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
    1
  • University of Montana
    1
  • Centre for Ecology and Hydrology
    1
  • Oregon State University
    1
  • Northern Illinois University
    1
  • University of Aberdeen
    1
  • New York University
    1
  • Texas A&M University
    1
  • University of Windsor
    1